Volume 06 - Issue 09

Paper Title :: Does a good student-professor relationship influence student evaluation of courses?
Author Name :: Jean Lucien Razafindrakoto || Jean Razafindravonona || Tiako Joeda Andrimamy
Country :: Madagascar
Page Number :: 01-10
In many life situations, a student is in "socio-cognitive conflict" when his or her conceptions and cognitive structures are confronted with disturbing information that is incompatible with his or her prior knowledge system. The cognitive disturbance resulting from it will engage the person in a search for a new cognitive equilibrium that will take into account the disturbing information. In this paper, we propose to identify, through the literature and a case study, the factors that promote or, on the contrary, hinder the teacher-student relationship and then to confront these theories with reality through a case study of second-year management students from the 2012-2013 academic year.
Keywords: Student-professor relationship, academic environment, lecture evaluation
[1]. Abrami, P.C. (2001). Improving judgments about teaching effectiveness using teacher rating forms. In M. Theall, P.C. Abrami, and L.A. Mets (Eds.). The student ratings debate: Are they valid? How can we best use them? [Special issue]. New Directions for Institutional Research 109, 59-87.
[2]. Baldwin, T. & Blattner, N. (2003). Guarding against potential bias in student evaluations: What every faculty member needs to know. College Teaching, 51(1), 27-32.
[3]. Bernard. H. (1994). The relevance of student-led assessment and strategies for improving higher education. Paper presented at the IAUP International Seminar in Belgium.
[4]. Bernard, H. (2002). Using Evaluation to Improve Teaching. Address delivered at the University of Ottawa.
[5]. Berthiaume, D. (2008). Teaching in the disciplines. In H. Fry, S. Ketteridge, & S. Marshall (Eds.), A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education (3 ed., pp. 215-225). London : Routledge.

Paper Title :: Analysis of Course Evaluation by Students with Bad Relationship with Their Professor; Perception, Cause and Consequences
Author Name :: Jean Lucien Razafindrakoto || Harizo Origène Andriamasimanana || Leaby Nadia || Rasaonina Haingotiana || Tiako Joeda Andrimamy
Country :: Madagascar
Page Number :: 11-20
A student is in "socio-cognitive conflict" when his or her conceptions and cognitive structures are confronted with disturbing information that is incompatible with his or her prior knowledge system. The cognitive disturbance resulting from it will engage the person in a search for a new cognitive equilibrium that will take into account the disturbing information. In this paper, we propose to identify, through the literature and a case study, the factors that promote or, on the contrary, hinder the professor-student relationship and then to confront these theories with reality through a case study of second-year management students from the 2012-2013 academic year.
Keywords: Student-professor relationship, academic environment, lecture evaluation.
[1]. Baldwin, T. & Blattner, N. (2003). Guarding against potential bias in student evaluations: What every faculty member needs to know. College Teaching, 51(1), 27-32
[2]. Bernard. H. (1994). La pertinence de l’évaluation faite par les étudiants et les stratégies d’amélioration de l’enseignement supérieur. Communication présentée lors du Séminaire international itinérant de l’AIPU en Belgique.
[3]. Bernard, H. (2002). Using Evaluation to Improve Teaching. Address delivered at the University of Ottawa, November 2002.
[4]. Berthiaume, D. (2008). Teaching in the disciplines. Dans H. Fry, S. Ketteridge, & S. Marshall (Éd.), A handbook for teaching and learning in higher education (3 éd., p. 215-225). London: Routledge.
[5]. Bertrand, Y. (1993). Théories contemporaines de l'éducation. Lyon: Chronique sociale.

Paper Title :: Impact of the Teacher-Student Relationship on Course Evaluation: Case Study of Management Students at the University of Antananarivo
Author Name :: Razafindrakoto Jean Lucien || Jaonasy Anivosoa || Andrimamy Tiako Joeda || Zafinjaka Ratovoherinavalona
Country :: Madagascar
Page Number :: 21-30
People in general and student in particular are "in socio-cognitive conflict" when his relationship with his teacher and his cognitive structures are confronted with disruptive information incompatible with his prior knowledge system. In this paper, we propose to identify, through literature and a case study, the factors that favor or, on the contrary, disfavor the student-professor relationship, and then to confront these theories with reality through a case study of second-year management students.
Keywords: Student-Teacher Relationship, course/lecture evaluation
[1]. Abrami, P.C. (2001). Improving judgments about teaching effectiveness using teacher rating forms. In M. Theall, P.C. Abrami, and L.A. Mets (Eds.). The student ratings debate: Are they valid? How can we best use them? [Special issue]. New Directions for Institutional Research 109, 59-87.
[2]. Baldwin, T. & Blattner, N. (2003). Guarding against potential bias in student evaluations: What every faculty member needs to know. College Teaching, 51(1), 27-32.
[3]. Bernard, H. (2002). Using Evaluation to Improve Teaching. Address delivered at the University of Ottawa, November 2002.
[4]. Bertrand, Y. (1993). Théories contemporaines de l'éducation. Lyon : Chronique sociale.
[5]. Bourgeois, E., & Frenay, M. (2001). Learning in groups: the role of asymmetry and argumentation. In C. Solar (Ed.), Le groupe en formation d'adultes (pp. 99-114). Bruxelles : De Boeck.

Paper Title :: Enhancing STEAM Culture at the Foundational Stage: Moving From a Pedagogical Imposition to Praxis Oriented Curriculum
Author Name :: Shifali T V || Prof. (Dr.) M N Mohamedunni Alias Musthafa
Country :: India
Page Number :: 31-35
STEAM is more than simply a trendy term or an afterthought to STEM. It's an educational approach that develops critical thinking and creative problem-solving abilities among students that are required in the workforce of the twenty-first century. It might also hold the answer to resolve some of humanity's most pressing problems in the years to come. This paper explores the necessity of enhancing the STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics) culture at the foundational stage of education. It focuses on the need for shifting the pedagogical imposition approach curriculum delivery to a praxis-oriented approach. The traditional approach to education often involves a top-down teaching style where the students passively receive knowledge. However, this study argues for a more student-centered and experiential approach that encourages active engagement and practical application integrated with STEAM principles. The paper discusses the importance of nurturing a STEAM culture from the early stages of education and the benefits it brings to students' holistic development. It emphasizes the need for a shift from rote memorization to critical thinking, problem-solving, and creativity. By adopting a praxis-oriented approach, students are encouraged to actively explore and experiment with STEAM concepts through hands-on activities, projects, and real-world applications. The significance of collaboration and teamwork in STEAM education and how they foster effective communication and cooperation skills. It also emphasizes the integration of the arts into the curriculum to promote creativity and innovation among younger minds. By developing a deep understanding of STEAM disciplines and their practical applications, students are better equipped to meet the demands of a rapidly evolving technological world. By emphasizing the importance of creating a supportive and conducive learning environment that encourages curiosity, exploration, and the freedom to make mistakes. It underscores the role of educators in facilitating this transformation from pedagogical imposition to a praxis-oriented approach, empowering students to become active participants in their own learning. This exploration also concludes on the potential possibility of enhancing the STEAM culture at the foundational stage and suggests some measures to materialize the same by adopting a praxis-oriented approach.
Keywords: STEM, STEAM, foundational stage, pedagogical imposition, praxis-oriented approach, holistic development, experiential learning
[1]. National University of Educational Planning and Administration, 2022
[2]. Census of India (2011), Primary Census Abstracts, Registrar General of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India,
[3]. NationalEducational Policy,2020,
[4]. National Curriculum Framework Foundational Stage 2022
[5]. Johnston, K., Kervin, L., & Wyeth, P. (2022). STEM, STEAM and Makerspaces in Early Childhood: A Scoping Review. Sustainability.

Paper Title :: Importance of the English Language in the Training of the Graduates of the Career of Hotel and Tourism; 2014-2018 Study
Author Name :: Christian Rivera García || Marusca Aviles Varaz Lcda
Country :: Ecuador
Page Number :: 36-42
The present research is to recognize the importance of trips abroad to the foreign tourists to strengthen the knowledge of teachers in the area of English and confirm the correct training of students, also manage the appropriate technological equipment and encourage students to practice the language abroad, with the aim of improving the professional development of graduates in Hospitality and Tourism. The beneficiaries are the students of all the careers that are at stake in their abilities on the importance of the English language in the professional's working life, in addition the teachers perfect their methodology, through exchange programs raising the quality of teaching towards clarity groups Academic in tourism spacing with a high command of the English language, obtaining recognition in employability sine qua non, for her command of strict communication in another language. This arduous workforce integrates needs to enhance the university student's graduation profiles in integration with private companies as travel agencies by offering higher quality services through professionals with excellent academic training. The direct impact of this research is to establish systematically, at the different professional levels, the way of acting of the future university graduate, specifically in their training in the English language, the indirect impact is the breadth of jobs that affect students from the career, after completing their studies, they have a high level of knowledge in the English language.
Keywords: International mobility, languages, possibilities, incentive, English
[1]. Agüero, A. (2015). Training in English and other foreign languages (establishments Santander commercial offices, tourism offices, travel agencies (Final Degree Project). University School of Tourism, Santander.
[2]. Alonso, A. (2006). Intercultural competence in teaching English. Meeting, 16, 17-26.
[3]. Anokhina, T. (2013). El lacunicon lingüístico: mapeo cognitivo en esquemas y términos. Revista de educación, cultura y sociedad , 4 (1), 166-174.
[4]. Bárcena, E., Martín, E., & Jordano, M. (2016). Methodological and technological innovation in teaching English for distance tourism. Iberica (31), 39-61.
[5]. Chávez, M., Saltos, M., & Saltos, C. (2017). The importance of learning and knowing the English language in higher education. Science Domain, 3, 759-771.

Paper Title :: Investigating the Role of Recreational Facilities in Fostering Student Engagement: A Study at a University in the Sultanate of Oman
Author Name :: Dr. V. Vishnukanth Rao || Zakariya Yaqoob Harib Hassan Al Hadhramin || Anas Malik Hilal Al-Abri
Country :: Oman
Page Number :: 43-52
This study examines the relationship between student engagements, physical and mental health, academic performance, and student satisfaction among 201 undergraduate students at the University in the Sultanate of Oman. The majority of respondents were pursuing business studies and staying with their families at home. The questionnaire used in the study had good reliability and validity. On average, students reported average levels of academic performance, student engagement, physical and mental health, and student satisfaction. Correlation analysis showed positive and significant relationships between physical and mental health, academic performance, and student satisfaction, but not between student engagement and student satisfaction. Regression analysis revealed that physical and mental health and academic performance had a positive and significant effect on student satisfaction, while student engagement had a positive but insignificant effect. These findings have implications for the development of policies and programs aimed at improving the overall student experience in higher education.
Keywords: student engagement, physical health, mental health, academic performance, student satisfaction, higher education, Oman.
[1]. Baker, P., & Horton, K. (2018). College recreational sports and wellness facilities: A predictor of student satisfaction. Journal of Higher Education Management, 33(1), 11-23.
[2]. Downs, A., & Looney, A. (2017). The effects of college recreational facilities on enrollment, retention, and graduation. Journal of College Student Development, 58(3), 305-310.
[3]. Kim, J., & Park, S. (2019). The effects of recreational sports participation on academic achievement and mental health in college students. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 19(3), 1277-1282.
[4]. Peden-McAlpine, C. J., Riddle, I., Pritchett, K., & Cox, K. (2018). The relationship between physical activity and mental health in undergraduate students. Journal of Nursing Education and Practice, 8(11), 53-59.
[5]. St Quinton, T., & Brunton, J. A. (2020). The key psychological beliefs underlying student participation in recreational sport. Recreational Sports Journal, 44(1), 38-50.

Paper Title :: The Role of the Centre for Constitutional and Legislation Studies in Developing Legal Studies at the Faculty of Sharia and Law
Author Name :: Hammis Syafaq || Nur Lailatul Musyafa’ah || Suqiyah Musafa’ah || Moh. Faizur Rohman
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 53-62
The Centre for Legal Studies is an institution that must exist in every law faculty, but not all faculties have a centre for legal studies. Among the faculties with a centre for legal studies is the Faculty of Sharia and Law Sunan Ampel State Islamic University, Surabaya, Indonesia, named the Centre for Constitutional and Legislation Studies (PUSKOLEGIS). This article discusses the role of the Centre for Constitutional and Legislation Studies in developing legal studies at the Faculty of Sharia and Law, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University, Surabaya, Indonesia. The research conducted was at the Centre for Constitutional and Legislation Studies (PUSKOLEGIS) Faculty of Sharia and Law Sunan Ampel State Islamic University, Surabaya, Indonesia. The data collected was through observation, interview, and documentation, and the data was analyzed qualitatively. This study concluded that PUSKOLEGIS is essential in developing legal studies at the Faculty of Sharia and Law, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University, Surabaya, Indonesia. PUSKOLEGIS was formed on August 10, 2022, and has carried out various activities that can contribute to developing legal studies at the Faculty of Sharia and Law, Sunan Ampel State Islamic University, Surabaya, Indonesia, through multiple activities, such as making academic manuscripts and draft regional regulations, webinars/conference, discussions, research, press release and training. However, PUSKOLEGIS focuses on positive legal studies in Indonesia and less on Islamic Law. For this reason, we recommend that the Faculty of Sharia and Law also form Islamic Law studies to develop legal studies based on Islamic Law/Sharia.
Keywords: Centre for Constitutional and Legislation Studies, legal studies, Faculty of Sharia and Law.
[1] A’yunin, Nadia Amelia Qurrota. “Promosi Perpustakaan Pusat Studi Sosial Asia Tenggara Universitas Gadjah Mada Yogyakarta Melalui Media Sosial.” Libria, vol. 10, no. 1, 2018, pp. 48–63.
[2] Achmad. “5 Tugas Penting Pusat Studi Untuk Meningkatkan Daya Saing Perguruan Tinggi.” Achmad.Com, 2020, p. 1,
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Paper Title :: Guidelines for Professionalism Development of Kindergarten Teachers in Yunnan Province
Author Name :: Li Yankui || Nuttamon Punchatree || Wichian Intarasompun || Kanokkan Kanjanarat
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 63-71
The research objectives of the thesis were 1) to study the states for the Professionalism of Kindergarten Teachers in Yunnan Province. 2) to provide guidelines for the Professionalism Development of Kindergarten Teachers in Yunnan Province which including the following three aspects: teacher team, evaluation incentive mechanism and teacher development mechanism, and self-development awareness. The sample group were 201 kindergarten teachers from 8 kindergartens in Yunnan Province and The interviewees were 5 kindergarten managers from the 8 kindergartens mentioned above. The research instruments were questionnaire surveys and structured interviews, and the analysis methods include percentage, mean, standard deviation, and content analysis. The results were found that 1.The current situation of professionalism development of kindergarten teachers in Yunnan Province mainly includes: 1) the level of professional knowledge needs to be improved, 2) uneven development of professional skills, 3) the level of professional ethics needs to be strengthened, and 4) the sense of professional identity and belonging needs to be improved. 2. The guidelines for enhancing the professionalism development of kindergarten teachers in Yunnan Province include: 1) strengthening the construction of the kindergarten teachers’ team, 2) improving the evaluation and incentive mechanisms, and 3) enhancing teachers’ awareness of professional development.
Keywords: Professionalism development; Kindergarten teachers; Yunnan Province
[1]. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, State Council of China. (2010). Some opinions of the State Council on the current development of preschool education. [Online]. Available from:,2023-07-30.
[2]. Chinese Ministry of Education. (2018). Department of Basic Education, Chinese Ministry of Education. Several Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on Deepening Reform and Normative Development of Preschool Education. [Online]. Available from: 2023-07-297.
[3]. Chinese Ministry of Education. (2021). Notice of the Chinese Ministry of Education, the Ministry of Education and other nine departments on printing and distributing the "14th Five-Year Plan" Action Plan for the Development and Improvement of Preschool Education. [Online]. Available from:,2023-07-28.
[4]. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, State Council of China. (2015). The State Council of China on the Implementation of the Universal Two-Child Policy. [Online]. Available from:,2015-12-31.
[5]. Chinese Ministry of Education. (2002). Professional Standards for Primary, Secondary and Kindergarten Teachers (Trial) Teacher [2002] No.1. [Online]. Available from: s6991/201212/xxgk_145603.html.Carr-saunders,A.M.the Profession[M].Oxford: Clarendon Press,1933.3—4.

Paper Title :: Vietnam Stock Market Characteristics
Author Name :: Phan Ngoc Yen Xuan
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 72-79
The stock market plays an increasingly important role in the economy. In order for the Government to effectively manage the market as well as investors to find stable profits in the market, it is essential to understand its characteristics. Through the synthesis and analysis of market data, the study concludes that currently, the Vietnamese stock market has the following characteristics: The Vietnamese stock market has a large number of stocks. However, the capitalization scale is still low, there is a high difference in the capitalization level for some sectors and groups of stocks, the liquidity of stocks is still limited, the ability to raise capital of the market is still low. These differences are intended to protect investors and Vietnam's fledgling stock market from major fluctuations, but also bring many constraints and limitations for investors. Understanding the market and having the right plan and strategy when participating in the Vietnamese stock market is extremely important.
Keywords: Vietnam stock market, characteristics of stock market, investors
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[3]. Tran Truong Manh Hieu. (2021). Nhà đầu tư cá nhân: Hiểu mình và thành công. Tạp chí Tài chính và Cuộc sống., accessed on 12/2/2021
[4]. Trinh Thi Phan Lan. (2021). Đầu tư cá nhân trên thị trường chứng khoán Việt Nam dưới tác động của đại dịch Covid-19 và một số khuyến nghị. Tạp chí Ngân hàng.

Paper Title :: Old Stories, New Horrors: Examining Changes in Lovecraft's 'Pickman's Model' and 'The Dreams in the Witch-House' for Guillermo del Toro's 'Cabinet of Curiosities
Author Name :: Andjela Bisevac
Country :: Japan
Page Number :: 80-90
This paper delves into a comparative analysis of H.P. Lovecraft's iconic stories, "Pickman's Model" and "The Dreams in the Witch-House", and their modern adaptations in Guillermo del Toro's "Cabinet of Curiosities". Exploring the inherent themes of Lovecraftian cosmic horror, the study underscores the adaptations' faithfulness to original narratives while introducing contemporary elements that resonate with modern audiences. Through the lens of these adaptations, the paper sheds light on the evolution of cosmic horror, emphasizing the blend of ancient, otherworldly dread with modern psychological and emotional narratives. The adaptations not only provide a fresh perspective on Lovecraft's stories but also open avenues for future research in the realm of horror studies.
Keywords: H.P. Lovecraft, Guillermo del Toro, Cosmic Horror, Literary Adaptation, "Pickman's Model", "The Dreams in the Witch-House", "Cabinet of Curiosities", Modern Horror, Comparative Analysis.
[1]. Burleson, R. Donald. Lovecraft: Disturbing the Universe, University Press of Kentucky, 2009.
[2]. Desmond, John and Peter Hawkes. Adaptation: Studying Film and Literature, McGraw-Hill Education, 2005.
[3]. Harms, Daniel. The Cthulhu Mythos Encyclopedia: A Guide to H. P. Lovecraft's Universe, Esp, 2008.
[4]. Harman, Graham. Weird Realism: Lovecraft and Philosophy, Zero Books, 2012.
[5]. Houellebecq, Michel. H.P. Lovecraft: Against the World, Against Life, McSweeney's, Believer Books, 2005.

Paper Title :: What Role and / or Function does English Play / Fulfil in Africa Today to Justify its Study by Africans?
Author Name :: Mukuru Mafurebo Théophile || Mutabaruka Chiza Faustin || BIZIMANA NUBAHA Théophile
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 91-96
Our concern is what role and or function does English play in Africa to justify its study by Africans? Which aims at providing functions that English plays in outer circle and extended circle. We used one of the qualitative methods which is case study used to find more information through careful analysis of existing cases. English plays an important role in employment, tourism, diplomacy and in medicine. This is why English is taught and learnt by Africans.
Keywords: Africans, outer circle, extended circle, function, role
[1]. Braj Kachuru. (2006). East African Englishes. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
[2]. Canagarajah, AS. (1999). Resting Linguistic Imperialism In Teaching English. Oxford: Oxford University Press
[3]. Hywel Coleman. (2011). Dreams and Realities: Developing Countries and the English Language. British council. Londo
[4]. Luanga A. Lasagna. (2019). English in Advertising in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. John Wesley& Sons Ltd
[5]. Nerve Ercin. (2019). English in the Expanded Circle: Elements for a Comparative Study of the Sociolinguistic Profile of English in Turkey an Portugal. Lisbon

Paper Title :: Management of Health and Safety Resources for Primary Education Delivery in Port Harcourt Metropolis of Rivers State
Author Name :: Amie-Ogan, O. T. || Harry-Ngei, Salome
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 97-107
This study investigated management of health and safety resources for primary education delivery in Port Harcourt Metropolis of Rivers State. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The total population for this study was 1,335 school administrators and teachers consisting of 114 school administrators and 1221 teachers from 114 public primary schools in Port Harcourt Metropolis. The sample size totaled 310 school administrators and teachers which comprised of 270 teachers and 40 school administrators; selected through Taro Yamane‟s formula and simple random sampling technique. An instrument titled: “Management of Health and Safety Resources for Primary Education Delivery Questionnaire” was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by two experts in Measurement and Evaluation and Department of Educational Management while Cronbach Alpha statistics was used to achieve reliability indexes of 0.81, 0.79 and 0.80. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the null hypotheses were tested using z-test at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that to a high extent school safety and health resources are available, utilized and audited for effective public primary education delivery in Port Harcourt Metropolis of Rivers State unlike in other states in Nigeria. Findings also showed no significant difference between the mean ratings of administrators and teachers on the extent school safety and health facilities and human resources are available, utilized and audited for effective public primary education delivery in Port Harcourt Metropolis of Rivers State. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that the Senior Secondary Schools Board should provide adequate and appropriate safety and health facilities in primary schools to guarantee the health and safety of pupils and staff.
Keywords: Health and Safety Facilities, Availability, Utilization, Auditing, Primary Education
[1]. Abihud, G. (2013). The impact of the health and safety programmes on the organization performance. A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of master of human resource management of the Open University of Tanzania.
[2]. Abubakar, A. U. & Raji, I. A. (2016). Status of public primary schools: Safety, health service provision and environmental health facilities in Sokoto Metropolis, North Western Nigeria. Retrieved from:
[3]. Ademuwagun, S. (2010). Health science and school. Lowa: W.M.C. Brown Publishers.
[4]. Agwu, M. O. (2012). Total safety management: a strategy for improving organizational performance in selected construction companies in Nigeria. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(20), 451-470.
[5]. Ahmadi-Javid, Y., Seyedi, I. & Syam, A. (2017). A meta-analysis of the relationship between organizational commitment and salesperson job performance. Journal of Business Research,58(6), 705-714.

Paper Title :: Academic Advising, Counseling and Students Role
Author Name :: Mrs. Robina Masud
Country :: Saudi Arabia
Page Number :: 108-109
According to NACAD Academic advising takes place in "situation in which an institution representative gives insight or direction to the college student about an academic, social or personal matter. The nature of direction might be to inform, suggest, councel, discipline, coach, mentore, or even teach" (p. 3). Kuhn, T. (2008). Historical Foundations of Academic Advising. In Gordon, Habley and Grites. Academic Advising: A Comprehensive Campus Process. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Paper Title :: Analysis of the Progression of Road Traffic in Tunisia Between 1960 and 2018
Author Name :: Maïssa Jelassi || Younes Boujelbéne
Country :: Tunisie
Page Number :: 110-117
In this article, we provide traffic estimates for more than 59 years, from 1960 to 2018. In other words, the aim of this study is to estimate the impact of different explanatory factors on the evolution of road traffic. We distinguish between macroeconomic variables and microeconomic variables, the other variables being social variables. To do this, we use different time series models applied to the entire Tunisian road network from January 1960 to December 2018. Indeed, we will carry out an econometric study of the Tunisian road transport system. An attempt has been made to identify the socio-economic conditions under which the different elements of the road transport system have interacted in time and space over this period.
The estimate shows that the provision of infrastructure has a negative impact on traffic, which can be explained by the fact that the south of the country is rich in infrastructure and has more economic activity, but has a relatively small population. Stimulating transport, while the north has active economic activities, a large population and a low supply of infrastructure per capita, we therefore see an irrational use of infrastructure, which has a negative impact on the country's transport structure.
Keywords:Road traffic, road safety, transport system, road infrastructure, fuel cost, panel data.
[1]. Bergel-Hayat, Ruth. La prise en compte de variables explicatives dans les modèles de séries temporelles: application à la demande de transport et au risque routier. Diss. Université Paris-Est, 2008.
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[5]. Kopits, Elizabeth, and Maureen Cropper. "Traffic fatalities and economic growth." Accident analysis & prevention 37.1 (2005): 169-178.

Paper Title :: English Tenses: The Implications of Total Physical Response (TPR) Method in the Class
Author Name :: Dr. Nehal Ahmad
Country :: Saudi Arabia
Page Number :: 118-139
At the outset it to be mentionedthat the present study in the application of Total Physical Response (TPR) method in teaching English tenses has been dealt upon from the researcher‟s own point views in the light of his decades of experiences and observations. The deliberations, explanations, arguments, and random samples as examples in the study based on the practical class teaching and learning outcomes. The teaching and learning of grammar in general havealways been quite challenging and a bone of contention among the language instructors since time immemorial.
Needless to say, our students encountera lot of difficulties in using the correct tenses either in spoken or written forms. The students in general commit errors in the use of tenses so that the teaching of grammar tenses and sub tenses has been quite challenging to the teachers teaching English as a foreign language in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Despite all existing strategies and methods applied in the classroom, the performance of the students in general has been quite unsatisfactory. The researcher has been speculating for the last one and half decades over this issue.After a long decades of speculation, it was finally concluded the TPR method can assist the students in teaching various basic and complex grammatical structures related to tenses. The author of the paper in the light of his long of experiences and observations as a teacher of English as a foreign language in the Department of English, University of Bishaat some point in time realizedthe effectiveness of this method.This method does not apply in teaching to young children only but can also be applied practically in the class to the adults‟ students whose background of the target language is not satisfactory. Asher (2007) also mentioned that TPR method is the most appropriate method for young learners, given that it combines language and gesture in a way that makes learning both memorable and meaningful. These learners in the class must actively beinvolvedby the teacher in teaching the grammatical tenses.Thisstudy aims to boost the acquisition of tenses byapplying TPR method.Our students ofGraduation, General English DiplomaCourses,and Intensive courses”do not possess adequate background of the English language. TPR methodis one of the alternative methods as it is hoped will assistthem a lot in acquiring the basic grammatical structures of three tenses of English and consequently, to achieve the Intended Learning outcomes‟ which is mentioned in the course specification of the Course. The desired outcome of this study is that the teacher, using the TPR method, can enhance the comprehension and usage of various English tenses in practical life situations.
Keywords:Total Physical Response, coordination between speech and actions, optional method, English tenses, random sample
[1]. Asher, J. (1977). Learning Another Language Through Actions: The Complete Teacher‟s Guidebook. Los Gatos, California: Sky Oaks Publications
[2]. Asher, J. (1968). Total Physical Response Method for Second Language Learning. San Jose: San Jose State College.
[3]. Asher, J. (2003). Update for the total physical response. Retrieved from http//www.tpr-
[4]. Asher, J. (2007). TPR: After forty years, still a very good idea. Retrieved from:
[5]. Asher, J. J. (1966). The learning strategy of total physical response: a review. The Modern Language Journal, 50 (2), 79-84.

Paper Title :: The Role of Social Reproduction Theory in Understanding the Issue of Inequality in the United States Education System
Author Name :: Emmanuel Oghenerukevwe Ikpuri
Country :: United States
Page Number :: 140-146
This article explores the applicability of Social Reproduction Theory (SRT) in comprehending the pervasive issue of inequality within the United States education system. SRT offers a critical lens to analyze how educational disparities are not merely coincidental but deeply rooted in societal structures and power dynamics. By delving into the historical context, structural components, and contemporary manifestations of educational inequality, this article demonstrates the relevance of SRT in elucidating the mechanisms that perpetuate unequal access to quality education. Furthermore, it underscores the imperative of addressing these disparities to promote a more equitable and just society.This article highlighted that the school system is designed in a way that encourages aristocratic structures that suit upper-class and middle-class children, leaving children behind. This has constituted inequality in the educational system. Addressing these disparities is not only imperative in education but also a crucial step toward building a more equitable and just society.
Keywords:Social reproduction theory, Inequality, Education equality.
[1]. Andersen, I. G., & Jæger, M. M. (2015). Cultural capital in context: Heterogeneous returns to cultural capital across schooling environments. Social science research, 50, 177-188.
[2]. Apple, M. W. (2013). "Official Knowledge: Democratic Education in a Conservative Age". New York, NY: Routledge.
[3]. Ball, S. J. (2012). "Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neo-Liberal Imaginary". New York, NY: Routledge.
[4]. Baker, B. D. (2021). Educational inequality and school finance: Why money matters for America's students. Harvard Education Press.
[5]. Backer, D. I., & Cairns, K. (2021). Social reproduction theory revisited. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 42(7), 1086-1104.

Paper Title :: Status of Non-Teaching Staff Training in Tribhuvan University
Author Name :: Dr. Hari Bhakta Shahi
Country :: Nepal
Page Number :: 147-153
Training is most essential entity in TU for effective service delivery. TU as being largest and first university in Nepal. It is public university. Every year more than four lakh students enrol in different level and different subject in TU. Tribhuvan University is suffering from political interfere and pressure of various unions in one hand. On the other hand TU functions and programs are too slow. Students are complaining TU as being gradual in exam conduction and result publication. In service training of TU is influence by cultural ideological and political factors.
Keywords:inadequate, communication, autonomous, recruitment, selection, influence and playground.
[1]. Sapkota T.P. (2020) TU Bulleting Special, Role of Tribhuvan University in Imparting Knowledge an Skills, Kritipur, TU Information and Public Relation Central Division , p, 100 – 114.
[2]. Creswell, John W (2003) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method, New Delhi, Sage South Asia Publication. Creswell, John W (2014) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Method, New Delhi, Sage South Asia Publication.
[3]. Shahi H.B., (2020) Statistics for Public Management, Kathmandu, Radhika Shahi.
[4]. Shahi H.B., (2020) Statistics for Public Management, Kathmandu, Radhika Shahi.
[5]. Bailey, Kenneth D., (1982). Methods of Social Research (2nd. Ed.). New York: The Free Press.

Paper Title :: The Development of Teachers Skills in the 21st Century at Primary School in Guilin, China
Author Name :: Lu Min || Nuttamon Punchatree || Pong Horadal
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 154-163
The objectives of this study are to 1) study the 21st century teacher skills in primary schools in Guilin, China. 2) Provide suggestions for the development of 21st century teacher skills in primary schools in Guilin, China. This study selected a sample group of 217 full-time primary school teachers from Guilin, China, through random sampling. The main research tool used for data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis covers various statistical measures such as percentages, frequencies, means, and standard deviations. The research results found that: 1. The 21st century teacher skill level of primary school teachers in Guilin, China is at a high level. 2. Analyze the current status of teaching skills in the 21st century based on the following six dimensions: 1) Communication skills 2) Creativity and innovation 3) Information literacy 4) Collaboration 5) Critical thinking 6) Leadership skills. This study proposes guidelines for teacher skill development in the 21st century.
Keywords:Primary School Teachers, 21st century teacher skills, Communication skills, Creativity and innovation, Information literacy, Collaboration, Critical thinking, Leadership skills.
[1]. Gümüş, Arife. Twenty-First-Century Teacher Competencies and Trends in Teacher Training. Educational Theory in the 21st Century: Science, Technology, Society and Education, edited by Yusuf Alpaydın and Cihad Demirli, Springer Nature, 2022, pp. 243–67. Springer Link,
[2]. Hatanaka, Lenora. 21st Century Skills for Teachers | Lenora Hanaraka | Richmond Share Blog. Richmond Share Blog | High quality content and interaction in the ELT world, Oct 15, 2018,
[3]. Hattie, J. (2009). Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 800 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. Routledge.
[4]. He Wangbo. (2020). Looking at the communication ability cultivation of normal school students from the current situation of new primary school teachers’ communication ability. Chengcai (01), 22-24. doi: CNKI: SUN: CHCA.0.2020-01-010.
[5]. Jan, H. (2017). Teacher of 21st century: Characteristics and development. Research on Humanities and Social Sciences, 7(9), 50-54.

Paper Title :: Nexus Between Employee Capacity Building and Organizational Productivity
Author Name :: Philip Keter || Dr. Williter Rop || Dr. Hellen Sang
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 164-171
The post-industrial era comes with high external and internal challenges that have affected the manufacturing sector. Sugar firms are among the firms in Kenya facing challenges of resource constraints and management issues leading to poor production. Hence, firms need to access internal employee capabilities to combat the challenges of organizational productivity. The aim of this study is to assessed the relationship between employee capacity building and organizational productivity. This was anchored on human capital theory. A correlational research designs was adopted where census of all the target population of 218 managers working in 8 sugar companies in Kenya was used. Primary data was used in the study: these data was gathered through the use of a structured questionnaire and data extraction document. Quatitative approach that involved the descriptive statistics and inferential was used. The descriptive used mean and standard deviation while the inferential used simple linear regression analysis. The findings revealed that employee capacity building practices which were achieved through training, induction, motivation and employee retention had positive relation with the productivity of sugar industry. However, the industry did not have periodic reviews on employee motivation. Hence, the study concluded that there was positive significant relationship between employee capacity building and organization productivity.
Keywords: Correlational Research Design, Employee Capacity Building, Organizational Productivity, Sugar Companies, Kenya.
[1]. Ahmad, T., Farrukh, F., & Nazir, S. (2015). Capacity Building Boosts Employees Performance. Emerald Group, 47(2), 61-67.
[2]. Bowman, A. (2020). Sugar firms and economic transformation in South Africa: The political economy of the Eskom crisis. African Affairs, 119(476), 395-431.
[3]. Devine, M. & Syrett, M. (2014). Managing Talent: Recruiting and Getting the Most from Talented People. London: Profile Books.
[4]. Gekonde, T., Nyamboga, C., & Nyarohoo, S. (2014). A study on the influence of strategic human resource and organizational capacity building on performance improvement of public service delivery in Nakuru County, Kenya. Global Journal of Political Science and Administration, 2(2), 1-8.
[5]. Hooley, T. (2021). Career development and human capital theory: Preaching the “education gospel”. The Oxford handbook of career development, 49-64.

Paper Title :: World Trends of Interbank Funds Transfer Systems and Development Orientation of National Interbank Payment System (IBPS) in Vietnam
Author Name :: Dang Dinh Tan
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 172-179
National interbank money transfer systems directly managed and operated by central banks are considered the backbone of national payment systems. With advances in technology, these systems are tending to evolve from “pure” designated time net settlement (DTNS) and real time gross settlement (RTGS) systems into hybrid system and integrated system. In Vietnam, the National interbank payment system has been formed and developed since 2002 and has become a pillar in the national payment system. However, the current national interbank payment system model has a gap with national payment systems of countries in the region and around the world. This gap needs to be identified and overcome based on the orientation of developing the National interbank payment system into an integrated system as a combination of RTGS and Hybrid system.
Keywords: interbank funds transfer system, DTNS, RTGS, hybrid payment system, integrated payment system
[1]. Bech, M.L., Preisig, C., & Soramäki, K. (2008, September ). Global Trends in Large-Value Payments. FRBNY Economic Policy Review / 2008 , pp. 59-81.
[2]. BIS. (1997). Real-time Gross Settlement Systems. Basel: Bank for International Settlements.
[3]. ECB. (2010). The Payment System. Frankfurt am Main: European Central Bank.
[4]. Garratt, R., Lu, Z., & Tian, P. (2023). How Banks Create Gridlock to Save Liquidity in Canada's Large Value Payment System. Bank of Canada. doi:
[5]. Nakajima, M. (2012). The Evolution of Payment Systems. The European Financial Review , November 8.

Paper Title :: Community Participation in the Formation of Regional Regulations
Author Name :: Popy Yulianti || Fani Apriyata || Deni Aditiya
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 180-184
Participation in the formation of statutory regulations is regulated in Article 96 of Law Number 12 of 2011 which states that the public has the right to provide oral and/or written input in the formation of statutory regulations, which can be done through: Hearing Meetings, Visits Work, Socialization and/or Seminars, Workshops and Discussions. The type of research used is normative research or legal literature study. This thesis research aims to determine the forms of community participation and the formation process used in drafting regional regulations. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that the forms of community participation that can be carried out in the stages of forming laws and regulations include: hearings, work visits, outreach, seminars, workshops, discussions, public consultations, deliberations, partnerships, conveying aspirations, supervision, participation in the form of research, community participation in the form of input via print media, community participation in the form of input via electronic media, community participation in the form of demonstrations
Keywords: Community Participation, Regional Regulations.
[1]. Arief, A., & Djanggih, H. 2020. Implementation of the Withdrawal of Building Permit Levy on the Realization of Original Regional Income. Kertha Patrika, 42(1), 73- 86.
[2]. Bik, A. 2013. Sharia Regional Regulations in the Context of Regional Autonomy. Al-Daulah: Journal of Islamic Law and Legislation, 3(2), 279-298.
[3]. Dawabsheh, M., Mustanir, K., & Jermsittiparsert, K. 2020. School Facilities as Potential Predictors of Engineering Education Quality: The Mediating Role of Teaching Skills and Professional Development. TEST Engineering & Management, 82(3511), 3511–3521.
[4]. Djohani, Rianingsih, 2003, Participation, Empowerment and Democratization of Society, Bandung: Driya Media Studio for the Nusa Tenggara Community Development Consortium.
[5]. Fitrah, N., Mustanir, A., Akbari, MS, Ramdana, R., Jisam, J., Nisa, NA, Qalbi, N., Febriani, AF, Irmawati, I., Resky S., MA, & Ilham , I. 2021. Community Empowerment Through Self-Help Mapping Using Information Technology in Managing Village Potential. Journal of Progressive Community Service SELAPARANG, 5(1), 337

Paper Title :: Malay Hearts of Kindness in Folklore at the Machang State, Kelantan: A Moral Approach
Author Name :: Shamsul Hazliyatul Akma Mohmad || Mohd Firdaus Che Yaacob
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 185-192
Folklore are narratives that belong to a community, passed through from one generation to another. Folklore are narratives that belong to a community, are passed down from generation to generation, and are conveyed from mouth to mouth. Not only for enjoyment, but also as a guide for the development of character and values in the current generation, folklore contains references with the conventional wisdom of the Malay community in the past. According to Hashim Musa (2008), components of Malay personality that impact features of Malay speech, behaviour, and thinking can be emphasised through the Malay character aspect. In accordance with that, this study was carried out to determine and evaluate the Malay Hearts of Kindness found in folklore stories at Machang state, Kelantan. Furthermore, the publication Cerita Rakyat Kelantan: Himpunan Seluruh Jajahan (2023) by Nasirin Abdillah, Mohd Firdaus Che Yaacob, and Abdul Latif Abu Bakar served as the study's primary source. In addition, to finish this research, a qualitative technique incorporating library resources and text is employed as a guideline. In studies, Moral Approach, Malay Method Theory (1989) by Hashim Awang) is employed by deduction to reinforce the study's analysis. In summary, the study's findings demonstrate that folklore is certainly strongly tied to the core of Malay culture, capable of forming traditions, values, and civilised culture within the Malay people.
Keywords: Malay Hearts of Kindness, Folklore; Moral Approach; Malay Methodology Theory
[1]. Achmad D. Marimba. 1981. PengantarFilsafat Pendidikan Islam. Bandung: Penerbit Al-Maruf.
[2]. Azura Abdullah. (2000). Sastera Kanak-kanak: Meninjau Aspek Budaya Melayudalam Cerita Rakyat Binatang dan Kesan Kepada Kanak-kanak. (Tesis Sarjana Sastera). Fakulti Bahasa Moden dan Kominikasi, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor.
[3]. Chairil Effendy. (2014). Peranan Sastra dan Bahasa Melayudalam Membangun Karakter Bangsa. Jurnal Jentera, III (3), 27–30.
[4]. Fatchul Mu’in. (2011). Pendidikan Karakter Konstruksi Teoritik dan Praktik: Urgensi Progresif dan Revitalisasi Peran Guru dan Orang Tua. Ar-Ruzz Media.
[5]. Hashim Awang. (1989). Budaya dan Kebudayaan. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.

Paper Title :: Islamic Values in Folklore at the Pasir Mas, Kelantan: A Preaching Approach
Author Name :: Shamsul Hazliyatul Akma Mohmad || Mohd Firdaus Che Yaacob
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 193-199
Folklore is a story of the traditional Malay community told by the sick's comforter that gives a sense of the community's way of life at the time. The Malay community is full of extraordinary individuals. A study by Hashim Musa (2008), the Malay heart aspect highlights qualities of Malay personality which impact aspects of Malay speech, behaviour, and thinking. Islamic living is one of the 26 parts that make up the Islamic Values. Thus, Malay folklore contains Islamic elements because the customary Malay community is predominantly Muslim. As such, the purpose of this research is to discuss Islamic values of living in accordance with Islamic people in folkloreat the Pasir Mas, Kelantan and as found in the text Cerita Rakyat Kelantan by Nasirin Abdillah, Mohd Firdaus Che Yaacob, and Abdul Latif Abu Bakar (2023). This study was carried out by gathering data using a qualitative research design and content analysis as the primary instrument. In Hashim Awang Malay Methodology Theory, data analysis is used with the help of thepreaching approach. Ultimately, the study‟s findings revealed that the preaching approach of living based on Islamic religion in folklore can create a society with a noble personality.
Keywords: Islamic Values; Folklore; Preaching Approach; Malay Methodology Theory
[1]. Anni Zulfiani Husnar. (2017). Harapan, Tawakal, dan Stres Akademik. Psikohumaniora: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 2(1), 94-105.
[2]. Chairil Effendy. (2014). Peranan Sastra dan Bahasa Melayudalam Membangun Karakter Bangsa. Jurnal Jentera, III (3), 27–30.
[3]. Fatchul Mu‟in. (2011). Pendidikan Karakter Konstruksi Teoritik dan Praktik: Urgensi Progresif dan Revitalisasi Peran Guru dan Orang Tua. Ar-Ruzz Media.
[4]. Hashim Awang. (1994b). Pengkajian Sastera: Pengkaedahan Melayu. Dlm. Sahlan Mohd. Saman (Pnyt.). Pengarang, Teks dan Khalayak. 326–335. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
[5]. Hashim Awang. (1995). “Metodologi Kesusasteraan Islam: Kaedah Penilaian.” Nadwah Ketakwaan Melalui Kreativiti. dlm. S. Jaafar Husin (pnyt.). Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, 30-45.

Paper Title :: Maritime Transport on Lake Victoria during the Inter-War Period, 1914-1945
Author Name :: Nashon Budy Budi || John Akumu Orondo || Dr. Samwel Okuro || Dr. George Odhiambo
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 200-211
This paper describes maritime transportation on Lake Victoria during the interwar period in order to establish the effect of world wars on maritime transport and the impact on the economy. Prior to the First World War, Lake Victoria transport was expanding and became the main mode of transport in the lake region being that road construction around the lake was cumbersome. However, the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 interrupted this development and subsequently affected trade in East Africa. Even though transport recovered after the war and demonstrated a lot of potential, but it was later affected by the outbreak of the Second World War though its effects were not as severe as the First World War. A Historical Research Design was used to conduct this study. Non probability sampling methods and procedures were used to identify informants during the collection of primary data. Much of the primary data were gathered from Kenya National Archives and Railways Museum in Nairobi. Secondary data was collected from the relevant publications and other materials. The data obtained were analyzed using content and thematic analysis techniques. This study shows that the outbreak of First World War caused a decline of passenger and commodity transport across the lake because most of the lake ferries were taken over by the navy for the lake patrol. Moreover, lake traffic between Tanganyika and Kisumu was terminated causing a decline of trade commodities from Tanganyika. In the same vein, the export trade of Uganda passing through the port of Kisumu stopped towards the end of 1915. Despite the recovery and the expansion of the transport during the period of peace, dhow traffic subjected lake ferries to competition before the outbreak of the Second World War. Due to the potential of Lake Victoria transport, the government should give it attention and set specific policies that govern its transportation.
Keywords: Lake Victoria Transport, World Wars, Trade, Interwar Period
[1]. Anyumba, G. (1995). Kisumu town: History of the built form, planning and environment: 1890-1990. Delft University Press
[2]. Bertho, F. (2010). Maritime transport in Australia. The Impacts and Benefits of Structural
[3]. Boahen, A. A. (Ed.). (1985). Africa under colonial domination. University of California Press, (7), (1880-1935)
[4]. Fearn, H. (1961). An African Economy: A Study of Economic Development of the Nyanza Province of Kenya, 1903 - 1953. Oxford University Press, London, New York, Nairobi, 1961
[5]. Ford, V. C. R. (1955). The trade of Lake Victoria: a geographical study. East African Literature Bureau/East African Institute of Social Research.

Paper Title :: A study of the barriers to quality education for tribal girls in Jharkhand
Author Name :: Yashna Dodrajka
Country :: India
Page Number :: 212-219
This paper presents the findings of a comprehensive survey conducted in Jharkhand, India, to assess the barriers to quality of education received by girls in the state. The data was collected by conducting a survey. The results of the survey reveal a complex landscape of educational quality for girls in Jharkhand. While there have been significant improvements in access to education in recent years, disparities in the quality of education persist. The paper discusses these findings in the context of the broader education policy landscape in Jharkhand and the Government of India's initiatives to promote girls' education. In conclusion, this paper contributes to the ongoing discourse on quality girls' education in India, shedding light on the critical issues and opportunities in Jharkhand.
Keywords: Education, Tribal, Women, Quality, barriers, access
[1]. Aparajita, C., & Vijaya, D. (2009). Primary schooling in a tribal district of Maharashtra: Some policy relevance. International Journal of Educational Administration and Policy Studies, 1(5), 070-078.
[2]. Arya, S., & Chauhan, T. (2012). A critical study of tribal education: with special reference to women. In International Seminar on Tribal Development, in the Pacific University, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India.
[3]. Bokil, M. (2002). De-notified and nomadic tribes: A perspective. Economic and Political Weekly, 148-154.
[4]. Brahmanandam, T., & BosuBabu, T. (2016). Educational status among the scheduled tribes: Issues and challenges. Journal of Politics and Governance, 5(3), 57-66.
[5]. Chakraborty, S. (2013). Empowering the Tribal Women through Education: Issue of Social Justice with Reference of West Bengal. Afro Asian Journal of Anthropology and Social Policy.

Paper Title :: The Human in "The Castle" by Franz Kafka
Author Name :: Bui ThiNhu Phuong (MA)
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 220-223
The human condition has never been addressed so deeply, in so many different aspects, aspects, and levels as in modern literature. In the world, there are many writers representing many trends and methods of writing who have made new discoveries about human issues with pressures and crises during the period of scientific and technological boom. information technology. Among them, F. Kafka is a typical representative of profound explorations of human issues in relation to society.
In F. Kafka's composition, it is not difficult to recognize the repetitive artistic motifs, such as the motif of alienation, exile, helpless anxiety, irrational problems, totalitarian association, invisible power ... In the scope of the article, we mention the writer's obsessions and concerns through the art of building familiar characters in his compositions such as: guilty , people are forgotten, freedom of privacy is violated, the power of invisible power ... Thereby to see F. Kafka under the influence, very profound influence of existentialist thought on his compositions. especially in the novel "Castle".
Keywords: Castle, F. Kafka, characters, tragedy, human condition.
[1]. Franz Kafka (2003), Collection of works, Writers Association Publishing House, East-West Cultural and Language Center, Hanoi.
[2]. Milan Kundera (2001), Essay (Novel Art - Betrayed Wills, Culture and Information Publishing House, East-West Cultural and Language Center, Hanoi.
[3]. Phuong Luu, (2008), Theory of Literature - Volume 3, Process of Literature, National University of Education Publishing House.
[4]. Thai ThiHoaiAn (2005), Admission issue of Franz Kafka in Vietnam, Master's thesis in Literature, HCMC University of Education.
[5]. Le HuyBac (2006), The Art of Franz Kafka, Education Publishing House, Hanoi

Paper Title :: Effect of Community Support on the Implementation of Re-Entry Policy for Teenage Mothers in Public Secondary Schools in Gatundu South Sub County, Kiambu County, Kenya
Author Name :: Mary M. Muli, Sr. || Dr. Elizabeth Piliyesi || Dr. Peter Koros
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 224-242
The study examined the effect of community support on re-entry policy for teenage mother-students and completion of schooling in public secondary schools in Gatundu South Sub-County. Research question that guided this study was: To what extent has community support affected the implementation of the re-entry policy for teenage mother-students? Opportunity theory guided this study. Mixed research design was applied in this study. The study targeted 30 public secondary schools where 421 participants comprising of class teachers, principals, and ministry of education officials, mother-students and parents/guardians to mother-student were targeted. Questionnaires, interview guide anddocument analysis were used to collect data. Analysis for qualitative data was done in verbatim and thematic approach while quantitative data was done using descriptive statistics where SPSS software was used for Chi-Square test and correlation analysis and results presented in charts, tables and graphs. Researcher considered some ethics by seeking permission from the Catholic University of Eastern Africa and NACOSTI for data collection. The study findings revealed thatcommunity support by creating awareness about re-entry policy for teenage mother-students has improved the implementation of the re-entry policy. Early pregnancy has affected the completion rates of girls since it has made mother-students loose interest due to missing hope of community reactions when teens get pregnant. Social cultural practices such as early marriages affect the policy since teen mothers are treated like any other mother in the family. The cultural norms of the community subject the teen mothers to labeling and stereotyping hence affecting their schooling process. Recommendation was that there is need for the government and the community to establish rules and procedures governing fair allocation of these supports in order to demonstrate goodwill and support for the readmission of the girls after delivery to institutions.
[1]. Adams, W. C. (2015). Conducting semi-structured interviews. Handbook of practical program evaluation, 492-505.
[2]. Kainuwa, A., & Yusuf, N. B. M. (2013).Cultural traditions and practices of the parents as barriers to girl-child education in Zamfara State Nigeria. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(11), 1-8.
[3]. Aini, W., Kustono, D., Dardiri, A., & Kamdi, W. (2016, October). Work-based learning for enhancing the capacity of engagement: Lesson from stakeholder‟s perspective literature. In AIP Conference Proceedings (Vol. 1778, No. 1, p. 030052). AIP Publishing LLC.
[4]. Amin, S., & Huq, L. (2008). Marriage considerations in sending girls to school in Bangladesh: Some qualitative evidence.
[5]. Alhojailan, M. I. (2012). Thematic analysis: A critical review of its process and evaluation. West East journal of social sciences, 1(1), 39-47.

Paper Title :: Theory of Translation Dissecting a Case of “Van Mieu – Quoc Tu Giam”, a Significant Toponym in Hanoi, Vietnam
Author Name :: Tăng Minh Châu
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 243-247
In linguistic research, translation is as always, an interesting area to study. It requires not only linguistic knowledge but also non-linguistic or background knowledge to fulfil your study. Vietnam has plenty of toponym, place names that are connected with our history, culture and vernacular. Therefore, a work of translating those to the other language with an accurate and comprehensive way is worth discussing. This paper aims to study about meaning of those nomination then suggest the most applicable and equivalent terms in target language (English). We are going to use the Theory of Nomination accompanied with Theory of Translation based on compiling and discussing about Nomination method and carry out some recommendation to translate those place names from Vietnamese into English. Besides, we would use theory of pragmatics to discover metaphorical and figurative meaning of those names. All names of buildings and constructions in “Van Mieu – Quoc Tu Giam” relics will be fully discussed throughout this paper. As a result, our paper will offer a suitable recommendation in translating names of those constructions to English. For practical perspective, within Tourism field, this paper is attempted to support foreign tourists to comprehend the sense of those names when they have opportunity to visit this relics during their trip to the North of Vietnam.
[1]. Naftali Kadmon, (2000), Toponymy – The Lore, Laws and Language of Geographical Names, Vantage Press Inc., New York
[2]. Jan Tent, Approaches to Research in Toponymy, Names A Journal of Onomastics (June 2015). DOI: 10.1179/0027773814Z.000000000103
[3]. Vermeer, Hans Josef (1978). "Ein Rahmen für eine allgemeine Translationstheorie". Lebende Sprachen. 23 (3). doi:10.1515/les.1978.23.3.99. ISSN 0023-9909.
[4]. Kirsten Malmkjaer, The Routledge Handbook of Translation Studies and Linguistics, Routledge Press, England, 2018
[5]. Frank, Nuessel (1992), the Study of Names - A Guide to the Principle and Topics. Greenwood Press: London.

Paper Title :: Socio-Economic Condition and Drug Abuse as a Determinant of Sexual Harassment among Athletes in South-South State Sports Councils in Nigeria
Author Name :: Agburuga Obi Ph.D || Uzorka, B. A || Okwowe Deborah. T
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 248-254
This study was designed to determine the Prevalence and Determinants of Sexual Harassment among Athletes in South-South States Sports Council in Nigeria. Two specific objectives, Twon research questions and Twonull hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The population for the study comprised of 1,647 male and 1,274 female athletes. They give a total of 2,921 sports athletes in South-South Sports Council which spread across the six states. The sample size of the study consisted of 336 male and 262 female athletes giving a total of 598 representing 20% of athletes from each of the state Sport Council. Instrument titled ―Prevalence and Determinants of Sexual Harassment of Athletes Questionnaire (PDSHAQ)‖ was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by three research experts, all from the University of Uyo. Instrument was trial tested on 20 athletes who were not part of the research sample. Cronbach Alpha Reliability Statistics and reliability co-efficient of 0.98 was obtained. The data was analysed using Mean and Standard Deviation to answer the research questions while hypothesis was tested at .05 levels of significance. The finding of the study showed that different states have varying mean scores on sexual harassment among athletes in South-South Nigeria. In addition, socioeconomic status and drug uses are determined of sexual harassments among athletes. Based on the findings of the study, it is recommended among measures to protect female athletes from sexual harassment by having committees that are made up male and female officials to select athletes for participation in competitions base on performances instead of leaving the selection process in the hand of a single individual. Athletes with history of drug use should not be accepted into the sport council.
Keywords: Socioeconomic Condition, Drug Abuse, Sexual Harassment
[1]. Burrows, S., Butchart, A., Butler, N., Quigg, Z., Bellis, M.A and Mikton, C. (2018). New World Health Organization violence prevention information system: An interactive knowledge platform of scientific findings on violence. International journal Previews. 24, 51, 155–156.
[2]. Nextier, S. P. D. (2020). Sexual violence: Why the rise? News and Press Release
[3]. Bermon, S., Adami, E. P., Dahlström, O., Kristina, F., Hautala, J., Ek, A., Anderson, C., Jacobsson, J., Göran, C. S and Timpka, T. (2021).Lifetime prevalence of verbal, physical, and sexual abuses in young elite athletics athletes. Frontier Sports Activity.
[4]. Simpson, J. A., Farrell, A. K., Oriña, M. M., and Rothman, A. J. (2015). Power and social influence in relationships, in APA Handbooks in Psychology R .APA Handbook of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 3. Interpersonal Relations, eds M. Mikulincer, P. R. Shaver, J. A. Simpson, and J. F. Dovidio (Washington, DC: American Psychological Association), 393–420.
[5]. Onoyase, A. (2018). Relationship among adolescent characteristics, peer group influence and anti-social behaviour. Journal of Education and Social Research, 8(3): 9-17.

Paper Title :: Perspectives of the Time in Minh Chuyen's Memoirs
Author Name :: Tran Thi Khanh Linh
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 255-258
Literature written about the war after 1975 not only focuses on the joy of victory but also shows realism in the post-war period. Soldiers rushing into battle are also explored from a multi-faceted, multi-dimensional perspective. Minh Chuyen's memoirs have successfully built two senses about the era: the magnanimity and the spirit of determination to serve the Fatherland and the sadness and misfortune of soldiers as a result of war.
Keywords: perspectives of the Time, heroic era, tragic era, Minh Chuyen’s memoirs
[1]. Dao Duy Anh (1998), Remembering this afternoon, Writers' Association Publishing House.
[2]. Lai Nguyen An (1999), 150 literary terms, National University Publishing House, Hanoi
[3]. Nguyen Thi Binh (2007), Prose in the period 1975 - 1995 and basic innovations, Vietnam Education Publishing House
[4]. Minh Chuyen (2022), Selected collection of Minh Chuyen (vol. 3), Writers' Association Publishing House.
[5]. Dinh Xuan Dung (2003), War reality and literary creativity, People's Army Publishing House.

Paper Title :: Idiom Teaching Exercise System for Foreigners at the Intermediate Level
Author Name :: Le Thi Thuy Vinh || Nguyen Phương Chi
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 259-264
The ultimate goal of language teaching in general and teaching Vietnamese as a foreign language in particular is to help learners fluently use Vietnamese in communication. Therefore, building a system of exercises on idioms - a fixed language that carries national cultural values - is important and meets the urgent needs of today. Idiom exercises are designed based on the Vietnamese Competency Framework for foreigners and divided according to the learners' thinking levels.
In each type of exercise, we also clearly identify the issues: purpose, implementation process, and organizational form. These will be specific directions to help teachers easily apply these types of exercises in teaching activities.
Keywords: Exercises, idioms, foreigners, learning Vietnamese, intermediate level
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Paper Title :: Technology Integration in School: A Study of Students’ Perception of Edtech
Author Name :: Shashwat Jaguri || Akrishh Bali || Arnav Gupta || Saksham Dhingra || Jaanya Sobti
Country :: India
Page Number :: 265-278
Educational Technology (EdTech) has become an integral part of the learning landscape in today‘s digital age. This study aims to address the significance of students‘ perspectives and opinions on the impact, advantages, disadvantages and potential of EdTech in schools. As edtech continues to evolve, it is crucial to gauge how students perceive its role in their education. Our research involved a survey conducted across multiple schools spanning various geographic locations. A structured questionnaire was administered to students to assess their opinions and experiences with edtech. The survey encompassed questions related to the influence of edtech on their learning, its advantages, and potential drawbacks. The findings of this study illuminate the multifaceted nature of students' perception of edtech. A significant portion of respondents acknowledged the positive impact of edtech on their learning experiences, citing increased engagement, accessibility to resources, and enhanced interactivity. However, concerns regarding distractions, overreliance on technology, and inequalities in access were also raised. Notably, a majority of students expressed a desire for a balanced integration of traditional teaching methods with edtech.
Keywords: Edtech, digital age, education, students, technology
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