Current Issue (Volume 02 - Issue 08)

Paper Title :: The 2016 shift from normal liberal democracy to extreme liberal democracy in the USA: Pointing out the structure of Trumpconomics, its meaning, and its expected local and global implications, both analytically and graphically
Author Name :: Lucio Muñoz
Country :: Canada
Page Number :: 01-11
The world of extreme democratic outcomes came in 2016 first in the UK with the unexpected win of the “yes” vote; and months later in the USA with the unexpected win of Donald Trump. This is a shift in the working of democracy from normal to extreme structure as in extreme liberal democracies pushing the best interest of the minority view that surprisingly wins a majority rule based democratic outcome is the core goal. In other words, extreme democratic outcomes exist to push the best interest of the minority view, not the best interest of the majority as normal democratic outcomes are expected to do.
Keywords: Normal democratic outcome, extreme democratic outcome, BREXIT, USEXIT, normal liberal democracy, extreme liberal democracy, liberal democracy, paradigm shift, economics, Trumpconomics, Brexconomics, Reaganomics, morality, amorality
[1]. Analyse Financiere, 2017. Understanding Trumponomics, Point of view, January 26, French Society of Financial Analysts, France.
[2]. British Broadcasting Corporation(BBC), 2016. Brexit: Europe stunned by UK Leave vote, EU Referendum News, June 24, London, UK.
[3]. British Telecommunications(BT), 2016. 7 of the most bizarre Brexit conspiracy theories out there, June 16, London, UK/
[4]. Chapman, Steve, 2019. Under President Trump, the chaos never ends, Tribune Voices, April 09, Chicago Tribune, Chicago, IL, USA.
[5]. Gaouette, Nicole, 2017. Trump stakes out inward, protectionist vision for America, Politics, CNN, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Paper Title :: Interest in Juridical-Contracting Relations
Author Name :: Msc. Albatrit Bytyçi
Country :: Republic of Kosovo
Page Number :: 12-17
Interest takes an important place in (non) contractual relations between the parties, as it creates rights and obligations on the basis of the principal liabilities (claims) from which it derives.Thus, taking into account these circumstances and the reason that interest as an institute of law is often present in the law practising, but which has not been dealt with in this respect and that of the law of obligations, then I intended to present through paper a brief study of interest and its types, as well as the legal effects that they produce in practice in relation to the determination - creation, or more specifically the commencement of flow by degree (level) of the subjects of law, where in their contractual legal relations are presented as fulfilling the accessory obligation alongside the principal.
Keywords: Interest, subject of Law, juridical-contracting relation, rights and obligations, accessory obligation, principal oligation.

Paper Title :: Textual Scholarship Researches of Grigol Orbeliani’s Epistolary Heritage
Author Name :: Tea Tvalavadze
Country :: Georgoa
Page Number :: 18-24
One of the main principles of scholarly edition is a chronological order that provides us with an opportunity to imagine the author‟s creative growth. Therefore, it is obvious that the dating of each text is of utmost importance in terms of historical-philological and literary studies. In the first and second volumes published in 1936-1937, up to sixty letters of the famous Georgian writer and public figure of the 19th century Grigol Orbeliani (1804-1883) were omitted because the time of their writing could not be determined. However, by means of digital technologies, corpus study and various contemporary methods, the dating of the aforementioned letters became possible in the new edition. The information obtained from the documentary writings of the author cannot be complete without identifying the persons mentioned therein. Therefore, it is important to find out who is implied by means of a name, surname, nickname, public name or pronoun mentioned in this or that letter. By means of various methods and technologies we were able to summarize the information scattered in different narratives and identify most of them. Identification of these individuals helps us to understand the content better. Information obtained as a result of our investigations enabled us to make some corrections in the biographies of the individuals. Dating the text and identifying the persons mentioned therein are the major tasks for textual scholars. The significance of the letters increases drastically when their texts are scientifically verified and dated, as well as the people mentioned there identified and all complicated passages of the text are commented. Such researches are fundamental and, in addition to their inherent value, represent the basis for further historical and cultural studies.
Keywords: textual scholarship, Georgian literature, archival studies, Grigol Orbeliani
[1]. Orbeliani Gr. (1936), Letters, vol. I, Ak. Gatserelia (Edit.), Tbilisi, 310.
[2]. Gigashvili K, Ninidze M., Edit. (2018), The Epistolary Legacy of Georgian Writers of the XIX-XX Centuries, vol. 8, Tbilisi, 53, 55, 60, 97-99, 115, 132, 139, 203-204, 253-254, 257-261,
[3]. Tsaishvili S. (1947), Works of Zugdidi State Historical and Ethnographic Museum, vol. I, Tbilisi, 297-344.
[4]. Grigol orbeliani‟s letter to Nikolai Astafiev, Giorgi Leonidze State Museum of Georgian Literature, Fund of Grigol Orbeliani, N16264-X.
[5]. Grigol orbeliani‟s letter to Niko Chavchavadze,Octomber 3 1881, Korneli KekeliZe Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts, Fund of Grigol Orbeliani, N524- N30, 1r.

Paper Title :: The novel "Solaris" by S. Lem as a futuristic forecast of Russia's development
Author Name :: Guykin Victor
Country :: Rossia
Page Number :: 25-26
The author argues that the Polish writer Stanislaw Lem, described in his novel the planet Solaris, which enveloped reasonable protoplasm, had in mind Russia. The author believes that the class of security forces, in the absence of strong parties and the weakness of the bourgeoisie, is a real power in Russia.
Keywords: Russia; Solaris; Stanislaw Lem; industrial development; the security forces
[1]. Stanislav Lem. Solaris. URL: Главная › Авторы › Станислав Лем. (date of appeal: 15.12.2014).
[2]. V.I. Lenin Great Start. Complete Collection of Works. Moscow, 1958 V.39. p.15.
[3]. Sergey Medvedev. Inflatable Superpower. URL: (date of access: 15.12.2014).
[4]. Roman Romanovich Romanov. The Reverse Side of Solaris. URL: (date of access: 15.12.2014).

Paper Title :: Valoración de los referentes culturales de los estudiantes indígenas en la enseñanza del Derecho
Author Name :: Olia Acuña Maldonado, Francisco Ricardo Ramírez Lugo
Country :: México
Page Number :: 27-34
El sistema educativo mexicano plantea en todas sus etapas la pedagogía y la didáctica como base del aprendizaje que se brinda en las escuelas, pero en los últimos cien años han surgido críticas hacia los métodos de enseñanza y a la escuela, estas vienen acompañadas de ideas que le dan papeles diferentes a los maestros y alumnos y a la misma escuela; una de las críticas señala que el sistema no contempla teorías, métodos, estrategias y técnicas para los estudiantes indígenas que cursan una Licenciatura.
Por el problema planteado, nos propusimos como objetivo general de esta investigación, el analizar las diferentes técnicas utilizadas en la enseñanza del Derecho, para conocer con cuál de ellas es posible elevar los niveles de aprovechamiento académicos de los jóvenes indígenas que cursan una Licenciatura.
Se planteó a nivel hipotético que el utilizar los referentes culturales de los estudiantes indígenas para la enseñanza del Derecho, esto aumenta de manera positiva sus resultados académicos.
La investigación se inició en el ciclo escolar del año 2000 y a partir de ese ciclo escolar se documentó al avance académico de los jóvenes indígenas que cursan la Licenciatura en Derecho en la Universidad Autónoma Indígena de México, esto se hizo a través de la recopilación de diversas herramientas de medición del aprovechamiento académico como exámenes escritos, debates, resúmenes, ensayos que permitieron evaluar el avance académico de los jóvenes con cada técnica utilizada, esta recopilación documental y análisis termino con la generación del año 2018.
Nuestra perspectiva para realizar esta investigación cualitativa, nace desde el Derecho Constitucional y los Derechos Humanos, que plantean el derecho a la educación en México, utilizándose los métodos histórico, descriptivo, reflexivo y analítico. Revisamos y contrastamos las diversas teorías sobre el Derecho Constitucional y los Derechos Humanos, revisamos los artículos 2° y 3° de la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos que plasman el derecho humano a la educación que tienen los pueblos indígenas en México, y, las teorías y el marco normativo, lo contrastamos con la realidad que enfrentan los estudiantes al cursar una Licenciatura, para lo cual, revisamos y analizamos los documentos fundacionales de la Universidad, la normativa, el modelo académico aplicado y los documentos de medición de avance académico, observamos y aplicamos la deducción y la inducción para inferir las conclusiones y propuestas que se hacen. Se propone, la utilización de los referentes culturales de los pueblos indígenas para la enseñanza del Derecho ya que se demostró que con esta técnica los estudiantes indígenas tienen un mejor aprovechamiento académico.
Keywords: Valorarlos referentes culturales de los estudiantes indígenas que cursan su Licenciatura en la Universidad Autónoma Intercultural de Sinaloa y utilizarlos para la enseñanza del Derecho.
[1]. M. Aparicio Wilhelmi, “Los pueblos indígenas y el Estado. El reconocimiento constitucional de los derechos indígenas en América Latina”, Ed. Centro de estudios de Derecho, Economía y Ciencias Sociales (Cedecs), 2002.
[2]. S. Batista, “Aproximación al concepto del Derecho desde la perspectiva triádica”, Tesis doctoral accesible a texto completo en,2004.
[3]. M. Carbonell; J. Cruz; R. Vázquez, (Comp),“Derechos sociales y derechos de las minorías”. Porrúa, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Instituto de Investigaciones Jurídicas), Tercera edición,2004.
[4]. C. Durand, “Derecho indígena”, Editora Laguna S. A. de C. V.,2001.
[5]. E. Guerra, “Modelo educativo de la Universidad Autónoma Indígena de México” (En línea). Disponible en.,2006.

Paper Title :: The concept of publishing different types of notes and fragmentary oral speeches
Author Name :: Esma Mania
Country :: Georgia
Page Number :: 35-39
In complete scholarly editions of works by classic authors not only their artistic texts are published, but also documentaries: complete and incomplete, redactions and alternative versions, plans and drafts. According to the author's significance and specifics of the written heritage in such editions many other types of material may appear. That is why developing the concept for publishing Ilia Chavchavadze’s notepads, various types of statements, individual notes, and fragmentary oral speeches is on the agenda. The manuscripts are kept in the funds of The National Archives of Georgia, The Georgian National Centre of Manuscripts and Giorgi Leonidze State Museum of Literature. While publishing world literature classics, such types of texts are placed in a section "miscellaneous". When it comes to Ilia Chavchavadze this material can be found in such large amounts that it is given not just one section but the whole volume in scholarly edition of his works. In multi-volume scholarly editions, common principles are mostly held, but sometimes the volume specificity requires derogation from the general rule. As far as the contextual classification of the notepad due to the diversity of its constituent texts was impossible, we decided to simply number them in the publication taking into account dates of the notes contained therein. Concerning the organizing issues of notepad's text the publishing team decided to call it a "note" for a more or less completed unit separated by themes, chronology, location, the writing means, or any other data and to number the notes represented in each notepad by the original sequence. The scientific apparatus will contain all the features - sources, notes, comments and indexes - that are necessary for scholarly editions.
Keywords: Ilia Chavchavadze, editorial Studies, textual scholarship, archival studies
[1]. Ninidze, M., Amirkhanashvili, I. (ed.). (2017), Chronicles of the life and works of Ilia Chavchavadze, Tbilisi, Publishing House "Mtatsminda", 3. (Ilia_Chavchavazis Cxovrebis_da_Shemoqmedebis_Matiane.pdf)
[2]. Ninidze M., Gigashvili K. (2018), Textual Scholarship / Textbook for PhD Students, Tbilisi, 138.
[3]. Korneli kekelidze National Center of manuscripts of Georgia, Private Archive fund of Ilia Chavchavadze №56.
[4]. Korneli kekelidze National Center of manuscripts of Georgia, Private Archive fund of Ilia Chavchavadze №57.
[5]. Korneli kekelidze National Center of manuscripts of Georgia, Private Archive fund of Ilia Chavchavadze №58.

Paper Title :: Caste and Ideology in Indian Society
Author Name :: Dr. Kapila Khemundu
Country :: India
Page Number :: 40-43
Nation building is a continuous process and our constant endeavour to build up India as a powerful nation state, caste and ideology poses major challenges. The contemporary Indian society is undergoing several transformations with ideological conflict and divisive politics. The caste and ideology which is unique to Indian social structure and its functioning have deeply rooted in its religion and culture. Now the rigidity of caste move from governing principle to functional unit to maintain the social order and challenging the caste and ideological hegemony. In this juncture there is the need to explore and build our knowledge about Indian society based on rationality and scientific method where cause and effect could be appropriately linked and truth can be established. If we consider caste as a social construction and as a knowledge product, now it is moulded with dominant ideological hegemony with hierarchy and graded inequality in each sphere of social life.
Keywords: Caste, Ideology, Knowledge, Indian Society, Hegemony
1 Antonio Gramsci’s concept of ideological hegemony taken from the works of Valeriano Ramos Jr. in his work “The Concept of Ideology, Hegemony, and Organic Intellectuals in Gramsci’s Marxism.
2 The idea about positivistic approach taken from “Positive Philosophy” written by August Comte and translated by Harriet Martineau
3 Herbert Risley Racial Theory of Caste explain in “The Study of Ethnology in India, 1891” in support of Thomas Trautmann’s study on Indian Society
4 Karl Popper Philosophy of Science learnt from “Conjectures and Refutations, 1963” and “The Philosophy of Karl Popper, 1974”
5 Occupational theory of Caste drawn from C.H. Cooley’s work “Social Organization, 1909

Paper Title :: Relaciones públicas avanzadas: estudio del nivel de interactividad de los Think Tanks destacados en el uso de redes sociales
Author Name :: A.Leticia Quintana Pujalte, Antonio Castillo Esparcia
Country :: Spain
Page Number :: 44-54
There is a large literature that analyzes the role of Social Media in the search for interaction with audiences, and the study of the communication of web pages in particular has several approaches, whether from the point of view of graphic design, the user experience or from an information quality perspective. This research seeks to focus on the corporate sites of think tanks that stand out for their actions in social networks according to the 2018 McGann Report, and evaluate the level of interactivity they offer from the resources and tools they have, and in the end instance, the type of digital communication that they propose beyond social networks.
Keywords: Interactivity, digital communication, think tanks, content analysis.
[1]. CASTELLS, M. (1996). The Rise of Network Society. Oxford, England: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
[2]. HOLTZ, S. (2002). Public relations on the Net: winning strategies to inform and influence the media, the investment community, the government, the public, and more. New York: Amacom
[3]. ACED, C. (2013). Relaciones Públicas 2.0. Barcelona: Editorial UOC.
[4]. LIBREROS, E. (coord.) (2013). El libro de Marketing Interactivo y la Publicidad Digital. Madrid: ESIC Editorial.
[5]. HEINZE, N. N., & HU, Q. (2006). “The evolution of corporate web presence: a longitudinal study of large American companies”. International Journal ofInformation Management, 26(4), 313–325.

Paper Title :: Sustainability of the Hospitality Sector in Rivers State; the Leadership Succession Strategy Option
Author Name :: Dr Patrick N Nwinyokpugi, Nenage, M. Friday
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 55-64
This study examined Leadership succession strategy and the sustainability of the Hospitality industry in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. All principal managers of the hospitality firms especially hotels were targeted in this study, however, a representative sample of 171 respondents was derived from the total target population of 302 principal managers of the studied hotels using the Taro Yamene sample determination formula. Data were sourced primarily using structured closed ended four-point Likert scale questionnaire. The study hypotheses were tested using the Pearson Product Moment Correlations coefficient statistical tool and presented with the aid of SPSS software. Results derived from the findings of the study showed strong and significant relationship between the tested dimensions of leadership succession strategies which included but not limited to referral, hereditary, achievement and charismatic succession strategies in relationship with the measures of sustainability of the hospitality firms (hotels) in Port Harcourt, Rivers State which embrace growth of the hotels and profitability status. Based on these findings, all the strategies so tested except hereditary indicated strong and significant relationships and are recommended for use in the hospitality industry in Rivers State.
Keywords: Succession, Charisma, Achievement, Referral, Hereditary and Sustainability
[1]. Leithwood, K. D.; Jantzi, and R, Steinbach, (1999), Changing leadership for changing times, Buckingham, England; Open University Press.
[2]. Brant,j.; Dooley, r. &Iman, S. (2008). Leadership Succession: an approach to filling the pipeline, Strategic HR Review, 7(4), 17-24.
[3]. Stevens MJ (2003). “Leadership without Leaders: Lessons from an Orchestra without a Conductor.”Competitive paper presented at the Sunstone Education Foundation Annual Symposium, Salt Lake City, UT.
[4]. Durden, P. C., Izquierdo, J., & Williams, J. A. (2008). Out of the ashes: Building leadership and sustainability amid the chaos. AASA Journal of Scholarship and Practice, 5(3), 47-52.
[5]. Beglinger, J. E. (2013). Designing tomorrow: Creative and effective succession planning. Journal of Nursing Administration, 43(10), 495-496.

Paper Title :: Finding Temporary Emergency Shelters in Highly Dense Urban Area: A Study of Ward No 39 of Dhaka North City Corporation
Author Name :: Md. Rifat Hossain, Salit Chakma, Sabiha Ahmed Diba, Navira Azmi
Country :: Bangladesh
Page Number :: 65-70
Bangladesh is one of the densely populated developing country in the world. Dhaka is the only capital andconsidered as largest growing mega city in the world. Due to geographic and geologic setting, Bangladesh confront some frequent disasters like flood, cyclone, drought, earthquake and landslide etc. For this paper, Tejgaon Thana (Ward 39, Dhaka North City Corporation) has been selected as the study area. This place is considered as focal point of Dhaka city & accumulation of old or high-rise residential and commercial buildings with a big amount of population. The area has been selected to locate the potential temporary shelters, assembly places or open spaces of the study area to handle any emergency situation. The probable hazards that are identifiedin the study area are Fire hazard, Earthquake, Water Logging, Building Collapse, etc.The ascertain method of the amount of the potential emergency shelters and also the accessibility of those temporary shelters has been identified through base map and basic data collection including both primary and secondary data,reconnaissance survey, etc. and also developed in GIS Arc map for a clear view of the temporary locations for emergency shelters of the study area. This paper recommends the necessity to arrange enough public facilities for the community to ensure better and less risky life to the residents of study area. It focuses the possible ways to manage probable hazards by identifying the potential temporary shelters and also in decision-making of the dwellers, in case of their emergency shifting for evacuation.
Keywords: Emergency management, Temporary shelter, Urban disaster, Evacuation
[1]. Alçada‐Almeida, L., Tralhao, L., Santos, L., & Coutinho‐Rodrigues, J. (2009). A multi objective approach to locate emergency shelters and identify evacuation routes in urban areas. Geographical analysis, 41(1), 9-29.
[2]. Coutinho-Rodrigues, J., Tralhão, L., & Alçada-Almeida, L. (2012). Solving a location-routing problem with a multi objective approach: the design of urban evacuation plans. Journal of Transport Geography, 22, 206-218.
[3]. Fang, Z., Zong, X., Li, Q., Li, Q., & Xiong, S. (2011). Hierarchical multi-objective evacuation routing in stadium using ant colony optimization approach. Journal of Transport Geography, 19(3), 443-451.
[4]. Murray-Tuite, P., & Mahmassani, H. (2003). Model of household trip-chain sequencing in emergency evacuation. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (1831), 21-29.
[5]. Pal, A., Graettinger, A. J., & Triche, M. H. (2003). Emergency evacuation modeling based on geographical information system data. In CD-ROM Proceedings of the 2003 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.

Paper Title :: Social Media Exposure among Children Leads to Growing Numbers of LGBT Community in Malaysia
Author Name :: Noor Farihah Rozali, Zulkifli Abd Latiff, Nor Amira Baharuddin
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 71-77
Many past studies have showed several negative effects of the internet and social media on children including increased risk of exposure to pornographic material, internet sexual addiction, and greater exposure to pedophilic predatory relationships also on LGBT. LGBT is Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender yet another term that is worrying among parents in Malaysia as it become increasing in our community day by day. In social media like Instagram and Facebook, we can see that LGBT community become more aggressive to show their movements and clearly want to be as a role model to other people. This situation might influence our children’s behavior and thought. Thus, this paper aim to study on social media exposure among children leads to growing numbers of LGBT community in Malaysia. The results from this study will be significant to many parties including media as they can control the movement of LGBT community in the social media and parents also can control their children’s activities on social media to avoid them from get influenced by these LGBT community.
Keywords: LGBT; Social Media; Children
[1]. Akram, W. (2018). A Study on Positive and Negative Effects of Social Media on Society. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF COMPUTER SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING .
[2]. Atieno, L. (17 April, 2018). The New Times. Retrieved from Children and social media: Should parents be worried?:
[3]. Balula, V. (29 October, 2018). New Straits Times. Retrieved from 300,000 gays in the country but not all are involved in same sex relationships:
[4]. Bee, H. (27 July, 2018). Hui Bee. Retrieved from LGBT in Malaysia:
[5]. Bernama. (23 July, 2018). Malaymail. Retrieved from Minister: LGBT lifestyle against Malaysian law:

Paper Title :: Corporate Governance As a Predictor of Financial Performance in Downstream Nigerian Quoted Oil and Gas Companies
Author Name :: Solanke Abiola Abosede, Paul Femi Fashagba, Kabiru Isa Dandago
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 78-89
Corporate governance has received attention globally due to the recent corporate failure in manycorporate organizations. Studies have provided evidence that corporate governance and financial performance are related. However, CG has being rarely linked to oil and gas financial performance. Hence this study, examines the effect of corporate governance on the financial performance of quoted Nigeriandownstreamoil and gas companies. The main objective of this study is to find out whether or not corporate governance mechanismshave impact on the performance of the quoted Nigerian downstream oil and gas companies,(ROE) return on equity, Tobin Q and (NPM) net profit margin to measure their financial performance. Secondary data of 11 listed oil and gas companies on the Nigeria stock exchange from 2007 to 2018 were used in the study. The data generated were analyzedusing multipleregressions to examine the relationship between the variables: board size, board independence, board ownership, board gender diversity, audit committee, block ownership concentration, block institutional ownership, block government ownership, CEO ownership, (IVs) and financial performance of the firms (DV). The study found that corporate governance has positive significance effect on the financial performance of the quoted Nigerian downstream oil and gas companies. Thus, among others, the study recommend corporate governance member number on board should be increased to a maximum number since only larger number on board can argued out decision that will be of benefit to the firm.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Financial Performance, Downstream oil & gas firms, firm Attributes, Nigeria
[1]. Ayodele, S., Aderemi, A.K.,Obigbemi, I.F., &Ojeka, S.A.(2019).Accessing the connectedness between corporate governance mechanism and financial performance of listed oil and gas companies in Nigeria, Journal of Accounting, Finance and Auditing Studies 2(4), 155-170
[2]. Amalendu, B., Sri S.M., & Sri, G.R. (2011). Financial performance analysis- a case study. Current Research Journal of Social Science, 3(3), 269-275
[3]. Adigwe, P.N, Onyewe, W.I. &John, E.I (2016). Effect of corporate governance mechanism on the financial performance of banks in Nigeria. NG- Journal of Social Development, 5(2), 41-50
[4]. Alalade, Y.S.A., Onadeko, B.B. &Okezie, O. F. (2014). Corporate Governance practices and firms financial performance of selected manufacturing companies in Lagos state, Nigeria. International journal of economics, finance and management science,2(5)285-296
[5]. Adebayo, M., Ibrahim, A.O., Yusuf, B., &Omah, I. (2014). Good corporate governance and organizational performance: an empirical analysis. International Journal of humanities and social science, 4(7), 170-178

Paper Title :: The Valency Changing Strategy through the Composition of the Verbs Ame, Kasiand Buangin Malay Kupang Language
Author Name :: Agnes M. D. Rafael
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 90-94
MalayKupang Language (MKL) is spoken by around 500,000 people who inhabit in Kupang city and several districts on Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara (ENT) Province, Indonesia.MKL is actually a part of Malay-creole language. In general, MKL shows a special similarity in terms of grammar that leads to the theory of universal grammar. Even MKL is one of the local language in Indonesia, but MKL is also difference with Indonesian in the syntactic level, especially in valency changing strategy.Valency itself means the ability of one verb to bind the core argument to the verb itself.In other word, the valency is the verb ability to require a particular argument, which approves certain semantic functions in a sentence. In MKL the valency changing strategy can be proccedthrough the composition of some verbs. In MKL the verbs formation composition is applied by combining three static verbs. Those verbs are the verbsame“take”,buang“throw”, and kasi “give”. In MKL some verbs will change the valency of that verbs by combining them with those three verbs. Those verbs are both the intransitive and transitive verbs.
Keywords: Malay Kupang Language, Valency Changing Strategy, Oblique, Core Arguments, Adjunct, Verb Composition.
[1]. Alsina, Alex; Bresnan Joan; & Sells Peter. 1997. Complex Predicates. California: Center for the Study of Language and Information Stanford Calofornia Publications.
[2]. Asridayani. (2018). Analysis of Verbal Construction and Mechanisms of Change in Validity of the Toba Batak Verb Language.
[3]. Binti, Renate Siwuh. 2011. Mapping the Core Arguments of the Dayak Ngaju Language Transitive Clause in Central Kalimantan. Thesis. Nusa Cendana University.
[4]. Djajasudarma, Fatimah. T. 1993. Linguistic Methods Threat Research Methods and Study. Bandung: PT.Eresco.
[5]. Hopper, Paul J., dan S. A. Thompson, 1982. SyntexandSemantics: Studies in Transitivity. (Volume 15). New York: AcademicPressInc.

Paper Title :: Impact of Outcome Based Education on teaching performance at higher education level in Pakistan
Author Name :: Gouhar Pirzada, Dr. Fariha Gull
Country :: Pakistan
Page Number :: 95-110
Outcome Based Education (OBE) is an educational theory that bases each part of an educational system around goals (outcomes). By the end of the educational experience, teachers enable each student to achieve the predefined goal. There is no single specified style of teaching or assessment in OBE, instead lectures, learning opportunities, and assessment methods are designed and implementedto help students achieve the specified outcomes. Outcome based assessments enable teachers to practically demonstrate the prospective learning for students. This is considered highly beneficial and supportive for students at higher education in developing their portfolios, which serve as evidences of gained learning to further enhance academic as well as professional pursuits. Enhancing teaching standards and academic performances are important strategic goals for any university or institute that offers higher education, specifically in context of Pakistan with presence of relatively fewer universities and higher population growth. It is important to analyze if outcome based education and outcome based assessment support Pakistani university or higher education teachers in enhancing their performance and academic standards.
[1]. Spady, W. (1994). Outcome-based education. Arlington, Va.: American Association of School Administrators.
[2]. Harden, R., Crosby, J. and Davis, M. (1999). Outcome-based education: Part 1-An introduction to outcome-based education. 21st ed. Dundee.
[3]. Harden, R. (2002). Developments in outcome-based education. Medical Teacher, 24(2), 117-120. doi: 10.1080/01421590220120669
[4]. ARhaffor, Kauthar. (2017). Students‟ Perception on Outcome-Based Education (OBE) Implementation: A Preliminary Study in UniKL MSI.

Paper Title :: A Contemporary Reinterpretation of Plato’s Notion of Reality
Author Name :: Felix Ayemere Airoboman
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 111-119
This essay is a contemporary rethinking and analysis of Plato‘s notion of reality and its implications for contemporary world. It traces the route to Plato‘s notion of reality to Heraclitus, Parmenides and Pythagoras, and then makes a briefsurvey of Plato‘s theories of Forms, the divided line, the allegory of the cave and reminiscence and draws the connections between them. The study locates the points of intersection betweenPlato‘s cave and the real world, and between Plato‘s time and contemporary time. It inquires into why people are attracted or dragged to unreality and why they often pitch tent with unreality and find it easier to adapt to it rather than to reality. It argues further that despite the problems associated with unreality, it has some relevance to those who are accustomed to it. It then inquires into possible difficulty which will characterize the lives of those who are already adapted to unreality when detached fromit -the bliss of falsehood - and exposed to the pain of truth.It contends that in concrete term appearance or unreality has some roles to play in the understanding of reality. It then explicates some of these roles. Conclusively, it cautions against being trapped in unreality because of the difficulties involved in detaching from it and in knowing that one is actually entrapped in it.
Keywords: Plato, appearance, reality, impairment of reality, contemporary world, relevance of unreality
[1]. Dawson, L. (1996). The Death of Reality. Idaho: The Paradigm Company.
[2]. Gaarder, J. (1996). Sophie’s World: A Novel about the History of Philosophy. New York: Berkley Books.
[3]. Gaukroger, S. (2003).Bacon.The Blackwell Companion to Philosophy.2Ed. N. Bunninand E. P. Tsui-James.Eds. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. 634-643.
[4]. Lamer, H. (2007).Plato's Cave and its Relevance to the Modern World. Retrieved from
[5]. Lavine, T.Z. (1984). From Socrates to Sartre. New York: Bantam Books.