Current Issue (Volume 02 - Issue 03)

Paper Title :: How to Interpret the Survival of the Chinese Communist Party since 1989 ?
A Literature Review by American and Chinese Scholars
Author Name :: Zhaohui Hong
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 01-09
Since 1989, American and Chinese scholars have engaged in debates about the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and China. The fact that both China and the CCP continue to survive contradicts many American scholars’ predictions that China or the CCP would collapse after 1989. This paper examines and reviews the literature contributed by American and Chinese scholars regarding the survival of the CCP in the past 30 years. It addresses five main issues related to the resilient Communist regime, the role of CCP’s democratic centralism in its survival, the effective procedure of the CCP’s political system, the checks and balances with the CCP’s characteristics, and the feasible action plans of intra-party reform. The article also discusses the existing literature about the CCP’s characteristics of the intraparty elections and the inherent checks and balances since 1989.
Keywords: Chinese Communist Party, intra-party elections, political reform, resilience
[1]. Cao, Siyuan. (2012). Three Suggestions for the CCP’s 18th National Congress. Caijing Blog. Retrieved July 2 from
[2]. ________. (2013). China's Political Transformation Path: National Constitutionalism and Inner-Party Democracy. Edited by Zhang Boshu, The Deadlock, Break up, and China's Democratic Transformation. Hong Kong: ChengzhongShuju, pp. 113-124.
[3]. Chang, G. G. (2001). The Coming Collapse of China. New York: Random House.
[4]. Chen, Hongtai. (2011). Taking the Theory of Scientific Development as the Guide to Actively and Steadily Promote the Reform of the Political System. The Frontline, 3(1): 1-9.
[5]. Chen, Yejun. (2009). Exploring the Roadmap for the Development of China's Democratic Politics--Yu Keping: The Minimum Cost and Best Way for Democratization in China. People's Network (Theory Channel). Retrieved on September 9 from

Paper Title :: Border Security Issues and Challenges of the Nigeria Customs Service
Author Name :: Babatunde Olomu, Alao, David Oladimeji, Eyitayo Adewumi
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 10-19
Regulating migration flows and containing border disputes remain central to border security agencies across the world. The reality, however, is that controlling access to territories and citizens is difficult in the globalised security context, as technology has enabled the increased flow of goods, people and ideas across national boundaries, while global inter-connectedness has increased interactions between people around the world whether for work, sport or entertainment. The paradox lies, therefore, in the increased relevance of the Customs service agency with regard to securing the nation‟s borders despite the fact that their position is being challenged by transnational security actors and vulnerabilities as well as well as numerous inherent weaknesses from within the agency itself. Thus, in order to counter threats both from within and outside a state border, new patterns of security interaction are required. It is on this basis the study not only intend at identifying the major challenges militating against border security in the Nigeria Customs Service but also, to proffer solutions through insightful suggestions and recommendations.
Keywords: Challenges, Border Security, Nigeria Customs Service.
[1]. Adekanye, J. Bayo. (1998). “Conflicts, Loss of State Capacities and Migration in Contemporary Africa”. Appleyard, R. (ed.) Emigration Dynamics in Developing Countries, Volume 1: Sub-Saharan Africa. Sydney: Ashgate.
[2]. Adeola, Gabriel L. and Fayomi, Oluyemi O. (2012). “The Political and Security Implications of Cross Border Migration between Nigeria and Her Francophone Neighbours”. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, Vol. 1, No. 3. 1-9.
[3]. Adeyinka, A. M. (2014). “Trans-Border Movement and Trading Activities across Nigeria– Benin Republic Border”. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences (MCSER) Publishing, Rome-Italy, Vol. 5, No. 1 (January). 415-423.
[4]. Akinyemi, O. (2013). “Globalization and Nigeria Border Security: Issues and Challenges”. International Affairs and Global Strategy, Vol. 11.
[5]. Asiwaju, A. I. and Nugent, P. (2011). “African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities”.

Paper Title :: Historical slavery sites and vestiges as a cultural resource for tourism to be promoted in the D R Congo
Country :: Republic of Congo
Page Number :: 20-38
African transatlantic slavery
The 400-year transatlantic slavery occurred in subsaharan Africa, including the Kongo kingdom and more specifically in the Muanda region in the D R Congo. While Gorée Island (Senegal), Saint Louis (Senegal), Saint Denis (Reunion Island), Joal, Portudal (in Portugal), Loango (Angola), etc. have developed cultural tourism upon slavery vestiges, the D R Congo has neglected Muanda zone despite the fact that local various slavery sites and historical vestigesare still subject of public curiosity. Therefore, they area true cultural heritage and social tourism resource to be exploited.
Historically speaking, during the colonial era until the 1960s, tourism was one of the three national income sources (i.e. mining industry, agriculture and tourism) in the belgian Congo. In this article, we highlight the cultural and historical touristic resource. It is a question of promoting historical vestiges related to the slave trade as an attraction or a tourism capital to valorize. It would be at the same time a right of memory for future generations.Unfortunately, in Muanda, DRC, field data showed a total state of abandonment of all slave sites and related remains, degraded by human activities and threatened by marine erosion and which could disappear if nothing is done. This article is therefore a wake-up call to raise national and international awareness based on field data. It is a pledge somewhat.
Keywords: Slave trade, pot, remains, Muanda, ecotourism, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
[1]. Actes du colloque national. La traite négrière, l‟esclavage et leurs abolitions : mémoire et histoire, Paris, le 10 mai 2006, 81 p. Voir Luiz-Felipe De Alencastro, sur „‟La traite des Noirs et l‟esclavage dans l‟Atlantique sud, le Brésil et l‟Angola, 23-30p.
[2]. Ambroise Tournyol du Clos, 2016: « La colonisation est-elle responsable des malheurs de l'Afrique ? », Conflits, hors-série no 3, printemps 2016, pp. 18-22.
[3]. Carlo Avierl Célius, « Haïti : histoire, mémoire, patrimoine », dans Anneaux de la mémoire, Haïti, matières premières, Nantes, Les cahiers des anneaux de la mémoire,n°6, Paris, Karthala, 2004, p. 198, cité par Jean Ronald Augustin, op.cit.
[4]. Chantal et Alain Huart : RDC, Pays magnifiques : Bas-congo, édité en Belgique par WEYRICH EDITION, 6840 Neufchâteau – Dépôt légal : D/2012/8631/2, ISBN 978-2-87489-127-4, 128P.
[5]. Comité Pour la Mémoire de l‟Esclavage (CPME), 2007 : Mémoires de la traite négrière, de l‟esclavage et de leurs abolitions. Rapport à Monsieur le Premier ministre de la République Française, Novembre 2007, pp8, 9, 42, 55… 126p.