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Volume 03 - Issue 11


Paper Title :: State, Government and Society: Reflection from the Weberian, Mercantilist and Statehood Theories
Author Name :: Johnson Marcelo Folleco Chalá || Mónica Alejandra Legarda Sevilla
Country :: Ecuador
Page Number :: 01-15
The purpose of this document is to establish the fundaments of the State, its bases through economic, social and political study, with the purpose of deducing the parameters that underpin the State and government structures; and that structure the basis for the conformation of modern states, which potentiate the vision of a better administration; compacted posture from the academy, based on responding adequately to social demands. In addition, the change of the social construct is analyzed from the conformation of the great empires, the formation of the feudal states, the conformation and consolidation of the modern states, the emergence of the national states and the concepts of nation to the approach of the States of well-being in open societies, which arose from absolutist structures to current democracies and, the challenges they face with globalization. It also analyzes the crisis of governance and governability in the administration of the State, which emerge from the ignorance of contextual and structural realities to encourage the approach of new state policies; to rethink the existing ones duly supported in the context of cyclical realities through a comparative model from the focal diversity of theories and treaties that allow establishing a diagnosis that puts into practice new processes that contribute to the success of new challenges.
Keywords: State, Government, Capitalism, Mercantilist, Statehood.
[1]. Auguste-Louis, & Loiseleur, A. (1833). www.upasika.com/. Recuperado el '4 de 07 de 2019
[2]. Cárdenas, R. M. (2008). El Libre Mercado o un Mercado Libre. Contribuciones a la Economia.
[3]. Carlos H. Acuña. (2007). Lecturas sobre el Estado y las Políticas Públicas. Buenos Aires: Proyecto de Modernización del Estado.
[4]. Evans, P. (marzo de 1996). El Estado como problema y como solución. (I. d. Social, Ed.) Desarrollo Económico, Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 529.
[5]. Evans, P. (2007). Instituciones y desarrollo en la era de la globalización neoliberal.

Paper Title :: Progressive Muscle Relaxation to Reduce Anxiety in Junior High School Students
Author Name :: Dedek Jannatul Makwa || Erny Hidayati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 16-22
Anxiety is potentially experienced by anyone, including students in an academic environment [3]. Some of the anxiety felt by students is when facing some less mastered subjects such as mathematics and English. Besides, students also feel anxious about teachers who have a way of teaching that tends to be fierce, assertive, and very disciplined. Students also feel anxious about facing class lessons when the learning media they have are incomplete. The anxiety experienced by students causes physical reactions such as increased heart rate, trembling, cold sweats, hot and weak bodies. Besides, the anxious experienced causes disruption of concentration while studying. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation in reducing anxiety experienced by students. The assessment methods used were individual interviews, Focus group discussion, and measurement of student anxiety using the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory) measurement tool. Participants are first-grade junior high school students. The intervention given showed that there were differences in anxiety levels before and after progressive muscle relaxation with a value of Z = -2.375 and a significance of p = 0.018 (p <0.05) using the test Wilcoxon. Based on the intervention evaluation sheet, participants stated that the reaction due to anxiety felt reduced, and the body felt more comfortable.
Keywords: Anxiety; adolescent; relaxation.
[1] Davis. M., Eshelman. E.R, McKay. M, The relaxation & stress reductionworkbook, Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC, Jakarta, 1988.
[2] Djiwandono S.E.W, Konseling dan terapi dengan anak dan orangtua, PT Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia, Jakarta, 2005.
[3] Firmantyo. T, Alsa. A, “Integritas akademik dan kecemasan akademik dalam menghadapi ujian nasional pada siswa,” Jurnal Penelitian Psikolog, 1(1), 1-11, 2017
[4] Hairina. Y, “Intervensi untuk mengatasi gangguan perilaku menentang anak dengan parent management training”, Jurnal Studi Gender dan Anak Vol. 1 No.1, 81-89, 2013
[5] Hollenstein. T, Lougheed. J.P, “Beyond storm and stress: typicality, transaction, timing, and temperamen to account for adolescent change” American Psychologist, 68(6), 444-454, 2013.

Paper Title :: Analysis of Teacher Perceptions in the Development of LIAA (Linguistic Intelligence Assessment Android) in Elementary Schools
Author Name :: Otang Kurniaman || Eddy Noviana || Munjiatun || Zufriady || Kurniawan
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 23-27
Technological developments in learning in elementary schools change teachers' perceptions of technology use in testing linguistic intelligence, therefore it is necessary to provide a survey using google form research instruments and analyzed using excel so that the percentage appears in the perceptions of teachers in the city of Pekanbaru. The results of this study the perceptions of teachers in the use of technology in the world of education are very often 52.10%, 45.80%, this illustrates that the use of technology among teachers is accustomed, but in testing linguistic intelligence it is very less with a percentage of 2.10%, and 8.30%, this gives a conclusion. that so far the teacher has tested using manuals in testing linguistic intelligence
Keywords: Perception, Linguistic Intelligence, LIAA (Linguistic Intelligence Assessment Android)
[1]. Astuti, N.P.E. (2020). Optimizing Children Gross Motoric Skill By Yoga Asana Practice In Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal PAJAR (Pendidikandan Pengajaran), 4(5), 926-936. DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.33578/pjr.v4i5.8032.
[2]. Armstrong, T. (2002). 7 Kinds of Smart. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Umum.
[3]. Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple Intelligences. (3rd Edition). Virginia, USA: Julie Houtz.
[4]. Dewi, D. S., &Wilany, E. (2019). Hubungan Antara Kecerdasan Linguistik Verbal Dan Kemampuan Membaca (The Relationship Between Verbal Linguistic Intelligence And Reading Comprehension). DIMENSI, 8 (1), 187-197.
[5]. Dispernaker. (2020). Peran Teknologipada Masa Pandemi Covid-19. http://dispernaker.salatiga.go.id/peran-teknologi-di-tengah-pandemi-covid-19/.

Paper Title :: Cultural Relations between Children and Adults: A Dialogue from the Sociology of Childhood
Author Name :: LIMA, Samantha Dias de || NASCIMENTO, Renata Cristina Lacerda Cintra Batista || RIBEIRO, Ana Sebastiana Monteiro
Country :: Brasil
Page Number :: 28-35
This theoretical essay aims to problematize the understanding of childhood(s) and child, as well as their cultural relationships in contemporary times, seen from the renewed perspective of the Sociology of Childhood. Childhood Studies is chosen as theoretical foundation, nearing in particular the Sociology of Childhood, through selected bibliographical references. The power of the child's cultural relationships with adults is shown as one of the possible ways to make contemporary children and childhoods visible, which must be taken into consideration by the institutions in which the child participates, such as family and school.
Keywords: Children. Childhoods. Adults. Cultural relationships. Social relationships.
[1]. ABRAMOWICZ, Anete. A pesquisa com crianças em infâncias e a Sociologia da Infância. In: FARIA, Ana Lúcia Goulart de; FINCO, Daniela (Orgs.). Sociologia da Infância no Brasil. Campinas, SP: Autores Associados, 2011. p.17-p36.
[2]. AGAMBEN, Giorgio. O que é contemporâneo? E outros ensaios. Chapecó, SC: Argos, 2009. 92 p.
[3]. BRASIL. Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional.. Ministério da Educação. Brasília, 1996.
[4]. BRASIL. Estatuto da criança e do adolescente. Lei nº 8.069, de 13 de julho de 1990. Brasília, Congresso Nacional, 1990.
[5]. BRASIL. Convenção sobre os Direitos da Criança. 4. ed. Brasília, DF: Câmara dos Deputados, 2003.

Paper Title :: The Future of Multilateralism with an Impact in World Economy Due to Covid 19
Author Name :: Nabonita Sen
Country :: India
Page Number :: 36-42
Covering and encompassing across the globe, multilateralism seems to be in an emergency crisis conciseness. Skepticism or cynicism welfare of the multilateral order grounded in cardinal or fundamental liberal principles revealing and displaying throughout the Western world, inside the European nations, Brexit and, discordance over the European Union‟s (EU) the future is under a shell that‟s causing damage to the EU as a regional multilateral pillar, bordering the supranational bloc‟s capacity as a global actor as well. Nonetheless, to say at the same time, a more forceful, and decisive rather confidently China and Russia are looking for the outlook, to reshape multilateralism, challenging the primitive liberal principles that have guided the post-Cold War multilateral order, to which the world has become habituated. The multilateral order has witnessed tremendous prosperity in the post cold war era having multilateral cooperation in presence. Yet to say, multilateralism can only operate in the geopolitical context within which it exists. The woeful return of great-power competition, so noticeably diminishing during the heralding decades, is dissolving the very key foundations on which the multilateralism of the post-Cold War era stood. Deep cascades and vulnerabilities have been created between democratic and authoritarian states. As states continue to cannon those channels, the United States and other democratic countries have moved toward a conception of multilateralism that defends democratic interests within existing, and even the new ones. The prospects of multilateralism at regional and global levels will also inspect and scrutinize ways in reforming the existing international organizations so they are better placed to get to grips with new global issues. The prospects of multilateralism as well as the adverse affects of COVID 19 will cover the area of discussion leading to democratic populism, economic slowdowns, stagnation of supply chains, unemployment, change in people‟s behavior, and how with effective, efficient and innovative strategies that we can expect for better running global governance.
Keywords: Future of Multilateralism, Transformation of Multilateral system, New actors, Multilateralism 2.0, Multi-polarity, World Economic Forum, shrinking of Economies, Unemployment, Power Politics, COVID 19, Uniting Of Nations.
[1]. Alan S Alexandroff, Andrew Fenton Cooper – Centre for International Governance Innovation, Woodrow Wilson School of Public &International Affairs, Project on the Future Multilateralism, 2010. Rising State, Rising Institutions: Challenges for Global Governance.
[2]. Michael Schechter, (Ed), Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. Future Multilateralism: The Political and Social Framework, p.1-2, 136
[3]. Mario Telò, Springer Netherlands, 2012. State, Globalization and Multilateralism: The Challenges of Institutionalizing Regionalism.
[4]. Stephen Gill, Palgrave MacMillan, 1997. Globalization, Democratization and Multilateralism. p. 2, 171-173.
[5]. German development institute, Silke weinlich, Sven Grimm: The future of Multilateralism, 8 January 2020.https://blogs.die-gdi.de/2020/01/08/multilateralism-without-future-or-the-future-of-multilateralism/

Paper Title :: Robert Filmer, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Controversies over the Power of the Monarchy in England in the 17th Century
Author Name :: Ibrahima Lô
Country :: Senegal
Page Number :: 43-49
The four major stages of the 17th century - Cromwell’s Revolution, the Republic, the Restoration, the Revolution of 1688 - laid bare the religious, economic and social quarrels that had constantly divided the English people. These quarrels fuelled the ideological debate of this century. This can be seen in some of the writings of the time. In fact, these turbulent events, which shook England deeply throughout the 17th century, provoked the reaction of great contemporary thinkers who, depending on their position in society, tried to justify the correctness of royal power: this was the case of Robert Filmer in his attempt to defend the divine rights of royal power; it was also the case of Thomas Hobbes with his justification of royal absolutism and that of John Locke in defense of the constitutional monarchy. This work attempts to demonstrate how these illustrious 17th century thinkers developed different theses to justify or reject the need for absolute royal power,
Keywords: royalabsolutism, monarchy, royal power, revolution, constitutional monarchy
[1]. Filmer, Sir Robert, Patriarcha, or the Natural Power of Kings [1680], LIBERTY FUND, INC. 8335 Allison Pointe Trail, Suite 300 Indianapolis, Indiana 46250-1684.
[2]. Hallowell, John H., The Moral Foundation of Democracy; University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1954
[3]. Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan, Edwin Curley. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Co. 1994
[4]. Vivet,Jean-Pierre, Mémoires sur le règne de Charles 1er in les Mémoires de l’Europe Tome III : l’Europe classique (1660-1763), Paris: Robert Laffont,1971
[5]. Johnson, Eric F., et. al., The Bedford Glossary for European History, Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007, p.21.

Paper Title :: Kupang City's Regional Water Supply Company (PDAM) Net Profit Model
Author Name :: Dwi Dersmi Selan || Ariyon Stefen Ndun || Joritha Naisanu
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 50-53
PDAM is a government-owned company that aims to provide public services to the community in meeting drinking water needs and is one of the sources of Local Revenue. The operating system carried out by the PDAM so far is the principle of Cost Recovery. The Cost Recovery Principle has the understanding that the company must be able to finance all of its own expenses by not using sources of financing outside the company. The management of the company is entirely the responsibility of the management of the PDAM Kupang City, starting from planning to all operational activities and reporting fully the responsibility of the management of the PDAM Kupang City. The researcher observes that net profit always increases every year and is directly proportional to the components of net profit that is increasing water sales every year and operational costs incurred also increase every year, where the increase in operational costs is highest due to an increase in employee costs that automatically affect the net profit for the period. The purpose of this study is: to find out the net profit model PDAM Kupang City. Data collection methods in this research are interview and documentation study. The population of this study is all Kupang PDAM PDAM financial reports, with a sample of the Kupang PDAM PDAM Profit and Loss report for 10 years. This type of research is quantitative descriptive, and the data analysis method used is multiples regression analysis (multiple). The results showed that: Analysis using a two-way t test showed that the variable sales volume and operating costs significantly affected the PDAM's net profit.
Keywords: water supply company, model, net profit
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[5]. Jusuf, Jopie. Buku Analisis Kredit Untuk Akun Officer. Jakarta : PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2018.

Paper Title :: Patent analysis and Research of haze control technology
Author Name :: Zhi Liping || Huang Yanyan
Country :: China
Page Number :: 54-59
in this paper, the 1956-2019 incopat patent database for patent retrieval about fog treatment technology at home and abroad, from the trend of the application for a patent for the annual, the types of the applicant, research subject, patent validity, technical means and regional distribution of Angle analysis, hope can through these retrieval and analysis of reference in the governance of fog weather in our country, and promote countermeasures.
Keywords: Haze control; Patent analysis; Countermeasures and Suggestions
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[2]. Ren Panjie, Li Xiaorui, Sheng Ruohong, Geng Yi, Fan Zhanchun. Analysis on causes of haze weather and countermeasures [J]. Environment and development,2017,29(08):200+202.
[3]. shen zhongzeng. The dilemma of citizen participation in haze governance and countermeasures [J]. Environment and development,2019,31(08):218-219.
[4]. Tang Decai, Li Zhijiang, Ying Cheung. Literature review and effectiveness analysis of haze control [J]. Ecological economy,2017,33(12):174-179.
[5]. Liao Lifang. Brief Analysis on Chinese Patent of Haze Prevention Technology [J]. Chinese Invention and Patent,2015(06):52.