Current Issue (Volume 01 - Issue 11)

Paper Title :: Increasing Employee Cohesion Utilizing a Low-Elements Challenge Course: A Case Study
Author Name :: Samuel S. Faulkner || Cynthia A. Faulkner || Marcie M. Cutsinger
Country :: Texas
Page Number :: 01-09
This case study discusses an intervention that utilizes a challenge course to increase employee cohesion among employees of a residential treatment center for adolescents. The 26 employees who participated in the challenge course were tested on their levels of cohesion both pre and post intervention. Results of the study indicate that employee cohesion was significantly increased immediately after participation in the challenge course intervention (t = 5.204, p<.001). In addition, a follow-up survey was completed by 19 of the original 26 participants. Results show that employee cohesion was not significantly different from the post-test six weeks after the intervention (t = 1.975, p < .064) thus indicating that the effect held six weeks post intervention.
[1]. Bell, B. J., & Hong, C. (2017). Outdoor Orientation Programs: A Critical Review of Program Impacts on Retention and Graduation. Journal Of Outdoor Recreation, Education & Leadership, 9(1), 56-68. doi:10.18666/JOREL-2017-V9-I1-7501
[2]. Bettmann, J. E., Scheinfeld, D. E., Prince, K. C., Garland, E. L., &Ovrom, K. V. (2018). Changes in psychiatric symptoms and psychological processes among veterans participating in a therapeutic adventure program. Psychological Services, doi:10.1037/ser0000213
[3]. Bowen, D., Neill, J., Williams, I., Mak, A., Allen, N., and Olson, C. (2016). A profile of outdoor adventure interventions for young people in Australia. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership,8, (11), pp. 26 – 40.
[4]. Clem, J. M., Smith, T. E., & Richards, K. V. (2012). Effects of a Low-Element Challenge Course on Abstinence Self-Efficacy and Group Cohesion. Research On Social Work Practice, 22(2), 151. doi:10.1177/1049731511423672
[5]. Crabtree, L. A., &Demchick, B. B. (2015). Young Adults on the Autism Spectrum: Perceived Effects of Participation in a University-Based Challenge Course Program in the Community. Occupational Therapy In Mental Health, 31(3), 253-265. doi:10.1080/0164212X.2015.1058209

Paper Title :: The Logical Linguistics: Logic of Phonemes and Morae Contained in Speech Sound Stream and the Logic of Dichotomy and Dualism equipped in Neurons and Mobile Neurons Inside the Cerebrospinal Fluid in Ventricular System Interacting for the Unconscious Grammatical Processing and Constitute Meaning of Concepts. (A Molecular Level Bio-linguistic Approach)
Author Name :: Kumon “Kimiaki” TOKUMARU
Country :: Japan
Page Number :: 10-48
This is an interdisciplinary integration on the origins of modern human language as well as the in-brain linguistic processing mechanism. In accordance with the OSI Reference Model, the author divides the entire linguistic procedure into logical layer activities inside the speaker‟s and listener‟s brains, and the physical layer phenomena, i.e. the speech sound stream or equivalent coded signals such as texts, broadcasting, telecommunications and bit data.
The entire study started in 2007, when the author visitedthe Klasies River Mouth (KRM) Caves in South Africafor the first time, the oldest modern human site in the world.The archaeological excavation in 1967-68 (Singer Wymer 1982) confirmed that (anatomically) modern humanshad lived inside the caves duringthe period120 – 60 Ka (thousand years ago), which overlaps with the timing of language acquisition, 75 Ka (Shima 2004). Following this first visitIstarted an interdisciplinary investigation into linguistic evolution and the in-brain processing mechanism of language through reading various books and articles.
The idea that the human language is digital was obtained unexpectedly. The Naked-Mole Rats (Heterocephalus glaber) are eusocial and altruistic. They live underground tunnel in tropical savanna of East Africa. (Wilson 2012) They are also naked like Modern Human with thin skin and thin hair, and are highly vocal known for their eusocially structured and altruistic society. But they have just a total of 17 different sound patterns in their communication. Such huge difference in vocabulary between modern humans and Naked Mole Rats forced me to think of the digitalsystem..
After 8 years of interdisciplinary research, I came to the conclusion that logical elements of phonemes and morae contained in the speech sound stream interact with sign (=word) memory represented by mobile neurons (= memory B-lymphocytes)inside the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the ventricular system. Phonemes and accents in speech (sound) are modern human uniquelogical properties in vocal sound. The transmitter for logical speech (sound)coincidently developed within two distinctive Neolithic cultures, Still Bay (72-71 Ka: thousand years ago) and Howiesons Poort (65-58 ka) both techno-complexesin the Middle Stone Age (MSA) in South Africa along its southern coastline
The spinal sign reflex mechanism of vertebrates is hypothesized as neuro-immune cell interaction inside the CSFof the ventricular system. The logic of dichotomy displayed in Antigen-Antibody responses (or Idiotypical Networks, Jerne 1974) cooperate with word stimuli. Human language uses the spinal reflex mechanism as a physical sound logical inner speech decoder.
The automatic grammatical processing is performed byconverting the sound localization function at the brainstem auditory nuclei, which explains the monaural sound audition of mother tongue speechwith the exception of Piraha. Piraha keeps binaural sound audition for the mother tongue speech, but without grammatical modulation.
The meaning of complex logical concepts for sciences is established through repetitive and extensive thought operations. It is advised to differentiate the usage of logical concepts in accordance with logical orders.
The future development of modern humans depends on how we correctly use language. Cartesian ―Cogito ergo sum‖ should be modified to“Words think: Concept devices representing individual word signs network inside the brain cerebrospinal fluid, which is thought.The more correct, accurate and appropriate words we use, the more correct our thoughts are and the further we advance.‖ Thereasoningof human beings does not exist as itself, but it can exist when we fully respect the accumulation of common human culture and represented in linguistic information asanintellectual genome and adjust the individual neural networks inside the CSF.
Keywords: Modern Human Evolution, Origin of Language, Laryngeal Descent, Monaural Audition of Mother Tongue, Automatic Grammatical Decoding, Complex Logical Concepts, Immune Networks, Cerebrospinal Fluid, Ventricle System, Dualism, Dichotomy
[1]. Alexander, R.D. et al. (1991) The Biology of the Naked Mole-Rat, Princeton Univ. Press
[2]. Allen W.F., Anatomy Formatio reticularis and reticulospinal tracts, their visceral functions and possible relationships to tonicity and clonic contractions, J. Washington Aca. Sci. 22(1932):490-495
[3]. Ambrose, S. (1998). Late Pleistocene human population bottlenecks, volcanic winter, and the differentiation of modern humans. J Human Evol 34: 623-651.
[4]. Arakawa, S., Gins, M., Mechanism of Meaning (1988) Abbeville Press
[5]. Cann, R.L., Stoneking, M. & Wilson, A.C. (1987) Nature, (London) 325,39

Paper Title :: Development Initiative Schemes on Major Rural Components of India
Author Name :: T. Amose || Capt. Dr. K.R. Jeyakumar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 49-58
Development of a nation cannot be determined only by the past and present trend of developing activities but aside it includes the way of initiation on developmental programmes to most backward societies in the country. As having forwarding trend in the developing country like India has many developmental programmes that planning to execute year by year by the direction of planning commission on allocation budgets. There are urban and rural regions that separates societies to be benefited by the commission. Here, the study mainly focuses the developmental programmes for the welfare of Indian rural societies by the allocation of resources in the budget list. There are several basic rural components that are need to be enlighted by the government supports. Moreover, this study classified the developmental initiative schemes on physical and non-physical catagory in rural part of the country. Physical category focuses health, nutrition and sanitation and non-physical category clearly deals social components like family, employment, education, economic, transport and energy.
Keywords: Rural, Scheme, Development, Programme, Resources.
[1]. 'India Rural-Population', Trading Economics,
[2]. '321 Medical Stores For Poor In 8 Years. Govt Promises 3,000 In 8 Months', India Spend,
[3]. National Health Mission, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India,
[4]. Sujatha, 'Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY)', My India,
[5]. Neeraj Bajpai, 2015, 'Modi govt moves to rectify lacunae in rural health architecture', Press Information Bureau, Government Of India,

Paper Title :: Influence of Stress on Job Performance of Female Lecturers in Tertiary Institutions in Rivers State
Author Name :: Deebom, MtormaBari TamBari || Nwiiku, Bethel Barinaadaa || Momta, Philip NukebaBari
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 59-66
The study examined the influence of stress on job performance of female lecturers in tertiary institutions in Rivers State. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A population of 38 female lecturers comprising of 29 married and 9 unmarried was used for the study. Due to the small population size, the entire 38 female lecturers were used; hence there was sampling. Three research questions were answered with corresponding hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument that guided the study was tagged “Female Lecturers Opinion on Stress and Job Performance Questionnaire” which was used to collect data for the study. This instrument was partitioned into three sections of A, B and C after Likert 5-point rating scale agreement. The instrument was faced validated by two experts in Measurement and Evaluation. The reliability of the instrument was determined through Cronbach Alpha Reliability method which a coefficient of 0.86. Mean with Standard Deviation was used to answer the research questions while independent sample t-test statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses that were formulated. The study found among others that female TVET lecturers suffer from stresses that originate from different sources such as delaying/lack of promotion, constant road traffic, high cost of living, pressure from children, poor transportation system and so on. The study also found that stress affects female TVET lecturers’ job performance. Therefore, the study recommended among others that the institutions management should consider the female lecturers in providing campus accommodation to the interested ones as this will help in reducing stress due long distance travelling and traffic road congestion and that management of tertiary institutions should organize public awareness programmes campaign through seminars, conferences; workshops and adequate communication system on how stress can be reduce among female lecturers.
Keywords: Stress, Job Performance, Female Lecturers, Occupational Status
[1]. Adeyemo, O. & Ogunyemi, S. A. (2005). Stress appraisal and management in Nigerian universities. Ife Psychologia: An International Journal of Ife: Centre for Psychological studies, 9(12), 54-70.
[2]. Ahsan, N.A. (2009). Study of job stress on satisfaction among university staff in Malaysia: Empirical study. European Journal of Social Science, 8(1); 121-132.
[3]. Akinmayowa, J. T. (2009). Time and stress management. Nigerian Journal of Business Administration, 10 (1), 25-42.
[4]. Akinpelu, O.F. & Jekayinfa, A. A. (2000). Social implications of dysfunctional strategies regarding women and promotion of leadership positions: A case study of university of Ilorin. A paper presented at the national conference of national association of women academics, Abuja, 4th – 10th September.
[5]. Amina, A. U. & Raymond, B. (2014). Relationship of stress among university lecturers in Nigeria. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19 (1), 98-104.

Paper Title :: A Multimodal Analysis of Selected Placards From the #Bring Back our Girls Campaign Discourse on Twitter
Author Name :: Febisola Olowolayemo Bright
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 67-76
BBOG has remained the most articulate group clamouring for the release of the 276 girls abducted by Boko Haram in Chibok on April 14, 2014. Existing studies on the BBOG protest have focused on Critical Discourse Analysis, pragmatics and sociological theories, but with little attention to the multimodal interpretations inherent in placards used during BBOG‟s campaigns on the social media. As a result of this, multimodal analyses of selected placards from BBOG‟s Twitter page were examined with a view to discovering different semiotic interpretations inherent in placards used to campaign for the release of the abducted Chibok girls. Kress and van Leeuwen‟s Multimodal Discourse Analysis was used to analyse ten pictures containing twenty one placards which were purposively selected from BBOG‟s Twitter page. At the ideational level, the placards were used by parents of the abducted girls, members of the BBOG and international advocacy groups to campaign for the release of all the girls abducted by Boko Haram. At the interpersonal and textual levels, the placards were used as tools to condemn the continued captivity of the abducted Chibok girls and other heinous attacks by Boko Haram sect. They were also used to urge the government to facilitate the release of all the abducted Chibok girls and end the security challenges evident in the country.
Keywords: BBOG, placards, Multimodal Discourse Analysis
[1]. Ahmed, U. (2015). A discourse analysis of the reports of “Bring Back Our Girls”campaign in Nigerian newspapers. M.A. Thesis, Department of Information Technology, Modibbo Adamawa University of Technology. xvii + 156pp.
[2]. Ahmed, Y. & Eje, M.B. (2015). A discourse analysis of Goodluck Jonathan‟s response to the kidnapping of the Chibok Girls. Covenant Journal of Language Studies 3(2), 39-53.
[3]. Bright, O.F. (2018) Blame tactics and multimodality in the discourse on the Chibok girls‟ abduction in selected Nigerian private print and electronic media. (Unpublished doctoral thesis), Department of English, University of Ibadan.
[4]. Chiluwa, I. & Ifukor, P. (2014). ‘War against our children‟: Stance and evaluation in #BringBackOurGirls campaign discourse on Twitter and Facebook. Discourse and Society (26)3.
[5]. Kress, G. & Van Leeuwen, T. (1996/2006). Reading images: The grammar of visual design. London/New York: Routledge.

Paper Title :: Internet Penetration and Diffusion - A Comparative Study of Online and Offline Newspaper Reader’s Preferences
Author Name :: Preeti Singh
Country :: India
Page Number :: 77-88
Newspapers have become a way of life. People read it, be it at home or office. It is estimated that 2.7 billion people around the world read newspapers in print (WAB-IFRA). [1] However, the mode of reading a newspaper has changed over a period of time and particularly with the internet penetration. Developing economies, like India, which are ahead in the internet distribution and its utilization has given newspaper readers multiple options to satisfy their urge for information. In the western countries the statistics reveal that printed newspaper circulation on an average continue to decline. However, globally daily print newspaper circulation has grown by 5 percent in 2016-17. The increase of 5 percent in Global Print market is largely the result of robust print markets in India and other countries in Asia. [1] Research has shown that developed countries preferred to read the online version of print media. The current study is taken up to understand a. consumer‟s inclination of online-offline newspaper readership, b. consumer‟s language preference of newspaper online and offline, c. the ease of reading between online and offline newspaper among readers. The methodology adopted is online questionnaire survey which was held among general readers.
Keywords: online newspaper, offline newspapers, internet penetration, reader‟s prefer
[1]. World Press Trends Database
[2]. Indian Readership Survey IRS 2017 Release Notes
[3]. Internet in India – 2016 An IAMAI & KANTAR IMRB Report
[4]. Economic Times- Internet users in India expected to reach 500 million by June: IAMAI - Internet Trends 2016 Code Conference, Mary Meeker, June 2016
E-Marketers, Online News Reader Demographics. Reader-Demographics/1006496 [5]. SiddheshThadeshwar, Prof.AmolJoglekar; Impact of Online News Media on Consumption Habits of People

Paper Title :: Firearms-Friendly: Lax State Gun Laws and Firearms Fatalities: Inventing an Index of State Firearms Permissiveness
Author Name :: Thomas F. Brezenski
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 89-94
It is no secret that the United State has had an epidemic of gun violence long before the horrific episodes of Columbine, Sandy Hook, Las Vegas, Parkland and Jacksonville. Only recently have state policy makers begun to take notice of the rising tide of anti-firearm violence sentiment and put forth a number of policy measures to ameliorate the level of violence amidst bitter opposition from the gun lobby led by the National Rifle Association (NRA). Gun control opponents are quick to argue that it is not policy that matters but social problems such as lack of care for the mentally ill. The feeling here is that policy does matter and that the more permissive a state is with its firearms policies the higher the firearms fatality rate per capita will be. Using data from 2014, a year in which data for all variables was available akin to the work published on an investigation of the Parkland shootings (Brezenski, 2018) an index (Firearm Permissiveness Index or FPI) was constructed and tested using state positions on key firearms policy measures.
Keywords: state gun laws, Firearms Permissiveness Index, school shootings, gun violence, gun control
[1]. Brezenski, T. F. (2018, Spring-Summer). Inside the 23rd Congressional District (FL) Gun Violence Task Force: Real-Time Crisis Policymaking in the Wake of the Marjory Stoneman Douglas School Shootings. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 10(1-2), 35 - 49.
[2]. Brezenski, T. F. (2018a). From Parkland to Jacksonville: Firearms Mortality and Local Preemptions. Florida Political Chronicle, v. 26(1) 19 - 25.
[3]. Dokoupil, T. (2016, June 16). Family of AR-15 Inventor Eugene Stoner: He Didn’t Intend It For Civilians. NBC 1-12
[4]. Dougherty, M. (2011). Small Arms Visual Encyclopedia. London: Amber Books Ltd.
[5]. Jones, B. (2013, November 1). Another AR-15 rampage? Here are the facts about America’s most popular rifle. Business Insider, I.

Paper Title :: Investigation the Relationship of Emotional Intelligence and Life Satisfaction between Physically Active and Non Active Adults
Author Name :: Rokka, S., Goulimaris, D., Mavridis G., Filippou, F., Bebetsos E.
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 95-103
The concept of EI is becoming increasingly important in the field of physical activity, since it is connected to better spiritual, psychological and physical health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and life satisfaction regarding people who participated in recreational activities and people who were physically inactive and to explore any differences in relation to the above parameters. The sample of the research consisted of 318 healthy adults aged from 30 to 50 (Μ= 42.3; SD = ± 6.84). In order to conduct the study the following instruments were used: the Greek Scale of Emotional Intelligence (GEIS; Tsaousis, 2008) which consisted of 52 items grouped into four factors: use of emotion, caring and empathy, control of emotion and expression and recognition; and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Grob et al., 1996). The reliability analysis showed that indicators of internal cohesion of subscales in both instruments were at satisfactory levels. The correlation analysis revealed that there is a statistically significant positive relation between life satisfaction and the factors of EI. The Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed that the participants in traditional dance activities presented higher values in life satisfaction and scored significantly higher in the four factors of EI. Consequently, this study confirms that participating in recreational activities enhances spiritual health and contributes to the management of E.I.
Keywords: use of emotion, life satisfaction, traditional dance activities, sedentary life.
[1]. Alpert, P. (2011). The Health Benefits of Dance. Home Health Care‟s Management & Practice, 23, 155-157.
[2]. Al Sudani, A.D., & Budzynska, K. (2015). Emotional Intelligence, Physical Activity and Coping with Stress in Adolescents. International Journal of Science Culture and Sport (IntJSCS), 3(2), 98-104.
[3]. Andrijasevic, M. (2010). Kinesiological recreation with music and dance. Acta Kinesiological, 4, 7-12.
[4]. Arribas-Galarraga, S., Saies, E., Cecchini, J.A., Arruza, J.A., & Luis-De-Cos, I. (2017). The relationship between emotional intelligence, self-determined motivation and performance in canoeists. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 12(3), 630-639. doi: 10.14198/jhse.2017.123.07
[5]. Bar-On, R., & Parker, J. D. (2000). Bar On emotional quotient inventory: Youth version. Technical manual. New York: Multi-Health Systems.