Volume 07 - Issue 07

Paper Title :: Training and Experience of Portuguese Special Education Teachers in the Context of Pedagogical Differentiation and Inclusion (Descriptive Study)
Author Name :: Ernesto Candeias Martins || Regina Aparecida F. Caló Canteiro
Country :: Portugal
Page Number :: 01-13
We address the issue of the challenges of training (initial, continued) and practical experience of the Portuguese teaching profession (special education), in the context of pedagogical differentiation and inclusive schools. We carried out a mixed methodology study with quantitative preponderance, of an exploratory, transversal, descriptive, explanatory and analytical nature, carried out in 2023. We constituted a sample of N=72 teachers from the 2nd and 3rd Education Cycles of two School Groups, in the interior area northern Portugal, applying a questionnaire survey (20 items), combined with data obtained from documentary observation, non-participant observation and semi-structured interviews with those responsible. The statistical treatment of the data (Chi-square, Fisher's test) from the survey and the content analysis of the interviews allowed the verifiability of the questions asked: Analyze 'Being an inclusive teacher' (profile) in pedagogical practice and engagement with students ( SEN) in its teaching-learning process in two School Groups; Know the opinions of 2nd and 3rd cycle teachers, special education teachers and technicians from these Groups studying education and/or inclusive schools; Understand the teaching profession (identity) in the context of special education and its training (initial, continuing) with regard to school inclusion and inclusive learning; To know whether teacher training and the practical actions of the inclusive teacher imply better success for students in these School Groups; Determine whether the measures implemented by the Groups promote school inclusion, coexistence and training for citizenship. The results of the survey and interviews confirmed that teachers have skills referred to in the legal regulations, and the percentages of responses agreeing on the skills referred to by special education teachers show this relevance, mentioning whether: -specialized resource pedagogical differentiation strategies; -in collaboration with all regular teachers and leaders; -promote collaborative work with co-responsibility; -articulate with specialist technicians the differentiation of means, learning and assessment materials”; use specialized resources to implement learning; be a member of the learning support center and a teacher for all students at the school. Thus, the study confirms that teachers apply different practices when it comes to interacting with students and promoting inclusion, having training that improves with teaching experience.
Keywords:Teacher training; Special education; Inclusive school; Pedagogical differentiation; Inclusive practice.
[1]. Agência Europeia para o Desenvolvimento da Educação Especial (2012) Perfil do Professor Inclusivo. Odense, Dinamarca: Agência Europeia para o Desenvolvimento da Educação Especial. ISBN (Eletrónico): 978-87-7110-354-0. Disponível no site:
[2]. Ainscow, M. S. (2009). Inclusive education: the way of the future: final report Paris: UNESCO In: International Conference on Education, 48th Session, Geneva, Switzerland, 25-28 November
[3]. Ainscow, M. S. (2019). Todas as Escolas são inclusivas, em determinado grau. Revista de Educação Inclusiva, 10(2), p. 7-10.
[4]. Ainscow, M. S. (2020). Promoting inclusion and equity in education: lessons from international experiences. Nordic Journal of Studies in Educational Policy, 6:1, p. 1-16,
[5]. Ainscow, M. S. & Messiou, K. (2016). Learning from differences: A strategy for teacher development in respect to student diversity. School Effective ness and School Improvement, 27(1), p. 45-61.

Paper Title :: Integrating Outcome-Based Education into the Undergraduate Mathematics Curriculum
Author Name :: Adefisayo Ojo
Country :: US
Page Number :: 14-21
This article explores the integration of Outcome-Based Education (OBE) into the undergraduate mathematics curriculum, with a particular focus on its application for engineering students. OBE is a student-centered approach that emphasizes achieving specific learning outcomes rather than simply covering a prescribed curriculum. The paper reviews the theoretical foundations of OBE, discusses its benefits and challenges, and examines case studies of successful implementation in higher education institutions. Key strategies for integrating OBE include defining clear and measurable learning outcomes, designing aligned assessments, and providing professional development for faculty. The study highlights the positive impacts of OBE on student engagement, critical thinking, problem-solving skills, and overall academic achievement. Despite challenges such as resistance to change and resource constraints, OBE has the potential to significantly enhance the quality and relevance of mathematics education. This paper provides a comprehensive framework for educators and institutions aiming to adopt OBE, ensuring better preparation of students for their future careers and academic endeavors.
Keywords: Outcome-Based Education (OBE), Undergraduate Mathematics Curriculum, Student-Centered Learning, Educational Assessment
[1]. Adam, S. (2004, July). Using learning outcomes. In Report for United Kingdom Bologna Seminar (pp. 1-2).
[2]. Biggs, J. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher education, 32(3), 347-364.
[3]. Biggs, J., Tang, C., & Kennedy, G. (2022). Teaching for quality learning at university 5e. McGraw-hill education (UK).
[4]. Bloom, B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals. Susan Fauer Company.
[5]. Boud, D., & Falchikov, N. (2006). Aligning assessment with long‐term learning. Assessment & evaluation in higher education, 31(4), 399-413.

Paper Title :: The Role of Environmental Surroundings in Shaping Feelings, Moods and Behaviors - A Qualitative Analysis
Author Name :: Trisha Akula
Country :: India
Page Number :: 22-31
Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that studies the relationship between human beings and the external environment. It explores the effects of the physical environment on human behavior. This study aimed at understanding the influence of environmental factors on people‟s moods, feelings and behaviors. Interviews consisting of 10 open-ended questions were conducted on five participants, 2 males and 3 females with ages ranging from 21-23, in different environmental settings: room, street, store room, cafe and party. Analysis of the responses indicated that factors in the environment like sound, visuals, spacing, time played a role in the participants‟ moods, emotions and behaviors.
Keywords: Environment- settings, Environmental perceptions, moods, behaviors
[1]. Steg, L., & De Groot, J. I. M. (2019). Environmental Psychology : An Introduction (2nd ed.).WILEY.
[2]. Bechtel, R.B. and Churchman, A. (2002). Handbook of Environmental Psychology. New York, NY: Wiley.
[3]. Bell, P.A., Green, T.C., Fisher, J.D., and Baum, A. (2001). Environmental Psychology, 5e. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
[4]. Fleury‐Bahi, G., Pol, E., and Navarro, O. (2017). Handbook of Environmental Psychology and Quality of Life Research. Cham: Springer.
[5]. Pelgrims, I., Devleesschauwer, B., Guyot, M., Keune, H., Nawrot, T. S., Remmen, R., ... & De Clercq, E. M. (2021). Association between urban environment and mental health in Brussels, Belgium. BMC public health, 21, 1-18.

Paper Title :: On Becoming Student Leaders the First Time: The Transition Experiences of Neophyte Student Officers
Author Name :: Philip Jay P. Leaño || Noli F. Villareal || Wilter C. Friales
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 32-43
The study aims to gain insights into the transition experience of neophyte students from being non-officers into being an officer at Notre Dame of Marbel University. In this study, five (5) participants underwent an in-depth interview about their transition experience. The research design that was utilized for this study was a Qualitative Design with a Phenomenological approach. Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, it‘s being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object. Using thematic analysis, the researchers transcribed the interview recordings and used the strategy of clustering themes to easily group answers that are similar to each other. Through this, a general theme and a minor theme were generated out of all the participant‘s answers. The essence of the phenomenon, insights, and implications were also added to further explain the transition process.
As a result, themes were taken and the researchers found out that the transition experience of neophyte officers revolved around being able to uncover the potential to become leaders.
Keywords: Transition, Neophytes, Leadership, Student Officers
[1]. Allio, R. J. (2005). Leadership development: teaching versus learning. Management Decision, 43(7/8), 1071–1077.
[2]. Anderson, M. L., Goodman, J., Schlossberg, N. K., & Goodman, J. (). Counseling adults in transition.
[4]. Black, R., Walsh, L., Magee, J., Hutchins, L., Berman, N., & Groundwater-Smith, S. (2014). Student leadership: A review of effective practice groundwater-smith foundation for.
[5]. Bridges, W. (1991, 2003, 2009, 2017). Managing Transition [Review of Managing Transition]. Mindtools; Da Capo Lifelong Books, an imprint of Perseus Books, LLC, a subsidiary of Hachette Book Group, Inc.

Paper Title :: The Congress led Student Movement in West Bengal: (1947-77)
Author Name :: Dr. Arindam Datta
Country :: India
Page Number :: 44-50
During the post independent period, the then Congress Government advised the students not to involve in party politics in their student life. The then central Government proposed to form a non-political student organization in different colleges and universities, so that the students could raise their education related problems. The Government proposed to form National Union of Students (NUS) which, according to them would act as a platform of all students of different views. NUS generated a crucial debate among different students‟ unions. During fifties and early sixties of the last century NUS issue intensified a great controversies among the students. Left students organizations did not wholeheartedly accept this proposal but the Congress minded students were bound to accept it. However, during fifties Communist led Students‟ organization BPSF occupied the crucial position in the student movement of the state. The rapid growth of the BPSF among the students of West Bengal caused the headache of the Congress leadership. Ultimately a separate student association for the Congress students was formed in 1954, named, Chhatra Parisad (C.P). this paper seeks to explore the relationship between the Congress and the C.P during 1960-72. these twelve years were full of major events in West Bengal politics. During this time the students‟ movement of the state had been passing through a critical juncture. This paper intends to narrate the role of the C.P in West Bengal politics during the period under review.
Keywords: AISF, AISC, Chhatra Congress, Chhatra Parisad, USO, BPSF, NUS, Congress, PDA, Emergency.
[1]. Bhattacharya Shyamal, Chhatra Parisad: Ekti Bhinnya Dharar Chhatra Sangramer Itikotha in Roy Samir (ed) Chhatra Parisad- Subarna Jayanti Barsa Utjapan O Punarmilan Utsav Saranika (Golden Jubilee Volume of Chhatra Parisad), Calctta, 2004, p.45
[2]. Ibid,p,45
[3]. Amrita Bazar Patrika, December 4, 1962
[4]. Ibid,
[5]. Das Munshi Priyo Ranjan, Atiter Kichhu Kotha, in Roy Samir (ed) Chhatra Parisad- Subarna Jayanti Barsa Utjapan O Punarmilan Utsav Saranika (Golden Jubilee Volume of Chhatra Parisad), Calctta, 2004, p.70

Paper Title :: Points to be Considered While Deciding the Age of Admission to a Montessori School
Author Name :: Dr Shashi Rekha M
Country :: India
Page Number :: 51-53
Preschool education in India was neglected till 2020. The Right to Education Act, although mandated compulsory education for all children from 6 to 14 years, omitted preschool. Thus, Admission to preschools was optional, and parents had the freedom to admit their children at any age. This resulted in same-age children being in different classes. The National Education Policy 2020 instructs the admission age for formal schooling to be between 6 and 7 years and insists on three years of preschool before entering the formal school. This ambiguous age of admission has confused the parents and has prevented them from admitting their children to nursery school. The current paper argues the importance of admitting children to a Montessori school around 2 ½ years of age.
[1]. Kaul, V., Chaudhary, A. B., & Sharma, S. (2015). Quality and Diversity in Early Childhood Education: a view from Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Rajasthan Execu#ve Summary. New Delhi: Centre for Early Childhood EducaOon and Development (CECED)
[2]. Montessori, M. (2018). Education for a New World. Amsterdam: Montessori - Pierson Publishing Company
[3]. Standing, E. (1957). Maria Montessori - Her life and work. California: Holli & Carter Limited.
[4]. Montessori, M. (2016). The Absorbent Mind. Amsterdam: Montessori-Pierson Publishing Company.
[5]. Karoly, L. A., Greenwood, P. W., Everingham, S. S., Hoube, J., Kilburn, M. R., Rydell, C. P., . . . Chiesa, J. (1998). Investing in Our Children: What we know and don't know about the costs and benefits of early childhood interventions. California: RAND.

Paper Title :: The Last Thirty Years of Turkish Political History
Author Name :: Aniello Orefice
Country :: Italy
Page Number :: 54-57
To better analyze the last thirty years of Turkish politics we must do so by considering a central figure: Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. A long-time political activist and Islamic fundamentalist, he began his career in 1976, when he became head of a youth section of the National Salvation Party. However, he obtained his first position in Turkish politics in 1991, when he was elected to parliament, but he did not enter it for technical reasons. This was followed three years later by his appointment as mayor in his hometown of Istanbul, where he dealt with problems that had been unsolved for decades such as: the management of waste collection, the resolution of traffic with the construction of bridges, highways, and aquifer conduits. for water problems. However, in 1997 following the Memorandum, Prime Minister Erbakan was forced to resign, while Erdoğan was found guilty of inciting religious hatred for having uttered the verses of Ziya Gökalp: “The mosques are our barracks, the domes our helmets, the minarets our bayonets and the faithful our soldiers”.
[1]. COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION (2005), “2678th Council Meeting General Affairs and External Relations General Affairs”. European Union
[2]. MATTERA, O (2006), The Mediterranean and the Middle East”. University of Trieste editions.
[3]. NOCERA, L (2011), “Contemporary Turkey: from the Kemalist republic to the AKP government.” Carocci Publisher.
[4]. DONELLI, F. (2012) “Turkey's Ottoman rootsANDrdoğan. Open Edition Journals
[5]. CARDONI M., MARINO A. (2014): Turkey in Africa: a new model of regional partnership.

Paper Title :: The Importance of Wearable Technologies in Sports
Author Name :: Turan Başkonuş
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 58-61
The aim of this study is to investigate the use of wearable technologies in sports and their significance for athletes. Within this scope, wearable technologies, their applications in sports, and their importance for athletes have been examined based on relevant literature and research findings in this field. Wearable technologies are devices designed to monitor user performance, collect health data, and optimize training processes. In recent years, the use of such technologies in sports has rapidly increased, offering athletes numerous advantages. Key benefits provided by wearable technologies to athletes include performance monitoring, injury risk reduction, enhancement of training efficiency, and monitoring of overall health. Performance monitoring allows athletes to analyze data obtained during training and competitions, enabling them to develop more informed and targeted training programs. This also provides athletes with the opportunity to evaluate their own performance as well as that of their competitors. Another significant advantage offered by wearable technologies is the reduction of injury risk. These devices monitor athletes' body movements and biomechanical data, thereby identifying potential injury risks in advance and facilitating measures to protect athletes' health. Furthermore, wearable technologies play an important role in enhancing training efficiency by monitoring athletes' daily training loads, sleep patterns, and nutrition habits, thus enabling personalized training programs. This study conducts a literature review on the importance of wearable technologies for athletes and examines findings from research conducted in this area. In conclusion, wearable technologies have been found to significantly contribute to enhancing athletes' performance, reducing injury risks, and monitoring overall health. Therefore, the use of wearable technologies in sports will continue to be an indispensable part of sports sciences and training processes in the future.
Keywords: Sports, Technology, Wearable technologie
[1]. Adesida, Y., Papi, E., & McGregor, A. H. (2019). Exploring the role of wearable technology in sport kinematics and kinetics: A systematic review. Sensors, 19(7), 1597.
[2]. Albayrak, Ö. & Erkayman, B. (2018). “Bulanık dematel ve edas yöntemleri kullanılarak sporcular için akıllı bileklik seçimi.” Ergonomi. 1(2), 92–102.
[3]. Aroganam, G., Manivannan, N., & Harrison, D. (2019). Review on wearable technology sensors used in consumer sport applications. Sensors, 19(9), 1983.
[4]. Atasoy, B., & Kuter, F. Ö. (2005). Küreselleşme ve spor. Uludağ Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 18(1), 11-22.
[5]. Barfield, W., & Caudell, T. (2001). Basic concepts in wearable computers and augmented reality. In Fundamentals of wearable computers and augmented reality (pp. 19-42). CRC Press

Paper Title :: Transition from a Classroom Teacher to a School Head: The Case of Millennial School Heads in the Philippines
Author Name :: Lorie Mae M. Ende || Wilter C. Friales
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 62-100
This study on Millennial School Heads‟ Experience of Transition from a Classroom Teacher to a School Head in the Division of South Cotabato, Philippines is a single holistic case study describing Millennial School Heads journey of transitioning from a classroom teacher to a school head in three phases namely, pre-transition, integration, and adaptation. Their challenges and coping mechanisms in every phase were also explored. In-depth interviews were used to gather data which were coded, analyzed and interpreted using inductive thematic analysis. The first part describes their experiences during the pre-transition phase; the second describes the integration phase; The third part is their experiences in transitioning at an early stage of their lives as school heads and the other parts are the challenges and coping mechanisms. The themes are affirmations of the distinct practices of the Millennial school heads in transitioning from a classroom teacher to a school head.
Keywords: Transition from a classroom teacher to a school head; Millennial School Head; Case Study, Single Holistic.
[1]. Adams, D., &Muthiah, V. (2020). School Principals And 21st Century Leadership Challenges: A Systematic Review. Journal of Nusantara Studies (JONUS), 5(1), 189-210.
[2]. Alcantara, G., Alvarez, J., Gabriel, A., (2020). How do Millennial Managers Lead Older Employees? The Philippine Workplace Experience. Sage Journal.
[3]. Antonio O.C., Gabriel, A., Obispo, C., Jacoba, F., & Claudio, S.(2022). Exploring the leadership behaviors of millennial community leaders during the pandemic: The Case of the Science City of Muñoz in the Philippines. Masyarakat, Kebudayaan dan Politik.
[4]. Bridges, W. (1991, 2003, 2009, 2017) 'Managing Transitions,' Da Capo Lifelong Books, an imprint of Perseus Books, LLC, a subsidiary of Hachette Book Group, Inc.
[5]. Crumbley, JL III. (2021). Millennial Leadership: A phenomenological Assessment into the Preparedness of the Millennial Leader. Northcentral University ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2021. 28648103.

Paper Title :: Increase Ability Solution Issues and Disposition Mathematical Middle School Students with Learning Models Cooperative Type of Trade a Problem
Author Name :: Adelia Andrea Cahyani || Satrio Wicaksono Sudarman || Yeni Rahmawati ES || Sudarman || Nego Linuhung
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 101-107
Mathematics learning still uses a conventional teacher-centered learning model. Meanwhile, students are less actively involved and find it difficult to understand the questions given so their self-confidence and persistence in solving problems decreases. The research objective to be achieved is to improve problem-solving abilities and mathematical disposition in learning by using the trade a problem type cooperative learning model for junior high-level students at MTs Baitul Kirom, South Lampung for the 2023/2024 academic year. This form of research uses a Classroom Action Research (PTK) design which is carried out in 2 cycles. The subjects of this research were class VIII B students at MTs Baitul Kirom, South Lampung in 2023/2024. The research instruments used were a questionnaire on the student's mathematical disposition scale and cycle test questions. Based on the results and discussion, it can be seen that: (1) the percentage increase in problem-solving ability completion from the pre-survey was 20.97%, increasing to 51.6% in cycle 1, then increasing to 80.65% in cycle 2. (2) increase The percentage of mathematical disposition from the pre-survey was 25.8%, increasing to 64.52% in cycle 1, then increasing to 93.55% in cycle 2. Thus, there was an increase in students' mathematical problem-solving abilities and mathematical disposition from cycle I to cycle II. Based on the information above, it can be concluded: (1) The application of the trade a problem type cooperative learning model can improve the mathematical problem-solving abilities of class VIII B students at MTs Baitul Kirom for the 2023/2024 academic year. (2) The application of the trade-a-problem type cooperative learning model can improve the mathematical disposition of class VIII B students at Mts Baitul Kirom for the 2023/2024 academic year.
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[2]. Hasanah, Z. Learning Model Cooperative in Grow Liveliness Study Student. IRSYADUNA: Journal of Student Affairs, 1(1), p. 1-13, 2021.
[3]. Maharani, S., Bernard, M. Analysis Connection Resilience Mathematics To Ability Solution Problem Students on Circle Material. Journal Learning Mathematics Innovative, 1(5), p. 819-826, 2018.
[4]. Pratama, DO Analysis Ability Solution Issues and Disposition Mathematical Student Class VIII SMP Negei 01 Seluma. Thesis No published. Bengkulu: Faculty of Tadris and Teacher Training IAIN Bengkulu, 2021.
[5]. Asmara, USA Improvement Ability Solution Issues and Disposition Mathematical Vocational school students with Learning Based Problem In the form of Interactive Multimedia. Pasundan Journal of Mathematics Education, 6(2), p. 13-27, 2016.

Paper Title :: Psychomotor Assessment Construction in Teacher Learning Tools in Junior High Schools
Author Name :: Diah Puji Nali Brata || Edy Setiyo Utomo
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 108-112
The independent curriculum is a curriculum that implements a learning approach based on the development of students to suit their interests and talents. The independent curriculum focuses on essential material, character development, and student competency. They are achieving student learning outcomes by carrying out cognitive, affective, and psychomotor assessments. This research aims to reveal: (1) learning tools prepared by teachers, (2) planning for psychomotor assessments, and (3) barriers for teachers to prepare psychomotor assessments. The research method uses a qualitative approach that reveals social phenomena completely and holistically, data collection techniques are triangulation techniques and source triangulation. The research results show; (1) the teaching module prepared by the teacher: (a) the learning tools are in accordance with the independent curriculum, (b) the designed psychomotor assessment is not integrated with the learning objectives, (c) the learning objectives are focused on the cognitive domain and do not yet indicate the psychomotor domain, (2) psychomotor assessment planning: (a) the psychomotor assessment designed by the teacher does not provide an explanation of what activities students must carry out, (d) the psychomotor assessment designed by the teacher does not differentiate between students' abilities (differentiation), (e) the form of the instrument and assessment technique is not yet clear , and (f) the indicators for the psychomotor assessment rubric are still not clear, (3) the obstacles for teachers to prepare psychomotor assessments: (a) the majority of teachers still do not understand the learning and assessment provisions in the independent curriculum, (b) the results of training as driving teachers for writing objectives In learning, there are still differences in perception in preparing learning objectives, (c) psychomotor assessment documents are still manual and use Excel, (d) there is a lack of attention to the design of psychomotor assessments because students' report cards for assessment are one that focuses on cognitive values, so that psychomotor values are not included only as a note.
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Paper Title :: Analysing Li Qun and her Miao Batik Paintings from a Research Perspective
Author Name :: Wu Jian || Harozila Ramli
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 113-123
Miao batik painting is a force that has risen to prominence in the Chinese painting community in recent decades. It has inherited the culture and art of batik craftsmanship handed down by the Miao for thousands of years as well as the culture and art of the Miao ethnic group, which can be described as "deep background". In recent years Miao batik painting has been supported by the government, colleges and universities, as well as academia, and many artists, art works and art activities have sprung up. What are the unique charms of Miao batik painting? What artistic characteristics does it have? How does it pass down the traditional art of ethnic minorities? This study will attempt to reveal the charm of Miao batik painting through a case study of Ms Li Qun, a Miao batik artist and inheritor of the Miao batik technique, and her artworks.
Keywords: Li Qun, Batik Painting, Batik Craftsmanship, Composition, Modelling
[1]. Guizhou Network Radio and Television. (2020). A small knife, why became her "can afford, cannot let go" of the heart of the thing.
[2]. Guizhou Daily Newspaper. (2018). British children learn embroidery batik from Miao embroiderer.
[3]. Li, Wei. (2014). Exploration of batik painting art. Journal of Yantai Vocational College (03), 40-42.
[4]. Liu, E. Q., & Li, X. C.. (2020). Research on the Cultural Inheritance of Crooked Comb Miao Batik under the Perspective of Intangible Cultural Heritage Protection--Taking Li Qun, the Representative Inheritor of Liupanshui City Level, as an Example. Popular Literature and Art (022), 3-4+98.
[5]. Lu, Chun-Ying. (2023). Contemporary Challenges in the Study of Miao Batik Painting. Premium Life (15).15

Paper Title :: Values of Islamic Moderation in the Idea of Islam Nusantara
Author Name :: Mohamad Salik || M. Bahri Mustofa
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 124-129
This study aimed to examine the Ideas of one prominent Nahdlatul Ulama (NU) preacher named Prof. Dr. KH. Said Agil Siraj about the values of Islamic moderation in the idea of Islam Nusantara while preaching in Jombang, Indonesia in the opening of NU Conference in 2015. Through content analysisof Said Agil Siraj’s preaching that was uploaded on YouTube media this study found that first, the value regarding nationality, the form of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI) and Pancasila as the basis of the state is final. There is no need to formalize Islam as the basis of the state, but make the religion is used as an ethical foundation. Second, the value of diversity, that diversity is a wealth of the Indonesian people, therefore it must be grateful for caring for that diversity. One way is by tolerating. Third, the value of humanity, that every human being should be treated in a humane way. Therefore, every action carried out in violent ways is contrary to human values. Fourth, With the idea of Islam Nusantara, Nahdlatul Ulama wants Islam to be able to blend harmoniously in people's lives without having to eliminate existing traditions.
Keywords: Values, Islamic Moderation, Islam Nusantara
[1]. Amin, KH Ma’ruf, “Khittah Islam Nusantara”, accessed on 29 Agustus 2015.
[2]. Azra, Azyumardi, (2006), Indonesia, Islam and Democracy: Dynamics in a Global Context, Jakarta: Equinox Publishing.
[3]. Cook, David, (2005), Understanding Jihad, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press.
[4]. Gerger, Fawaz A., (2005), The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global, New York: Cambrigde University Press.
[5]. Karyadi, Fathurrahman, (2015), “Islam Nusantara dan Quraish Shihab”, inAttabi`, Abi (ed), Antologi Islam Nusantara, Yogyakarta: Aswaja Pressindo.

Paper Title :: Music Improvisation and Composition Activities Based on Musical and Visual Stimuli in a Primary General Music Classroom
Author Name :: Eirini Nikolaou || Sofia Agiopetritou
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 130-146
The purpose of this study was to explore fourth grade primary students’(9-year-old) (N=19) reflections regarding music improvisation activities based on musical and visual stimuli. The activities were designed with the aim of strengthening team collaboration and interaction, as well as students’ familiarization with musical concepts (chord, rondo form). Data were collected over a 4-week period, utilizing participant observation, observational notes and questionnaires with open-ended and closed-ended questions. For the analysis of the qualitative data drawn from the open-ended questionnaires, the method of content analysis was adopted. During music improvisations on musical and visual stimuli, students working in groups used their voice, their body, rhythm percussion musical instruments, boom whackers and metallophones. Moreover, visual stimuli were used as a prompt for the creation of sound stories that students wrote down and performed in the classroom. In students’ compositional products, based on rondo form, students used metallophones. General findings indicated that students expressed positive attitudes regarding their team collaboration and interaction as well as they were satisfied with their group performances during the presentation of their improvisational and compositional products to the whole class. All the activities were carried out in a positive classroom atmosphere where everyone had the opportunity to freely express their ideas, strengthen their self-confidence, express their admiration for what their classmates produced as well as familiarize themselves with musical concepts (chord, rondo form).
Keywords: chord, creativity, music composition, music improvisation, primary general music education, rondo form, team collaboration
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Paper Title :: The Persuasive Strategies of Scammers in Facebook Bitcoin Investment Posts: An Examination through the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) Perspective
Author Name :: Lilisuriani Abdul Latif @ Bapoo || Masyitah Ismah Hani Binti Azman
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 147-151
The rapid growth of social media platforms has facilitated a global connection among billions of users, allowing easy content sharing and engagement. Unfortunately, this progress in technology has also provided a fertile ground for online scams, particularly Bitcoin investment scams. This study applies the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to analyze the persuasive strategies used in Bitcoin investment scam posts on Facebook, aiming to uncover the processing routes and their elements employed by scammers. A thematic analysis was conducted on 63 posts from two Facebook accounts, revealing a predominant use of peripheral route elements of ELM, such as emotional appeals and peripheral cues, over central route elements of the ELM model. Even though collecting extensive data was challenging due to the need for confirmed reports of fraudulent activity and the rapid deletion or blocking of scam accounts, the findings of this study can help to increase public awareness of scammers‟ persuasive language and psychological approaches, improve social media scam detection, and inform policymakers on scammers‟ persuasive strategies through the analyses of ELM route elements in Bitcoin investment scams posted on a social media platform.
Keywords: Persuasive strategies, Online scams, Bitcoin investments, Elaboration Likelihood Model.
[1] Ab Aziz, A. A., Mohd Sharif, N. A., Wan Fakhruddin, W. F., Mohd Juned, A., Md Shah, N. K., Anuar Yatim, A. I., & Saidalvi, A. (2023). Linguistic cues of deception in Malaysian Online Investment Scams‟ promotional materials. GEMA Online® Journal of Language Studies, 23(4), 152–168.
[2] Caldas, L. S., Iglesias, F.,Pet Melo, I. R., & Lyra, R. L. (2019). Persuasion at Different Levels of Elaboration: Experimental Effects of Strength, Valence and Ego Depletion. Temas Em Psicologia, 27(2), 585–599.
[3] Chergarova, V., Arcanjo, V., Tomeo, M., Bezerra, J., Vera, L. M., & Uloa, A. (2022). Cryptocurrency fraud: A study on the characteristics of criminals who are using fake profiles on a social media platform to persuade individuals to invest into cryptocurrency. Issues In Information Systems, 23(3), 242–252.
[4] DeLiema, M., Li, Y., & Mottola, G. (2022). Correlates of responding to and becoming victimized by fraud: Examining risk factors by scam type. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 47(3), 1042–1059.
[5] Garrett, B., Mallia, E., & Anthony, J. (2019). Public perceptions of internet‐based health scams, and factors that promote engagement with them. Health & Social Care in the Community.

Paper Title :: «Anatomy of a Dance» An Ethnochoreological and Musicological Approach
Case study from Arkadia-Greece
Author Name :: Stathopoulou G. || Sagredos Ο. || Papakostas C.
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 152-160
The Tsakonikos dance and the music that accompanies it are the symbols of the cultural identity of the Tsakonian people. This dance is performed at every dance event (festival, feast, wedding ritual, dance event of local cultural clubs, etc.) and is performed either with the accompaniment of musical instruments or acapella. The purpose of this work is to study the dance and the music forms that are presented by this specific dance in the community of Prastos in Arcadia and to compare them with today's music and dance performances. Methodologically, the collection of ethnographic data was carried out the on field ethnographic method, that was conducted during the period 2017-2024, and is based on the use of primary (field research and participant observation) and secondary sources (bibliography and archival ethnographic research).The recording and analysis of the dance is based on Labanotation system.The opensource music software system Muse Score 4 and the music software (DAW) Cubase Pro 12 are used to record and analyze the melody of the Tsakonikos dance.To compare the dance and musical performances of the dance, the comparative method is used.In conclusion, from the field research, it appears that in the community of Prastos the "Tsakonikos" dance does not have only a single dance form, as it has prevailed to be "considered" in the dance groups, but it appears with its own dance specificity for each generation.Regarding the music of this dance, it seems that in the community of Prastos the musical performance of the Tsakonikos dance has a specific bilateral alternating form (AB).In particular, the A' part, which is the couplet of the song, is musically presented at a noticeably slower tempo than the B' part, which is about the chorus of the song.Compared to the dance and music performances of the particular dance in the various dance events of the cultural clubs, a homogenization of both the dance and music performance is observed.
Keywords: Tsakonikos dance, Greek traditional dances, ethnographic method, Labanotation, music technology, music softwares
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[2]. Th. Buckland, “Introduction: Reflecting on dance ethnography”, in Th. J. Buckland (Εd.), Dance in the Field. Theory Methods and Issues in Dance Ethnography, Macmillan Press, pp. 1-10, 1999.
[3]. D. Gkefou-Μadianou, “Culture and ethnography. From Realism to Cultural Criticism”, Greek letters, [in Greek], 1997.
[4]. D. Gkefou-Μadianou, “Culture and ethnography. From Ethnographic Realism to Political Critique”, Greek letters, [in Greek], 1999.
[5]. D. Gkefou-Μadianou, “Culture and ethnography. From ethnographic realism to cultural criticism”, Patakis, [in Greek], 2017.

Paper Title :: Strategies and Educational Aims of Theological Teaching: A Practical Theological Reflection
Author Name :: Moses Hobe
Country :: South Africa
Page Number :: 161-168
While it could be argued that education (the process of teaching and learning) is one of the most central functions within man‟s existence, the primary goal of theological education is to equip thinking practitioners and practical thinkers. If they are good practical thinkers, the richness and virtuosity of their work can contribute greatly to both the life of the church and the common good beyond it. The primary question in this regard is - what strategies and insights does theological teaching require? In an attempt to deal with the above topic this paper aims to focus on strategies and educational aims of theological teaching whereby it will establish the norms and strategies of concrete situations in theological education.
Keywords: Educational Aims, Theological Teaching, Learning strategies, Curriculum strategies, Practical Theology.
[1]. Alshire, D.O.2008. Earthen Vessels: Hopeful Reflections on the Work and Future of Theological schools. Willard, D.2012. Renovation of the Heart: Putting on the character of Christ. USA: Tyndale House Publishers.
[2]. Anderson, A. 1992. African Pentecostals in South Africa. Pretoria: University of South Africa.
[3]. Browning, D. S. 1996. A Fundamental Practical Theology: Descriptive and Strategic Proposals. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans.
[4]. Cosren, D. & Fairbairn, D. 2001. Contextual Theological Education among Post-Soviet Protestants: Case Study 2: The Master of Rts in Contextual Theology at Donetsk Christian University. Transformation, 18 (2), 125-128.
[5]. Dreeckmeier, T.1997. Towards Christ- centred education. Benoni: Hebron Press.

Paper Title :: The Overview on Bantu Languages Speech Sounds: Some Languages Spoken in the DR Congo
Author Name :: Jean-Claude Niragire Kabariro || Étienne Shigabalume Safari || Faustin Baraka Nzangande || David Juhudi Hategekimana
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 169-177
There are a lot of languages spoken by Bantu in Africa which necessitate a study. The users of these languages seem to ignore some notions related to their languages. This paper explores one aspect of these languages and brings a light to sounds of these languages. So, the overview on Bantu languages carries the aim of the present paper. As all languages cannot be gone through, this paper is an assemblage of Bantu languages spoken in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The overview about sounds is the core study in this research where vowels and consonants of Bantu languages spoken in the DR Congo are concerned. What to expect in this study is the recognition of sounds we do not speak about in the light of foreign languages: French and English. That is an opportunity to get knowledge about them is paramount. It is not a matter of comparison between English sounds or French sounds but just a study. This is also a matter of DRC to be a multilingual country where 214 native languages (Ethnologue) are spoken among 100 million inhabitants (2023). The situations derived from the practice of a multilingual mode of communication have had important linguistic effects on the languages in contact.
Keywords: language, Bantu, overview, sounds
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