Current Issue (Volume 02 - Issue 11)

Paper Title :: In Conversations between Keats and Fitzgerald
Author Name :: TEster Díaz Morillor
Country :: Spain
Page Number :: 01-06
This paper analyses the scope of the English poet John Keats's influence on American author F. Scott Fitzgerald in order to establish the connections between the literary works of both authors. Two novels of Fitzgerald will be thoroughly examined, namely The Great Gatsby (1925) and Tender Is the Night (1934). First, we will see how Keats's vision of poetry can be found in Fitzgerald's writings, for various fragments of Fitzgerald's prose evoke Keats's words, imagery and even his sensuousness. He was a true romantic in his time and his admiration for Keats led him to have a lyrical prose. Second, we will examine The Great Gatsby to find examples of Fitzgerald's prose that will illustrate his endeavour to capture the beauty and aesthetic language that Keats so valued. Third, an analysis of Tender Is the Night exclusively will follow. Not only the title and epigraph in this novel are taken from Keats's poem “Ode to a Nightingale”, but these verses also prove to be essential in understanding the complexity of Fitzgerald's fourth novel, as they are key concepts both in the form and content of the book.
Keywords: Keats, Fitzgerald, intertextuality, romanticism
[1]. Raymond Chandler qtd. in Fitzgerald, F. Scott. Preface. The Short Stories of F. Scott Fitzgerald: A New Collection, by Matthew J. Bruccoli, Simon and Schuster, 1995, p. xvi.
[2]. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. “To Frances Scott Fitzgerald”. 3 Aug. 1940. In Dreams of Youth: The Letter of F Scott Fitzgerald. Ed. by Andrew Turnbull. London: Little Books, 2011, p. 104.
[3]. James, Clive. Interview by Nichola Deane. Jan 2009. Accessed 5 May 2017.
[4]. Bruccoli, Matthew J. Some Sort of Epic Grandeur: The Life of F. Scott Fitzgerald. University South Carolina Press, 2002, p. 70.
[5]. Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. Penguin Popular Classics, 1994.

Paper Title :: Floristic, ecological and phytogeographical study of the forest islet of the Father Eyimard Eucharistic center in Mont-ngafula / Kinshasa
Author Name :: Ntalakwa M.T || Lubini C. || Kidikwadi E. || Bamvingana. C || Mayanu P || Kwambanda J.
Country :: Democratic Republic of Congo
Page Number :: 07-16
A floristic, ecological and phytogeographic study of the forest block of the Father Eymard Eucharistic Center in Kinshasa Mont-Ngafula was carried out in the context of urban afforestation. Harvests, field observations followed by scientific identifications and phytogeographic analysis revealed the presence of 63 species divided into 59 genera and 34 families among which the families of Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, and Euphorbiaceae predominate. The phytogeographic analysis of these results indicates the numerical dominance of the guineo-congolese elements, of which cordia gilletii (boraginaceae) is harvested in Kinshasa for the first time. Ecological spectra analysis indicates the abundance of phanerophytes, sarcochores, and mesophylls. The studied forest block presents agronomic, economic, scientific and environmental interests for the city of Kinshasa. From a dynamic point of view, this island presents two evolutionary series; progressive and regressive. The plant species are erected on sandy soil. These various resources are exploited by the occupants of the parish and visitors for the collection of forest products and this site plays an important role in maintaining the ecological balance in urban areas. The conservation and sustainable use of this islet is one of the important recommendations we formulate.
[1]. Belesi, K.H. (2009) Floristic, phytogeographic, and phytosociological study of bas-Kasai vegetation in the Democratic Republic of Congo.346. p. more annexes. Doctoral thesis. Fac. SC. UNIKIN-Kinshasa.
[2]. Daget and Gaston Ph. (2001) The Flotrop Basis and Biodiversity of Pastures in Eastern Chad. 326 p Ed. Robbrecht, J.DEGREEF and I.FRIIS. Paris.
[3]. Dupuy, B. (1998) Bases for a forestry in tropical humid tropical forest, 328 p., Ed. CIRAD-Forest, Montpellier Cedex 1, France.
[4]. Duvigneaud, P. (1953) The savannas of Bas-Congo: topographical phytosociology test, 192 p. + boards, Ed. Lejeunia., Mém. # 10. Brussels.
[5]. Evrard, C. (1968) Ecological research on the forest stand of the hydromorphic soils of the Congolese Central Basin, 110: 295 p., Publ. INEAC, ser. scientist, Brussels

Paper Title :: Air biomass and carbon stock of the parcellar trees of the district livulu in the commune of lamba in kinshasa
Author Name :: Mayanu Pemba || Kwambanda M || Kidikwadi Tango || Lubini Ayingweu || Ntalakwa Makolo T
Country :: Democratic Republic of Congo
Page Number :: 17-26
This study concerns the above-ground biomass and the sequestered carbon stock in the parcel trees of Quartier Livulu in Kinshasa. The objective is to estimate the mass of carbon stored in the woody tissues of the parcel trees. We conducted tree inventories in the residential plots of Livulu District, Lemba Commune in Kinshasa. The data obtained were analyzed and subjected to some statistical tests. The results obtained show 309 trees belonging to 14 species. Mangifera indica and Persea americana are dominant. The aerial phytomass, the carbon mass and the carbon equivalent of all the plots studied were estimated at 6.33t / ha, corresponding to 3, 16t / ha of sequestered carbon with an equivalent of 10.66t / ha. . Mangifera indica is the dominant species with 142 individuals and therefore the one with the highest aerial phytomass, carbon mass and carbon equivalent estimated at 1.79t / ha; 0.89t / ha and 3.02t / ha respectively.
Keywords: Aerial Biomass, Carbon, Livulu District, Kinshasa
[1]. UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). 1992.25p
[2]. Belesi K., 2016, Floristic, Phytogeographic and Phytosociological Study Vegetation of Salonga National Park (Bas-Kasai - DRC) (Summary). In International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies. ISSN 2028 - 9324. Vol. 14 No. 3 Feb. 2016. pp. 709-720.
[3]. Habari, M., 2009: Floristic, Phytogeographic and Phytosociological Study of the Vegetation of Kinshasa and the Middle River Basins N'djili and N'sele in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Thesis Doct., Unikin, 273 p.
[4]. Belesi, K., 2009: Floristic, Phytogeographic and Phytosociological Study of the Vegetation of Bas-Kasaï in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Thèse Doct., Fac. SC. UNIKIN, 565 p. more annexes.2009
[5]. Kidikwadi T. E, 2018: Ecological and Phytogeographic Study of Natural Populations of Prioria balsamifera (Harms) Breteleen in Lower Guinean-Congolese. Thesis presented and supported to obtain the degree of Doctor of Sciences, environment group, University of Kinshasa / DR Congo.

Paper Title :: Effectiveness of Reality Therapy to Improve Female Prisoners Responsibility Attitude
(Case Study of Female Prisoners)
Author Name :: Hadiwinarto
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 27-31
This study aims to describe the effectiveness of reality therapy through individual counseling to improve the attitude of responsibility of female prisoners. The study uses a qualitative research design case study of two female prisoners in the Curup Penitentiary in Rejang Lebong Regency. The data collection method uses observation, interview and documentation techniques. Individual counseling using a reality approach is carried out on each client three times. The data analysis technique uses descriptive qualitative. Changes in the attitude of responsibility for female prisoners for the better occur gradually as the series of individual counseling services is carried out. It was concluded that individual counseling using the reality therapy approach was effective in increasing the attitude of responsibility of female prisoners.
Keywords: Individual counseling, reality therapy, attitude of responsibility, and female prisoners.
[1]. Ahmadi, Abu. (2007). Social Psychology. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
[2]. Ardianto, Elvinaro. (2009). Mass communication. Bandung: Simbiosa Rekatama Media.
[3]. Corey, G. (2005). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Pages 316-332. 7thed.Thomson Brooks / Cole.California
[4]. Corey, G. (2013). Counseling and psychotherapy. Jakarta: Graphic.
[5]. Fathurrohman, Pupuh et al. (2013). Development of Character Education. Bandung: Refika Aditama

Paper Title :: The Practice of Spiritual Leadership among Principals of Secondary Schools
Author Name :: Awanis Mohd || Yaakob Daud || Mua’azam Mohamad
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 32-37
This study aims to identify the spiritual leadership level of secondary school leaders in Kelantan. A total of 130 respondents comprising secondary school teachers in Kelantan were involved in answering the questionnaire. The research instrument used to measure spiritual leadership is the Spiritual Leadership Survey highlighted by Fry (2003) which has the three main dimensions of Leader's Values, Attitudes and Behavior; the Follower Needs for Spiritual Survival and Organizational Outcomes. The data and information collected from the questionnaire were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 24.0. Data analysis is carried out using the Descriptive Min Test. The findings show that the overall level of Spiritual Leadership practice is modest. The study also found that all three dimensions, Leadership Values, Attitudes and Behavior, Follower Needs for Spiritual Survival and Organizational Outcomes show a moderate level. However, for the Leader Values, Attitude and Behavior dimension, shows a slightly higher mean value than the other two dimensions. This study found that school leaders lacked the practice of spiritual leadership style in their leadership style. Some suggestions have also been proposed to further enhance the level of spiritual leadership of school leaders to ensure organizational commitment and productivity reach the levels outlined by stakeholders such as the Ministry of Education, State Education Department and the District Education Office.
Keywords: Spiritual Leadership, altruistic love, meaning / calling, membership, commitment
[1]. Anita Rahmawaty. (2016). Model Kepimpinan Spiritual Dalam Meningkatkan Kepuasan Kerja dan Kinerja Karyawan di BMT se-Kabupaten Pati. Iqtishadia Vol.9 No.2. DOI:
[2]. Ari Cahyono, Analisa Pengaruh Kepemimpinan, Motivasi Dan Budaya Organisasi Terhadap Kinerja Dosen Dan Karyawan Di Universitas Pawyatan Daha Kediri. (2012). Kediri:Jurnal Ilmu Manajemen, Revitalisasi, Vol. 1, No. 1, Juni.
[3]. Ary, D., Jacobs, L. C., &Razavieh, A. (2002). Introduction to research in education. Sixth Edition. USA: Wadsworth Group.
[4]. Fry, L. W. (2003). “Toward a theory of spiritual leadership.” The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693-727.
[5]. Fry, L.W., Hannah, S.T., Noel, M., &Walumbwa, F. O. (2011). Impact of spiritual leadership on unit performance. Leadership Quarterly, 22(2), 259-270.

Paper Title :: Problems Faced By Schools Head Teachers in Implementation of Performance Appraisal in District Toba Tek Singh
Author Name :: Muhammad Adrees || Allah Bakhsh
Country :: Pakistan
Page Number :: 38-47
The basic purpose of the study was to find out the problems faced by the Head Teachers in evaluating the teacher’s performance. The public sector schools of the District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab Pakistan were the part of the population. Random sampling technique was used to collect the data. From the total 207 high schools in which 100 of High schools were selected through random sampling. The data were collected through performance appraisal scale and analyzed with the help of (SPSS) software. In this study mostly views were stressed upon knowledge, skills, training, increases resources, funds and materials consider for necessary components before administration any kind of assessments in institutions but lower management and confidence development should be taken on a priority basis. Recommendations on the above suggested components must be utilized properly for teacher’s evaluations if any kinds of components less than of above listed then the Head Teachers and principals will be faced lots of problems. This study will be more significant to play a role for the Head Teachers and principal staff members. Future scholars explore this study widely and to find out better ways for improvement of this system.
Keywords: Head teacher,Teachers performance evaluation,High schools
[1]. Fletcher, C. (2001). Performance appraisal and management: the developing research agenda, Journal of occupational and Organizational Psychology, 74(4): 473–87.
[2]. Boswell, W. R. and Boundreau, J.W. (2002). Separating the development and evaluation Performance appraisal uses. Journal of Business and Psychology, 16(3), pp. 391-412.
[3]. Kumrow, D., &Dahlen, B. (2002). Is peer review an effective approach for evaluating teachers?. The Clearing House, 75(5), 238-241.
[4]. Piggoot-Irvine, E. (2003). Key features of appraisal effectiveness. The International Journal of Education Management.17 (4), 170-178.
[5]. Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2002). Research methods in education. Routledge.

Paper Title :: The Antimagnetic Field - A New Reality in Physics
- Original story of its discovery and theoretical statement
Author Name :: Prof. Asst. Dr. Hajdin Abazi
Country :: Kosovo
Page Number :: 48-60
This paper will present the trajectory of the discovery of a new natural phenomenon by physicist Naim Krasniqi, that is, the antimagnetic field. Though it seemed a special discovery, it will be transformed into a key to knowing the different reality not only of the magnet but also of the atom, the earth, the sun, the planets, the galaxies, and the entire universe; in other words, a new structure, hidden up to Naim Krasniqi, will be known, and the laws that applies to both the macro- and the micro-universe, so making the Einstein's dream - the union of physics, a reality. The description will present a simplified story of this discovery: how by a random observation of the different movement of iron dust (from the unknown impact of the new field, while other magnetic fields were present), with its innovative spirit, physicist Naim Krasniqi have discovered a new field, unknown to physics and other sciences - antimagnetic field; and the constitution of this knowledge step by step to its theoretical formulations. As well the law on the presence of the antimagnetic field within the magnetic field will be presented.
Keywords: the magnetic field, the antimagnetic field, the magnet, the iron dust, the law of the antimagnetic field presence
[1]. Aristotle. (1984). The Complete Works of Aristotle. Physics. The revised Oxford Translation. Edited by Jonathan Barnes. Bollingen Series LXXI. Princeton, USA.
[2]. Abazi, H. 2019. “On the hardness of perceptions changing. - An analysis through the example of the counter-inductive approach to the magnetic field”. International Journal of Latest Research in Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 02, Issue 10. Link:
[3]. Bachelard, G. 1984. The nEw Scientific Spirit. Translated by Arthur Goldhammer. Bacon Press: Boston.
[4]. Bird, A. 1998. Philosophy of Science. Published by University College London (UCL): London.
[5]. Blundell, S. (2012). Magnetism: A very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK

Paper Title :: Environmental and economic potential of a natural regeneration of Pentaclethra eetveldeana in Kikola in Kongo Central / DRC
Author Name :: Ghilain I. MATALA || Constantin A.LUBINI
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 61-73
The forest islet of Kikola, a natural regeneration put in defense for the past 4 years in the Madimba territory in the DRC, offered us the opportunity to have data on the carbon rate sequestered by an indigenous melliferous flora, and to evaluate its environmental and economic potential.This ethnobotanical survey, of which indigenous plant species constituted the bulk of the biological material and materialized by a visual inventory, was initiated in order to consider the ecological role played by this forest recruit in the process of the fight against global warming. This florule, colonized at 54% by Pentaclethra eetveldeana De Wild and Th, Dur, was restricted to 226 individuals of this species by one hectare, which evolve alongside other species very poorly represented. These include Alchornea cordifolia (Schum and Thonn) Mull (2%), Craterispermum cerinanthum Hiern (1%), Hymenocardia acida Tul (14%), Leptoderris nobilis Welw. ex Bak (7.3%), Millettia drastica Welw, ex Bak (3%), Millettia laurentii De Wild (3%), Oncoba welwitschii Oliv (7%), Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth (1%), Piptadeniastrum africanum Hook.F (1%), Rauvolfia mannii Stapf (1%) and Sclerocroton cornutus Pax (10%). Thanks to the biovolume modeladapted by[1],232.24±13.4 teqCO2 is the quantity of CO2, obtained by projecting from total biomass (126.56±7.3 t/ha), which won’t be released into the atmosphere at the end of the planned defense in 2025. This forest regeneration would therefore be eligible for the REDD + carbon price and would benefit between 3251.36 ± 187.9 € and 23224 ± 187.9 €.The results of this study make it possible to record the forest island of Kikola on the list of REDD+ pilot projects in the DRC, and to stimulate additional studies, associating teledetection data, to follow the evolution of the carbon quantities sequestered over timein the indigenous woody structure of this forest recruit, for a better perception of its ecological role.
Keywords: Carbon Market, biovolume Model, Economic Potential, Pentaclethra eetveldeana.
[1]. S. Kouamé, Diversité végétale et estimation de la biomasse dans l’arboretum du Centre National de Floristique (Abidjan, Côte d’ivoire), 2013, inédit.
[2]. H. Baku« Matériaux ligneux de construction des habitations et de fabrication d’objets d’art du territoire de Tshela dans le Bas Congo », dans CRIDUPN n° 058 UPN, RDC, pp 249-258, 2014
[3]. S. Mavinga, Production de combustibles ligneux et dégradation des formations forestières dans l’hinterland de Kinshasa. Thèse de doctorat. Unikin, 212p, 2018
[4]. R. Bellefontaine, Pour de nombreux ligneux, la reproduction sexuée n'est pas la seule voie : analyse de 875 cas, Cirad, Montpellier, France, 26 p, 2005
[5]. A. Awono, D. Manirakiza, H. Owona et V. Ingram, Etude de base de la filière miel dans les provinces du Bas Congo et de Kinshasa (RDC), CIFOR, 87p, 200

Paper Title :: Transcultural Aesthetics and the African Heritage in the Poetry of (Edward) Kamau Brathw
Author Name :: Effumbe KACHUA
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 74-79
Transcultural literatures are works that transcend the socio-cultural binaries in multicultural societies, where the local and global are inextricably intermeshed and engaged with each other in a heterogeneous form and content. They often and inadvertently portray a mutually beneficial and transforming effect on cultures. Transcultural literatures also interrogate on issues about the formation of identities in a process of cross-cultural examinations, in disparate societies like the Caribbean. Edward (laterKamau) Brathwaite in his The Arrivants: A New World Trilogy, deplores a plethora of African cultural elements, and further seeks to harmonise them into a Creole model to achieve a continuum. These elements are the product of his extensive and integrative experience during his 7 years stay in Africa, (Ghana, then Gold Coast). This study explores the studied text and establishes how Brathwaite deplored these cultural elements into an aesthetic idiom in Caribbean literature.
[1]. Bobb, June D. Beating a Restless Drum: The Poetics of Kamau Brathwaite and Derek Walcott. Trenton: Africa World Press, 1998. Print.
[2]. Brathwaite, Edward. The Arrivants: A New World Trilogy - Rights of Passage, Islands & Masks. London: Oxford University Press, 1973 (Reprinted 1978). Print
[3]. Brathwaite, Kamau. “Sun Song”.Black and Blues. Havana: Casa de las Americas, 1986. 34-62. Print.
[4]. ---. “The African Presence in Caribbean Literature”(1970/73). Roots: Essays in Caribbean Literature. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994. 190-258. Print.
[5]. Breiner, Laurence. An Introduction to West Indian Poetry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.

Paper Title :: Investigation of the Creteria used in Promotion of National Police Service officers and its implication on performance in Nairobi County, Kenya
Author Name :: Mr Zakayo Musita Anyangu || Dr. Pacificah F.Okemwa || Dr. David Kabera Muthondeki
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 80-91
Police Departments world over employ various selection criteria to choose their leaders. The National Police Service (NPS) of Kenya has regulations for selecting officers for promotion. This article looks into how the creteria influences performance.The Iceberg Theory of Staff Selection by McClelland (1998), the Organizational Justice Theoryof Greenberg (2017) and Equity Theory of Motivation by Adams(1963) will guide the theoretical understanding.The ex-post facto research design was adopted for this study. A study sample made up of 294 participants was selected using the stratified random sampling and purposive sampling approachesfrom a target population of 8,519 police officers drawn from the Kenya Police Service, the Administration Police Service and the Directorate of Criminal Investigations. The study employed a questionnaire and a key informant interview schedule as data collection tools. The study revealed that whereas the NPS has put in place regulations and policies to guide the selection of officers for promotion, in some cases these policies and regulations are not followed. It was further established that in some cases the NPS does not accurately assess the specific competencies of the candidates when selecting them for promotion and that in cases where they were assessed, promotion policies were applied selectively. It was, therefore, concluded that the selection criteria affect performance negatively by allowing the selection of some officers who do not possess the requisite competencies because the Service lacks standardized assessment tools to accurately assess these competencies
Keywords: criteria, selection, police officers, promotion, performance.
[1]. Adegoke, N. (2014). ‗Factors influencing nigerian police performance: a case study of zone two nigerian police headquarters, lagos‘. Global Journal of Applied, Management and Social Sciences, 16-24.
[2]. Al-Zawahreh, A & Faisah A. (2012). ‗The utility of Equity Theory in Enhancing organizational effectiveness. European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences‘ Issue 46 (2012).
[3]. Bakes, C. (2016). Application Form - Competency Based Questions (CBQ‘s). Retrieved from Police Community website: information-library.html/special-constables/recruitment/application-form-competency-based-questions-cbqs-r5/
[4]. Bayley, D. H. (2016). The complexities of 21st century policing. Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, 10(3), 163-170.
[5]. Benitez, D. (2017). A Leadership White Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment Required for Graduation from the Leadership Command College. Tdl.Org.

Paper Title :: Preliminary note on above ground biomass and carbon stock in the Kimwenza Manresa forest in Kinshasa / DR CONGO
Country :: Congo
Page Number :: 92-101
This note focuses on aboveground biomass and carbon stock in the Manresa forest in Kinshasa. It has set itself the main objective of estimating aerial phytomass in order to deduce the sequestered carbon stock in tree tissues and to show their interest in mitigating CO2 effects due to climate change.To achieve this, we used the method of observation and inventory of trees supported by statistical treatments. A total of 271 individuals belonging to 21 species. The results obtained showed that Milletia laurentii is the most representative species compared to all inventoried species. The aerial phytomass, the carbon mass and the carbon equivalent of the whole were estimated at 369.9t / ha corresponding to 173.9t / ha of sequestered carbon with an equivalent of 585.4 t / ha.Milletia laurentii is the dominant species with 53 individuals and therefore the one with the highest aerial phytomass, carbon mass and carbon equivalent estimated at 96.5t / ha; 45.3 t / ha and 152.7 t / ha respectively.
Keywords: Aerial Biomass, Carbon, Urban, Kinshasa.
[1]. ALLEN, A., Gillooly, J. F., BROWN, J. H. (2005) Linking the global carbon cycle to individual metabolism, Functional Ecology, p19.
[2]. BELESI, K. (2009) Floristic and phytogeographic study of Bas-Kasaï vegetation in DR Congo. PhD thesis UNIKIN Faculty of Sciences, p565.
[3]. CAUSSINUS, H., Lambert, E., Rollet, B. (1969) On the use of a new mathematical model for the study of the structures of moist evergreen plains forests CR.ACAD.SCI Paris Volume II , 549p.
[4]. Dajoz, R. (1982) Precis of Ecology: Fundamental and Applied Ecology, 493 p., 4th ed. Gauthier-Villars, Paris.
[5]. GAUBERVILLE, C. (2011) Forest Vocabulary: Ecology, Management and Conservation of Wooded Species, Ed. Of Private Foresters of France, 278p.

Paper Title :: An Evaluation of Museums in Mauritius: A Subaltern Perspective
Author Name :: Mrs. Dreesha Daworaz & Assoc. Prof. Dr. Jeevendiren Chemen
Country :: Mauritius
Page Number :: 102-109
Museums have the special mission of showcasing the historical and cultural heritage, inter alia, of a nation or nations with a view to connect the present and future generation with their respective past ones. In Mauritius, there are around thirty museums that showcase the memories and heritage of people who migrated to Mauritius from different parts of the world and during different periods. Among them, the subaltern culture of both the slaves and the Indian indentured immigrants of Mauritius are being addressed by few of the museums. This paper aims at making an evaluative study of the museums in Mauritius from a subaltern perspective and at identifying the major problems faced by them in acquiring and maintaining the relevant artefacts. The paper is concluded by recommending some of the strategies that could to be adopted by the Mauritian museums in order to be more effective in showcasing the subaltern culture.
Keywords: museum, subaltern culture, cultural heritage, Indian immigrant, indentured labourers
[1]. Allen, R.B., 1999.S laves, Freedmen and Indentured Labour. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
[2]. Ambrose, T. and Paine, C., 2012. Museum Basics.3rd ed. London: Routledge.
[3]. Aapravasi Ghat Trust Fund (AGHT) , 2007. A Brief Hostory of Indenture in Mauritius and in the World. Port Louis: AGHT
[4]. Carter, M.1996. Voices from Indenture Experiences of Indian Migrants in the British Empire. Leicester : University Press.
[5]. Clarke, S., 2002. Viewing the Bible through the Eyes and Ears of Subalterns in India , Biblical interpretations, [e-journal] 10(3), pp. 245-266, Available through:> [Accessed 11 June 2016].

Paper Title :: Phytogenetic study of dioscorea cultivated in the popokabaka region in the province of bandundu
Author Name :: S. Peta, J. Kwambanda, E. Kidikwadi, J. Azangidi, T. Ntalakwa, B. Mayanu, C. Lubini
Country :: Congo
Page Number :: 110-117
Sociocultural and economic surveys were conducted on the identification and characterization of edible species of the genus Dioscorea in the Popokabaka region of Kwango province. The purpose of this plant genetic study was to invent species (varieties) of the genus Dioscorea grown by the population living in the Popokabaka region and to assess the importance they place on them in their daily meals. The methodological approach adopted is observation supported by the investigative technique. As a result of this study, the results obtained are : We have identified 14 edible species of the genus Dioscorea. Of all, Congolese Guineo species dominate (9 species, or 52.49%), continental Afro-tropical species (5 species, or 29.41%), pantropical species (2 species, or 11.76%) and Afro-Malgache species (one species, 5.88%);Dioscoreaceae multiply by tuber head (63%), tuber fragment (18%) and peeling (9%);Dioscoreaceae are grown for sale (66%);For more than half of the respondents, 60%, the yam tuber has lower nutritional values than cassava;In the Popokabaka region, precisely the centre and its surroundings, the utilitarian value of Dioscreaceae, especially food or nutritional, is unknown because Dioscoreaare not on the family food list. Of all the species inventoried, D.cayenensis, D.rotundata ,D.alata , D.esculenta, D. dumentorum, and D.bulbifera are the most cultivated, preferred and consumed by the local population due to their organoleptic characteristics and their potential performance that is better. The results of our study can serve as a useful document to begin the phase leading up to a decision-making process in the development, promotion of culture and conservation of Dioscoreaceae.
[1]. ANONYMOUS (2011) Annual report of the city of Popokabaka
[2]. BOURRET, D. (1973) Ethnobotanical study of food dioscorea. Postgraduate PhD Thesis, specialty Plant Biology, Par
[3]. F.A.O. (1999) Yam cultivation and use to improve food security, reference text, 1999, F.A.O. Italy.
[4]. I.I.T.A. (1980) Cultivated and wild yams. Printed in France-Jouve, 11, bd de sibastopol, 75001 Paris n0312091 Y, - legal deposit: December 2002.
[5]. MBEMBA, M. (2013) Traditional foods and food from Bandundu in DR. Congo, Directory and composition in nutrients, Harmattan, 5-7, street of the Polytechnic school: 75005 Paris, 317p.

Paper Title :: From Forced Migration to No Ethnic Vacancy in Refugee Camps: Cross Border Tears of Ethnic Minority in Africa
Author Name :: Francis M. Kabosha
Country :: Zambia
Page Number :: 118-137
This paper began with the assumption that meaningful protection of refugees is critical input to international peace and security. However, this input is usually agitated by the complex relations between the practices in refugee protection, and the approaches of resolving entrenched ethnic tensions amongst them. The theory of change for refugee protection is that, while the mandate is humanitarian as it has been for over seventy years now, it is fundamentally a component of peacebuilding in countries producing refugees. Important point here is that, refugees are cross-border nationalistswho should adequately be prepared to meaningfully contribute to the international peace process. However, this process which should deliver simultaneous purpose of protecting refugees in host States, and contribute to political solutions in countries of originsthrough reconciled ethnic differences in their camps is still work in progress. The article will justify the argument with some case studies in which ethnicity destabilizes protection aims and undermines its position in international peacebuilding processes.
[1]. Action against Hunger – AAH (2017). Bridging the gap: Long-term implications for South Sudanese refugees in West Nile, Uganda.
[2]. Abubakar, Dauda (2011), Rethinking Sovereignty: Identity Politics, Citizenship and Human Rights in Post-Colonial Africa, paper presented at the Third International Studies Conference, Porto, Portugal. August 17-20, 2011.
[3]. Adejumobi, Said (2005). Identity, Citizenship and Conflict: The African Experience in The Crises of the State and Regionalism in West Africa. Dakar, Senegal: Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 19-44.
[4]. Atim, Grace (2013), The Impact of Refugees on Conflicts in Africa, Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vo. 14 Issue 2, pp 4-9.
[5]. Australian Government (2010), Country Advice: Democratic Republic of Congo (Ex- Zaire), Refugee Review Tribunal.