Volume 07 - Issue 04

Paper Title :: Bioclimatic Reconditioning in Tepetlixpa Handicrafts Market
Author Name :: Aarón Manuel Salas Cortés || Hector Valerdi Madrigal || Francisco Rojas Caldelas
Country :: México
Page Number :: 01-06
This work presents the bioclimatic rehabilitation of a building located in the municipality of Tepetlixpa, State of Mexico. It is currently used as a gymnasium and offices, and presents deterioration and thermal comfort problems. The location of the site has a temperate climate, so several proposals were made, which were then evaluated in the Bioclimatic Architecture Laboratory of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Azcapotzalco, as well as specialized software to be used.
The primary issue with the building concerns overheating, resulting from inadequate ventilation and unsuitable roofing material. To resolve the overheating difficulties, the Ener Habitat software was employed to examine the building's construction materials. The analysis revealed that the roof was the most problematic component, and consequently, a change of material was recommended.
A project model was created and analyzed in the heliodon, capturing solar incidence during the equinoxes and solstices. To address this, a shading system using pergolas and sunshades was proposed, which creates a microclimate between the building and esplanade, enabling appropriate solar control on the façades.
the Design Builder software to evaluate the building's thermal behavior. The outcomes revealed that temperature fluctuations within the building were usually within the comfortable ranges corresponding to that specific region's climate type. Therefore, the proposed alterations in materials and the integration of solar control technologies facilitate bioclimatic retrofitting, avoiding the need for mechanical systems to attain optimal thermal comfort for occupants.
Keywords: bioclimatic reconditioning, thermal comfort, solar control devices, heliodon, Ener Habitat, Design Builder.
[1]. CONAGUA. (2010). Normales climatologicas. Obtenido de
[2]. Ashrae. (1966). Ashrae Spain. Obtenido de
[3]. Freixanet, V. A. (2004). Clima y Arquitectura. Ciudad de México: Uam, Unidad Azcapotzalco
[4]. Sandwich, G. p. (2010). Panel Sandwich. Obtenido de

Paper Title :: Investigation of Potential Human Micrornas in Influenza Virus
Author Name :: Anita Adoga || Gabriel Okewu Peter
Country :: United Kingdom
Page Number :: 07-24
Influenza A virus (IAV), a negative segmented single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, IAVs causes global pandemics and are highly infectious with symptoms such as high temperature, headache, fever, and body pains; in some severe cases, the infection may lead to death due to changes in significant pathways and target genes, change in expression of some miRNAs are associated with several diseases such as cancer, miRNAs are hypothesized as significant players during viral infections. This study aimed to identify potential human miRNAs like sequences in the whole genome sequence of 12 Influenza A virus subtype and adopt the use of various bioinformatics databases and servers. The study identifies 83 human miRNA like sequence, some of which were found within various subtypes and were involved in several functions, among these, 3 significant miRNA (hsa-miR-5009-5p, hsa-miR-3200-5p, hsa-miR- 3145-3p) were found within the genome of 5 different Influenza A virus subtypes each and were co involved in TGF-beta signaling pathway, Estrogen signaling pathway, signaling pathways regulating pluripotent of stem cells and proteoglycans in cancer. Although this study identifies potential human miRNAs in IAV, affected pathways and target genes, and demonstrate the significant contribution of miRNAs to IAV infection, further research is required to fully expound on how miRNAs can be used to diagnose, monitor the pathogenesis, and develop therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: Influenza A virus (IAV), Micrornas, bioinformatics, pluripotent, proteoglycans.
[1]. Allen, J.D. and Ross, T.M. (2018) „H3N2 influenza viruses in humans: Viral mechanisms, evolution, and evaluation‟, Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, 14(8), pp.1840-1847.
[2]. Aquino, R1260.S. and Park, P.W. (2016) „Glycosaminoglycans and infection‟, Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition), 21, p. -1277.
[3]. Arisan, E.D., Dart, A., Grant, G.H., Arisan, S., Cuhadaroglu, S., Lange, S. and Uysal-Onganer, P. (2020) „The Prediction of miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 Genomes: hsa-miR Databases Identify 7 Key miRs Linked to Host Responses and Virus Pathogenicity-Related KEGG Pathways Significant for Comorbidities‟, Viruses, 12(6), p.614.
[4]. Bartlett, A. H., & Park, P. W. (2010) „Proteoglycans in host-pathogen interactions: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications‟, Expert reviews in molecular medicine, 12, e5.
[5]. Buggele, W.A., Johnson, K.E. and Horvath, C.M. (2012) „Influenza A virus infection of human respiratory cells induces primary microRNA expression‟, Journal of Biological Chemistry, 287(37), pp.31027-31040.

Paper Title :: Linguistic students' level in the Spanish course at Universidad Pedagógica Nacional "Francisco Morazán" de Honduras
Author Name :: Guity, Sonia, Mendoza, Josué and Deras, María Esperanza
Country :: Honduras
Page Number :: 25-32
The 2020 pandemic caused consequences in the dynamics of the educational process of educational systems in general and universities in particular. In the case of Honduras, education was under the modality of Emergency Remote Education; however, it was developed differently in these centers, which, for various reasons, presented different situations and affected the learning development. The research employed a quantitative methodology, a transactional and correlational non-experimental design, and a questionnaire on the language skills of Spanish students, a compulsory course. The instrument showed a low level of grammatical ability (31.2% correct), strategic (39.2% correct), sociolinguistic (34.2% correct), and discursive (44.7% correct). The Pearson coefficient correlated the variables sex, age, high school diploma, and type of school; the most significant correlation was with grammatical ability (r=.057), while there was no correlation with other variables.
Keywords: Communication; teacher competencies; linguistics
[1]. Almendares, R., Rivas, K., y Sorto, S. (2015). Opiniones de los estudiantes de la UPNFM sobre las competencias comunicativas necesarias para el profesor de Lengua y Literatura. Tegucigalpa.
[2]. Arellano, A. (2007). El aprendizaje basado en la Web para desarrollar la competencia oral comunicativa en estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera. [Tesis de Maestría. Universidad de Los Andes].
[3]. Ayllon, M., Gallego, J. Gómez, I. y Rodríguez, A. (2017). Competencia Comunicativa de los Futuros Docentes durante su Formación Inicial. REMIE, 2 (1) 1-34.
[4]. Bakieva, M. González- Such y J., Jornet, J. (2013). Consideraciones metodológicas sobre la evaluación de la competencia oral en L2. Revista Electrónica de Investigación Educativa, 15 (3), 1-20.
[5]. Benavides, M., y Aguirre, M. (2011). El proceso de desarrollo de la comunicación escrita en las aulas universitarias bajo un enfoque por competencias. Blanco y Negro, 6 (1), Pp,1-12.

Paper Title :: Enhancing Self-Study Skills in Teacher Education: Challenges and Solutions
Author Name :: Bui Thi Nhu Phuong
Country :: Viet Nam
Page Number :: 33-36
Credit-based training is a prevalent educational method today. It reflects the general trend of our era. The essence of this training method lies in harnessing students’proactive and positive attitude, with self-study being a decisive factor in their academic outcomes during their entire learning journey. Therefore, the question of how to enhance students’ self-study and research abilities has been a recurring theme across most universities, including KhanhHoa University (UKH), especially during the transition from academic year-based regime to credit-based education. As a teacher with many years of direct teaching experience at the university, I have also consistently pondered this issue. In this article, I aim to provide practical insights into the current state of student self-study and propose some solutions for enhancing self-study skills, particularly in the Faculty of Pedagogy at UKH, through designing detailed course outline.
Keywords: Self-study, students, pedagogy, course outline.
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[2]. Levitov N.D. (1970 ). Psychology: (for teachers and masters of vocational-technical schools). Hanoi: Education Publisher.
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[4]. Rubakin, M.A, (1973). How to self-study. Hanoi: Young Adult Publisher.
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Paper Title :: The Role of Context in Solving Problems of Misunderstanding Polysemous Words by Learners of English Language in Goma Town: Case Study of Some Language Centres and Sixth Form Secondary Schools
Author Name :: Augustin Ntahondi Habyarimana || William Nzitubundi Sendihe
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 37-54
The purpose of this research article is to explore the extent to which polysemy in English is recognised by learners of English language in Goma; DRC. It also explores whether English proficiency levels of EFL learners affect their capacity to distinguish between the various meanings of English polysemous words or if the learners face obstacles these words are used in unusual contexts, or contexts that use the expanded implications of the intended polysemous words.
The problem of misunderstanding polysemous words arises in context and many learners have difficulty in choosing an exact meaning. Therefore, it is with no doubt that context plays an important role in choosing suitable meanings for such words.
Keywords: Polysemous words, context, misunderstanding, learner.
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[2]. Cruse, A. (2000).Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics.
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[4]. Cruse, A. (2006). A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics. Finland: Edinburgh University Press.
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Paper Title :: Navigating Intimacy and Sexuality in Older Adults in their Later Life Stages: A Life Course Perspective
Author Name :: Josephine Misaro
Country :: United States
Page Number :: 55-63
This article explores the interplay of intimacy and sexuality in later life stages, employing the Life Course Perspective (LCP) as a guiding framework. It begins by highlighting the significance of intimacy and sexuality for older adults, challenging ageist stereotypes, and emphasizing the need for a holistic understanding that considers individuals' life course trajectories. Societal perceptions and attitudes toward intimacy and sexuality in older adults are examined, revealing the pervasive influence of ageism and stigma on individuals' experiences and expressions of sexuality. The article discusses the challenges and barriers faced by older adults in maintaining intimacy and sexual health, including physical health issues, societal stigma, and institutional policies. It further explores the role of assisted living communities in supporting older adults' intimacy and sexuality through education, programming, and advocacy. Additionally, the impact of life course transitions and societal pressure on individuals' intimate relationships and sexual behaviors is analyzed, emphasizing the importance of considering historical context, social roles, and individual agency. Finally, the article concludes with a call to action for promoting a more inclusive and supportive environment for older adults to navigate intimacy and sexuality, advocating for policies and practices that affirm sexual rights and autonomy.
Keywords: Intimacy, sexuality, Older adults, Life Course Perspective, Assisted living, life course transitions, sexual health.
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[3]. Armstrong, L. L. (2006). Barriers to intimate sexuality: Concerns and meaning-based therapy approaches. The humanistic psychologist, 34(3), 281-298.
[4]. Ayalon, L., Levkovich, I., Gewirtz-Meydan, A., & Karkabi, K. (2019). A life course perspective on the ways older men and women discuss sexual issues. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 48, 911-919.
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Paper Title :: Implementation of the Authentic Assessment Model in Problem-Solving Learning: Cases in Early Childhood Education
Author Name :: Rini Agustiningsih || Dwi Rahdiyanta
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 64-73
An assessment instrument is one of the most important factors to guarantee objectivity, fairness, and accuracy in assessing the level of students’ performances in the learning process. This study aims to produce an authentic assessment model on problem solving learning at early childhood education. The objectives of this study are to examine the feasibility of the developed authentic assessment model in the aspects of practicality, effectiveness, and its accuracy. This study was a research and development that adopts the ADDIE development model. The research subjects consisted of eight teachers and 44 students selected with a purposive sampling technique. The data were collected using questionnaires and observation sheets. Its data were analyzed with inter-rater reliability, inter-item correlation, and intra-class correlation. The results of the study show that the developed authentic assessment model on problem solving learning was feasible to be implemented at early childhood education.
Keywords: Early childhood education, authentic assessment, problem-solving
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[2]. Sudirman, N. (2005). Ilmu Pendidikan. Bandung: Remaja Rosdakarya.
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[4]. Supriyadi, E., Soenarto, S., Surwi, F and Prianto, E. (2017). Evaluating the assessment system of basic courses in the department of electricalengineering. Journal of Technology and Vocational Education,
[5]. Mulyatiningsih, E. (20120. Applied research in education and engineering. Yogyakarta: UNY Press.

Paper Title :: Are Environmental Spending And Environmental Levies Beneficial To Curbing Trade Imports' Carbon Dioxide Emissions? Cyprus Experience
Author Name :: Eric Tieku Agyemang
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 74-84
Due to the uncertainty regarding the environment in the global setting, which has drawn a great deal from stakeholders, environmental sustainability has emerged as a key concern in the process of globalization in the past few decades. Cyprus is making effort in addressing the country’s climate concerns, using structural vector autoregressive model (SVAR) and time-series data from 2008 first quarter to 2021 fourth quarter, this study investigates whether environmental protection expenditure and environmental taxes are addressing Cyprus’s carbon emissions embodied in trade imports. The result showed that carbon dioxide emissions, environmental protection expenditure and environmental taxes are co integrated. It was found that both environmental protection expenditure and environmental taxes promote reduction in carbon dioxide emissions embodied in trade imports in the short and long run. However, environmental protection expenditure is seen to have a greater reduction impact in carbon dioxide emissions. Contribution of variations in carbon dioxide emissions embodied in trade imports is largely explained by the variables own shocks in both short and long run, while environmental protection expenditure and environmental taxes play as supportive role. Environmental levies and protection expenditure have proven by the study to be an effective destructive factor in carbon dioxide emissions embodied in trade imports. Therefore, polices and strategies regulating them should be strengthen by the government through the finance ministry and other stakeholders in Cyprus to achieve even more success in handling environmental pollution.
Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, environmental protection expenditure, environmental taxes
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[2]. Ahmad, M.; Satrovic, E. Modeling combined role of renewable electricity output, environmental regulations, and coal consumption in ecological sustainability. Ecol. Inform. 2023, 75, 102121. [CrossRef]
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Paper Title :: Behavioral Intention to Adopt Artificial Intelligence for Teaching in Higher Education: A Case Study in Vietnam
Author Name :: Phuong Thanh Tran || Duong Thuy Nguyen
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 85-100
This research paper investigates the behavioral intention of lecturers to embrace Artificial Intelligence (AI) for teaching in higher education settings within Vietnam. As the global education landscape continues to evolve, integrating AI technologies into pedagogical practices has garnered significant attention. Drawing upon the two frameworks of Cognitive Appraisal Theory (CAT) and the Artificially Intelligent Device Use Acceptance (AIDUA) model with adaptations, this study examines the willingness to adopt AI-driven technology in teaching of Vietnamese lecturers. The study has collected 309 valid responses from Vietnamese lecturers and employed structural equation modeling (SEM) for a thorough analysis of data. The research identifies that literacy has the strongest impact on both performance and effort expectancy, though positively and negatively. Furthermore, it establishes that both performance expectancy and effort expectancy serve as antecedents to the generation of positive emotions, which ultimately contribute to the formation of the behavioral intention to adopt AI for teaching among lecturers in higher education. The insights derived from this research hold immense value for policymakers, educational technology developers, as well as researchers and instructors seeking to facilitate the widespread adoption of AI-based teaching methods in Vietnamese higher education. By doing so, this research contributes to enhancing the quality of education, fostering innovative teaching practices, and ultimately advancing the educational landscape in Vietnam.
Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Behavioral intention, Higher Education, AI in higher education
[1] Adiguzel, T., Kaya, M. H., and Cansu, F. K. (2023). Revolutionizing education with AI: Exploring the transformative potential of ChatGPT. Contemporary Educational Technology, 15(3), 429.
[2] Al-Gahtani, S. S. (2016). Modeling the electronic transaction acceptance using an extended technology acceptance model. Applied Computing and Informatics, 14(1), 79-101.
[3] Alpert, S. R., & Haber, J. (2019). Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. In Handbook of Distance Education, 359-375. Routledge.
[4] Baabdullah, A.M., Alalwan, A.A., Rana, N.P, Kizgin, H., & Patil, P. (2019). Consumer use of mobile banking (M-Banking) in Saudi Arabia: Towards an integrated model. International Journal of Information Management, 44, 38-52.
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Paper Title :: Effect of Non-Oil Revenue on Government Expenditure in Nigeria
Author Name :: Jolaiya Olatubosun Felix
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 101-112
The study investigated the effect of non-oil revenue on government expenditure. The specific objectives were to determine the effect of tax revenue, to find out the effect of government borrowing, to find out the effect solid minerals revenue; and to examine the impact of agricultural revenue on government expenditure in Nigeria. The study adopted ex post facto research and used time series data on tax, solid mineral, government borrowing, and agricultural revenue. The ordinary least square (OLS) regression technique to analyze the data. The major findings of the study indicated that tax revenue has significant positive impact on the government expenditure of Nigeria; government borrowing had significant negative effect on the government expenditure; solid mineral mining revenue has positive significant positive impact on the government expenditure of Nigeria; andagricultural revenue has significant positive impact on the government expenditure of Nigeria; the study concluded that non-oil revenue had mixed impact on the government expenditure of Nigeria for the period under review.Based on the findings, the study therefore recommended that there is need for the government to expand the tax net, this will increase the tax revenue and hence, improve the government expenditure funding; the government should expand the borrowing plan in line with the budget outlay so as to ensure that that the revenue from borrowing is tailored to meet budget needs and avoid over borrowing; the Federal government shore upexploration of solid mineral mining, this will further expand the non-oil revenue base and improve policies that help its expenditure; and there is need to provide more incentives to expand the agricultural value chain and increase the capacity of agricultural sector to contribute significant revenue for the government to finance its expenditure.
[1]. Adedipe, O. D., & Olayemi, F.O. (2018). Dynamic relationships among non-oil revenue, government spending and economic growth in an oil producing country: Evidence from Nigeria. Future Business Journal, 4, 246–260
[2]. Adennito , F.O. & A,O Abudulllahi, A.O. (2020). Comprehensive analysis of the effect of oil and non-oil revenues on economic growth in Nigeria. KIU Interdisciplinary Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(3), 161-186
[3]. Adeyemi, K.S., & Abiodun, A. J.(2013). Development of the non-oil sector in Nigeria: Challenges and lessons for less developed countries. Covenant Journal of Business and Social Sciences (CJBSS),5(1),1-
[4]. Adulagba, O., A. (2019). The role of agriculture in the economic development of Nigeria. European Scientific Journal, 10(4), 133-147.
[5]. Anyaehie, C. M., & Areji, C. A. (2015). Economic diversification for sustainable development in Nigeria. Open Journal of Political Science, 5, 87-94.

Paper Title :: Analysis of the Impact of Intercultural Communication in Private Higher Education Institutions Hosting International Students: A Literary Perspective
Author Name :: Sara Oudmine || Hanane Qaidi
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 113-120
This article offers an in-depth exploration of intercultural communication within private higher education institutions, highlighting interactions among international students and various stakeholders. Through a literary approach, the study aims to analyze the narratives, representations, and symbols that emerge from these interactions, providing insight into the complex dynamics of university life. By focusing on emotional, symbolic, and narrative dimensions, the article aims to enrich our understanding of intercultural communication in these diverse educational environments.
The research explores the challenges and opportunities presented by cultural diversity in private university campuses, examining how cultural differences influence interactions among international students, their local peers, teachers, and administrative staff. By adopting a literary approach, the article goes beyond quantitative data to capture the emotional depth and nuances of intercultural experiences in the context of private higher education.
The article underscores the growing importance of intercultural communication in the landscape of higher education, particularly in a context where globalization and cultural diversity have become integral aspects of university campuses. By highlighting literary narratives and representations, the study seeks to offer new perspectives on the challenges and opportunities related to intercultural communication, aiming to promote an enriching and inclusive educational experience for all individuals involved.
Keywords: Intercultural communication, Private higher education, Cultural diversity, Literary narratives, Student interactions.
[1]. Chen, L., et al. (2020). "Relationships between International Students and Teaching/Administrative Staff in Private Higher Education Institutions." International Journal of Higher Education.
[2]. Garcia, M., et al. (2018). "Communication Barriers and Cultural Prejudices in Higher Education." Higher Education Research & Development.
[3]. Hofstede Insights. (Year unspecified). "Understanding Cross-Cultural Communication Challenges."
[4]. Institute of International Education (IIE). (Year unspecified). "Analysis of International Student Enrollment by Nationality."
[5]. Jackson, J. (2022). Contextual Intercultural Communication: Theories and Applications. Cambridge University Press.

Paper Title :: Education in the Digital Era
Author Name :: Lior Ester Lewkowicz Shenholz
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 121-128
In 1991, Gidi Shenholz and his partner Tzachi Zloter left their jobs in the Israeli military industry in the field of electronic warfare and founded a start-up company called Pegasus Technologies Ltd. They used technological principles and ideas from the military field in which they were involved, and developed an ultra-sonic tracking system that follows the movement of bodies in a small space. The tiny tracking system was incorporated into the digital pen system that they brought to the market in the early 2000. A pen that looks and feels like a regular pen, writes with an ink refill like a regular pen on paper or a notebook, but while writing everything written is transmitted to the computer wirelessly because the system actually followed the movement of the tip of the pen.

Paper Title :: A Study to Assess the Social Media Addiction among Students Studying at GMC Anantnag
Author Name :: Nuzhata Nazir || Najama Bibi || Ulfat Rash || Nusrat Nazir
Country :: India
Page Number :: 129-134
This study investigates social media addiction among students at GMC Anantnag, examining its prevalence and correlates across demographic factors such as age, gender, and residence. Utilizing a sample of 100 students selected through random sampling, findings suggest varying addiction levels across age groups, with younger students exhibiting higher rates of severe addiction. Gender disparities reveal a higher proportion of severe addiction among females compared to males, while residence does not significantly influence addiction levels. Despite statistical insignificance, trends in addiction scores across age groups hint at potential variations. The study employs the Social Media Addiction Scale Student Form (SMAS-SF) to assess addiction levels, providing valuable insights for interventions aimed at promoting digital well-being and academic success within the student community.
Keywords: social media addiction, students, GMC Anantnag
[1]. Garcia, I., & Fernandez, J. (2019). Motivations and consequences of social media addiction among university students: A qualitative exploration. Journal of Youth Studies, 22(6), 753-769.
[2]. Jones, D. R., & Johnson, E. L. (2020). The impact of social media addiction on academic performance among university students: A systematic review. Educational Psychology Review, 32(3), 701-718.
[3]. Patel, F., [Last Name], G., [Last Name], H. (2021).Personality traits predicting susceptibility to social media addiction among undergraduate students.Personality and Individual Differences, 156, 109789.
[4]. Smith, A., [Last Name], B., [Last Name], C. (2019).Prevalence and correlates of social media addiction among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 65(5), 586-594.
[5]. Wang, X., & Wu, Y. (2018).Longitudinal effects of social media addiction on psychological well-being among high school students. Computers in Human Behavior, 82, 177-183.

Paper Title :: To Study the Impact of Social Media Addiction on Health among Students Studying at GMC Anantnag
Author Name :: Nuzhata Nazir || Najama Bibi || Shabeena Akhter || Nusrat Nazir
Country :: India
Page Number :: 135-140
This study investigates the impact of social media addiction on the physical health of students at GMC Anantnag, focusing on age, gender, and residence. Utilizing a sample of 100 students selected through random sampling, findings indicate that a considerable proportion experience medium physical symptoms, with variations noted between genders and residence types. Particularly, male students exhibit higher physical symptom levels, while no significant differences were found based on age or residence. These insights underscore the need for targeted interventions to promote digital well-being and academic success among students in this demographic.
Keywords: social media, addiction, health, students, GMC Anantnag
[1]. Brown, C., [Last Name], D., [Last Name], E. (2020). Social media addiction and mental health outcomes among adolescents: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Adolescent Health, 67(4), 501-515.
[2]. Jones, D. R., [Last Name], E., F. (2017).Meta-analysis of the impact of social media addiction on health outcomes among college students. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(8), 1839-1851.
[3]. Patel, F., & Garcia, I. (2019). Longitudinal effects of social media addiction on sleep patterns among university students. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 48, 101261.
[4]. Smith, A., & Johnson, B. (2021).The impact of social media addiction on the physical health of college students. Journal of Health Psychology, 25(7), 932-945.
[5]. Wang, X., & Kim, Y. (2018). The impact of social media addiction on academic performance among high school students: A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 110(3), 381-395.

Paper Title :: Income Distribution in a Developing Market
Author Name :: María Nubia Quevedo Cubillos
Country :: Colombia
Page Number :: 141-149
The shape of income distributions has been represented by several functional forms, including power law, gamma, exponential and even parabolic function. We follow the approach proposed in econophysics for fitting an exponential of Boltzmann- Gibbs to the lower tail of the Colombian income distribution and a Pareto function to the top income segment, and give possible explanations from the perspective of econophysics and economics. We found that, even though the approach holds relatively well in Colombian case, there is an important deviation in the surroundings of the low- middle class level of income, which suggests that other functions might be more accurate.
Keywords: Income distribution, developing market, Boltzmann-Gibbs, Pareto, econophysics.
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[4]. Angle, J. (2010). How the gamma law of income distribution appears invariant under aggregation. The Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 21, 325.
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Paper Title :: Investigating Iraqi EFL Student- Teachers' Assessment Literacy: Matches and Mismatches between their Perceptions and Knowledge
Author Name :: M.A. Entidhar Neamah Aboalshoon Janabi
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 150-164
The success of teaching, the quality of student learning, and the motivation of students to learn all depend on teachers' ability to effectively assess their students. However, studies have repeatedly shown that the levels of assessment literacy for instructors in general education and language teaching are inadequate. The purpose of this research is to gain an understanding of the current level of assessment literacy among Iraq EFL student-teachers as well as to determine the areas in which their assessment knowledge is lacking and where it excels. This investigation makes use of a descriptive quantitative methodology, which includes an assessment knowledge test produced by Farhady and Tavasouli (2018) as well as a teacher's perception assessment test. The outcomes of this research point to both strengths and shortcomings in EFL teacher assessment literacy, as well as matches and mismatches between student-teachers' self-perceived assessment literacy and the demonstrated assessment expertise of their students. Over half of all teachers of English to speakers of other languages believe they have sufficient language assessment competence. Nevertheless, the findings that were gleaned from the two tests suggested that almost two thirds of them lacked the necessary level of literacy in terms of assessment knowledge. According to these findings, it was discovered that there is a large discrepancy between students-teachers' beliefs of their assessment knowledge and the actual level of literacy that they possessed . The study may have some repercussions for EFL teacher preparation programs, teaching institutions, and other future research areas.
Keywords: Language assessment, Language assessment literacy, Formative assessment, Summative assessment.
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[2]. Al-Jabbawi, M. (2022). Designing a Training Program for Iraqi EFL In-service Teachers. Journal of the University of Babylon for Humanities, 30(2).
[3]. Alkharusi, H. A. (2009). Correlates of Teacher Education Students' Academic Performance in an Educational Measurement Course. International Journal of Learning, 16(2).
[4]. Alkharusi, H. (2010). A multilevel linear model of teachers‟ assessment practices and students‟ perceptions of the classroom assessment environment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 5-11.
[5]. Alkharusi, H., Aldhafri, S., Alnabhani, H., & Alkalbani, M. (2012). Educational assessment attitudes, competence, knowledge, and practices: An exploratory study of Muscat teachers in the Sultanate of Oman. Journal of Education and Learning, 1(2), 217-232.

Paper Title :: Soft Skills in Post-COVID Teaching- Learning: Case of the Expression and Communication Techniques Module, at the Higher Institute of Technology of Oujda, Morocco
Les soft skills dans l’enseignement-apprentissage post-COVID: cas du module de Techniques d’Expression et de Communication, à l’Ecole Supérieure de Technologie d’Oujda, Maroc
Author Name :: Mtafi Oifâa
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 165-173
During Covid-19, it was mainly a question of distance education, which demonstrated both advantages and disadvantages. We will base ourselves on the French Communication and Expression Techniques module, at ESTO at Mohammed Premier University, Morocco. Also: To what extent has this distance learning been beneficial to students? The method used in our study is the mixed approach, that is to say the combination of the qualitative approach, resulting from participant observation, and a quantitative approach. The results obtained during this survey demonstrate that there should be remediation in online courses, following established needs.
Keywords: E-learning, Communication, University training, Needs, Remediation.
[1]. Académie de Normandie (2018). « Les usages pédagogiques du numérique ». Consulté le Jeudi 22 Février 2024 sur :
[2]. Bachy, Sylviane, &Liégeaois, Michel (2016). Influence de la construction de cours en ligne sur les cours en présentiel, Erudit, 10(1), 6-72.
[3]. Bachy, Sylviane, Garant, Michèle et Frenay, Mariane (2008). Comprendre les niveaux d’enseignement. Cas d’une enquête menée à l’Université catholique de Louvain. Dans L. Mottier Lopez, Y.-E.
[4]. Benraouane, Ahmed. (2011). Guide pratique du e-learning. Paris : Dunod.
[5]. Boucherf, Kamel (2016) : « Méthode quantitative vs méthode qualitative ? » Contribution à un débat, Les cahiers du cread, 116(9), 09-30.

Paper Title :: The Effects of Unfocused Direct and Indirect Reading Corrective Feedback on Reading Skill of Iranian Pre-intermediate EFL Students
Author Name :: Maryam Seyed Moradi
Country :: Iran
Page Number :: 174-181
The purpose of the current study was to explore the effects of unfocused direct versus indirect reading corrective feedbacks on reading skill of Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners. To perform this study, 81 Iranian eleventh grade high school students from Din & Danesh high school in Neyshabur, Iran, were non-randomly selected. They took Oxford Placement Test and 48pre-intermediate-levelstudents were assigned into two equal groups of direct and indirect. Then, both groups were given a reading pretest before the treatment sessions to determine the participants' reading skill at the beginning of the research period. During an18-sessions course, both groups were taught 9reading sections of New Interchange for Pre-Intermediate Learners as the main teaching material. Having finished the experiment, the learners in the both groups were given the reading posttest to evaluate their reading skill. Data were analyzed through a series of t-tests to compare the means of the pretest and posttest of both groups. The findings revealed that reading comprehension performance of both groups improved. However, the results showed that the direct group outperformed the indirect group at the significant level. Implications of the study suggest that unfocused direct reading corrective feedback can enhance reading skill of Iranian pre-intermediate EFL learners.
[1]. Aksan, N., &Kisac, B. (2009). A descriptive study: Reading comprehension and cognitive awareness skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 834-837.
[2]. Alavi, M., & Kaivanpanah, Sh. (2007). Feedback expectancy and EFL learners’ achievement in English. Egitimde Kuram Ve Uygulama, Journal of Theory and Practice in Education Makaleler/Articles, 3 (2), 181-196.
[3]. Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J. A. & Wilkinson, I. A. G. (1985).Becoming a nation of readers. National Institute of Education.
[4]. Durham, K. F. (2011). External focus feedback for motor skill acquisition after stroke.(Unpublished Doctoral Thesis), University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
[5]. Fahim, M., & Hoominian, Z. (2014). The relationship between critical ability and reading strategies used by Iranian EFL learners. ELT Voices, 4(6), 70-78.

Paper Title :: The contemporaneity of Clausewitz's concepts in Welcome Operation: Evidence and Current Relevance
Author Name :: Telmo Santiago Borges || Tigernaque Pergentino de Sant'ana Junior || Eric Cavalcante Galhardo
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 182-186
Currently, Venezuela is facing an intense migration process due to the serious political, economic and social crisis that the country is going through. As Brazil has approximately 1,486km of border with this nation, it has become a viable option to escape this crisis. Given this, the Brazilian State decided to make efforts through government actions, employing multiple actors, with the aim of mitigating its effects in the northern region of the country. Through ministerial directive no. 3, dated February 28, 2018, issued by the Minister of Defense, Welcome Operation was created, with the purpose of carrying out the humanitarian reception of Venezuelan immigrants in the State of Roraima. To put into practice the planning and execution of the operation, the Humanitarian Logistics Task Force (FT Log Hum) was conceived, which proposed to guarantee continuous and timely advice to the operational coordinator of the task force, through a state- largest group composed of members of the Brazilian Navy, the Brazilian Army and the Brazilian Air Force. This general staff is responsible for uniting the efforts of the federal, state and municipal governments with regard to emergency assistance measures to welcome Venezuelan citizens and for interaction with other international agencies and civil society organizations. The concept of friction is a central idea in Carl von Clausewitz's military theory, where he says that it is all the factors that make war more complex and difficult. These factors include, for example, the uncertainties of the battlefield, the unpredictability of enemy actions, limitations of material and human resources, logistical difficulties, fatigue and fear of soldiers, among others. Friction, therefore, is a constant obstacle that affects all military operations, making them more difficult, uncertain and risky. For Clausewitz, understanding and managing friction are essential to the successful conduct of war. Given this, the following research question arises: Where is it possible to identify Clausewitz's concept of friction in the context of Welcome Operation? The objective of the work is to present to the academic community the contemporary nature of Clausewitz's concepts, through two cases in Welcome Operation, in addition to, based on this case, promoting debates and discussions about other possibilities of friction in the same operation. To this end, the research begins with the presentation of the structure of Welcome Operation, addressing its basic axes of action, and based on this understanding, seeking information and analyzing numerical data, particularly on sheltering and internalization and then, the concept of friction in more depth. With these understandings, through the quantitative monthly graph of Venezuelans internalized, the moment of friction will be identified and the reason why the friction happened will be discussed. In this study, a methodological perspective will be followed with a qualitative research character, through methodological paths such as: description, case comparison, explanation of results, observation and interpretation. To conclude, this work seeks, through Welcome Operation, to ratify the contemporaneity of Clausewitz's concepts, since his ideas studied in the 19th century continue to be relevant and influential today.
[1]. BARROS, AM DE; SIMÕES, G. DA F.; FRANCHI, T. Interview with Operational Coordinator of Welcome Operation Division General Antonio Manoel de Barros. Meira Mattos Collection, v. 16, no. 55, 2022.
[2]. CAPELL, D.; SILVA, F. Welcome Operation and National Defense: the internalization actions of Venezuelan migrants and refugees. National Defense, 24 Jan. 2021.
[3]. CLAUSEWITZ, C.V. Of war. London: Oxford niversity Press, 1984. Chapter 7 book 1 - Friction in war.
[4]. CRUZ, G.L. A study on Welcome Operation. Rio de Janeiro: ARMY COMMAND AND STAFF SCHOOL, 2020.
[5]. FRANCHI, T.; RAMOS, C.E.; FERREIRA, L.F. Concept of Friction: From Clausewitz to the present. In: Scientific Research in Military Institutions. Rio de Janeiro: Personnel Study Center and Fort Duque de Caxias, 2018. p. 169-205.

Paper Title :: Selected Factors of Teacher Experience as Correlates of Primary School Pupils’ Performance in Ekiti State, Nigeria
Author Name :: Dr Adu Ebenezer Taiwo
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 187-192
The purpose of this research work was to investigate the selected factors of teacher experience as correlates of Pupils’ performance in Ekiti State primary schools. This research was a descriptive research design of survey type. The population of this study was all teachers and students of the 909 public primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Fifteen (15) primary schools were selected from each of the three senatorial districts in Ekiti State making 45 schools. In each of the 45 school, four teachers were selected. These teachers were assessed by their heads of departments using purposive and random sampling technique totaling 180 teachers. Two instruments were used to collect data for this research. They are a questionnaire titled “Teacher Experience and Pupils Performance Questionnaire” (TEPAQ) and an inventory titled: “Pupils Performance Inventory” (PPI). The two instruments were validated by two experts in Text and Measurement who ensured face, construct and content validity of the instrument. Test-retest method was used to ensure reliability of Teacher Experience and Pupils Performance Questionnaire. The co-efficient value obtained was 0.68 at 0.05 level of significance. Two hypotheses were tested using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation statistics and correlated Matrix at 0.05 level of significance.The result showed that there was significant relationship between pupils’ performance and teacher experience and that there was significant relationship between student performance and all determinant factors of teacher experience. Based on the results of this research, the research therefore concluded that there was relationship between teacher experience and students’ academic performance in primary schools in Ekiti State, Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that teachers should be motivated so that they could stay long in the teaching service and that there should be periodic training and re-training of primary school teachers so that they would be able to have more knowledge on how to manage class effectively and in the area of mastering of subject matter and other determinant factors of experience teachers.
Keywords: Teacher Experience, Students’ Performance, teacher lesson planning, classroom management and individualized support.
[1]. Adedeji, S. O. (1998). Resource provision and utilization and academic performance in pre- vocational secondary school subjects in Osun State, Nigeria, (Unpublished doctoral thesis), University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
[2]. Bolarinwa, K; O. (2014). Teachers characteristics and students’ performance level in senior secondary school Financial Accounting. Journal of Empirical Studies. 1 (2) 48-53
[3]. Federal Government of Nigeria (20004). National Policy on Education. Lagos: NERDC Press.
[4]. Fehintola, J. O. (2014). Teachers’ Characteristics as Correlates of Students’ academic Performance among Secondary School Students in Saki-west Local Government Area of Oyo State. Journal of Educational and Social Research 4 (6): 459-468
[5]. Garet, M., Birman, B., Porter, A., Desimone, L. & Birman, P. (2001). What Makes Professional Development Effective? Results from a National Sample of Teachers American Educational Research Journal. (38 (4) 915–945

Paper Title :: Effect of the Naira Redesign Policy on Selected Economic Sectors in Southeast Nigeria
Author Name :: Jolaiya Olatubosun Felix
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 193-200
This study examined the effect of the naira redesign policy on selected economic sectors in Southeast Nigeria. The selected sectors were transport sector, Agribusiness sector and small scale manufacturing sector. The survey research design was with a well structured questionnaire to collect data. The study adopted the simple random sample techniques to make good prediction of the population and in determining the sample size of the population. The major instrument used for this study was structured questionnaire containing series of questions which captured the required information for the study. The questions contained in the questionnaire were structured and scaled in order to standardize the research instrument. The data used for the analysis are primary data collected through the questionnaire administered on the respondents from the selected economic sectors of Southeast Nigeria comprising majorly small business operators in Agribusiness, transport operators, and small scale manufacturing businesses making a total of population of 115 respondents. The study adopted 5 points likert scale. The researchers employed percentage analysis and the Pearson Chi-square maximum likelihood ratio to analyze the data. Relying on the empirical results, the study concluded that the naira redesign has significant negative effect on the economic sectors of Southeast Nigeria. Based on the findings, the researchers recommended: that there is need for the CBN to devise means of addressing the various identified challenges facing the naira redesign policy so as to enhance the effectiveness in enabling economic activities. The CBN should put mechanism in place to achieve the prospects of the naira redesign policy.
Keywords: Naira redesign, transport sector, small scale manufacturing, Agribusiness.
[1]. Akinleye, O. S. (2023). An overview of policy implications of currency redesign in Nigeria. Global Scientific Journals, 11, 2320-9186.
[2]. CBN (2012). Cash-Less Nigeria.
[3]. Business Day (2022). Naira redesign – the law and global best practices. and global best practices/
[4]. Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) (2023). Redesigned Naira Banknotes.
[5]. Central Bank of Nigeria (2015). History of Nigerian Currency.

Paper Title :: Testing the General Intelligence of Young Students Studying English
Author Name :: Rusu Cătălina
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 201-204
Intelligence has been studied over the years by various pedagogues, psychologists and even researchers, each providing a definition of this. However, we find in most definitions some common elements, namely the references made to: capacity, ability, skills or even activity. The novelty of this study consists in testing the intelligence of six years old students in order to develop the linguistic intelligence by studying English as a foreign language.
Keywords: intelligence, research, participants, variable.
[1]. Adams, C. (2021). The six secrets of intelligence. Icon Books Ltd.
[2]. Amstrong, T. (2011). Eștimaiinteligentdecâtcrezi - un ghid al inteligențelor multiple, pentrucopii. București: CurteaVeche.
[3]. Binet, A. (2015). The Mind and the Brain. Charlestone: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform.
[4]. Cantemir, G., Vovc, M. (2012). Aspecte ale valorificăriiinteligențelor multiple la ora de limbașiliteraturaromână. Globodidactica Biannual Journal of Applied Linguistic, Bălți. 3 (2), 25-42.
[5]. Descartes, R. (2020). Selected psicological writing. Cambridge University Press.

Paper Title :: The Deployment of Artificial Intelligence in Sports: Exploring its Psychological Impact
Author Name :: Yerznkyan Nora
Country :: Armenia
Page Number :: 205-207
The infusion of artificial intelligence (AI) into the realm of sports has triggered a seismic shift, redefining training paradigms, reimagining performance analysis, and reshaping strategic decision-making processes. Yet, amidst the fervor of technological advancement, the psychological reverberations of AI implementation in sports remain shrouded in ambiguity. This comprehensive research endeavor adopts a multifaceted mixed-methods approach to meticulously investigate the psychological footprint of AI deployment on athletes, coaches, and stakeholders alike. Through the synergistic fusion of quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews, this study embarks on a voyage to unravel athletes' nuanced perceptions of AI technology, its manifold impacts on performance, confidence levels, and the intricate tapestry of coach-athlete relationships. With a keen eye towards discerning both the luminous and shadowed contours of AI integration, this research endeavors to furnish actionable insights for optimizing its utilization while assiduously mitigating potential deleterious effects.
Keywords: AI, sports, psychology, artificial intelligence
[1]. Rees, T., Hardy, L., & Güllich, A. (2020). How athlete development systems facilitate or inhibit athletes' psychological resilience. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 2164. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02164
[2]. Robertson, S., & Kremer, J. (2021). Artificial intelligence and coaching practice: a systematic review. International Sport Coaching Journal, 8(2), 171-186. doi: 10.1123/iscj.2020-0123
[3]. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68
[4]. Wylleman, P., & Lavallee, D. (2004). A developmental perspective on transitions faced by athletes. In D. Lavallee, & P. Wylleman (Eds.), Career transitions in sport: International perspectives (pp. 1-10). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.
[5]. Vallerand, R. J., & Losier, G. F. (1999). An integrative analysis of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in sport. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11(1), 142-169. doi: 10.1080/10413209908402956

Paper Title :: Cross-Cultural Differences in Hotel Franchise Management
Author Name :: Bingxian Hao || Albattat Ahmad || Yi Zhao
Country :: Malayisa
Page Number :: 208-216
This study aims to explore the key aspects of successful hotel franchise management. In the context of cultural differences, the research focuses on the example of the Chinese market. The research goal is to identify the most effective approaches to the management of hotel franchises in conditions of cultural differences. A study on the management of hotel franchises in the context of cross-cultural differences combines the methods of statistical analysis, the use of error formulas, the Pearson coefficient, and mathematical calculations to examine the studied variables. The findings confirm the importance of cultural characteristics, the quality of communications, and the impact on the dynamics of income indicators in hotel management. The practical application of the research results lies in the possibility of developing and implementing effective hotel management strategies that can provide visible results and long-term sustainability in a variety of cultural environments. The scientific value of the study is a balanced approach to the management of hotel franchises in China. This approach includes an analysis of cultural characteristics, communication mechanisms, and personnel motivation strategies.
Keywords: China; cultural values; franchisees; management efficiency; tourism
[1]. Agag, G., Durrani, B. A., Shehawy, Y. M., Alharthi, M., Alamoudi, H., El-Halaby, S., Hassanein, A., & Abdelmoety, Z. H. (2023). Understanding the link between customer feedback metrics and firm performance. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 73, 103301.
[2]. Agyeiwaah, E., Otoo, F. E., Suntikul, W., & Huang, W. (2019). Understanding culinary tourist motivation, experience, satisfaction, and loyalty using a structural approach. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 36(3), 295-313.
[3]. Ahn, M., & McKercher, B. (2018). Hofstede‟s cultural indices revisited: The relationship between cultural values and international tourism. Tourism, Culture and Communications,18(4), 241-250.
[4]. Alcock, I., White, M. P., Taylor, T., Coldwell, D. F., Gribble, M. O., Evans, K. L., Corner, A., Vardoulakis, S., & Fleming, L. E. (2017). „Green‟on the ground but not in the air: Pro-environmental attitudes are related to household behaviours but not discretionary air travel. Global Environmental Change, 42, 136-147.
[5]. Balderas-Cejudo, A., Patterson, I., & Leeson, G. W. (2019). Senior foodies: A developing niche market in gastronomic tourism. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 16, 100152.