Volume 07 - Issue 02

Paper Title :: Archetype and Attribute of Human Figure at Ladori Cave Art
Author Name :: Muhamad Ardian Syah || R. Cecep Eka Permana
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 01-10
This paper refers to the archetypal and human figures form found on the Ladori cave site. In the study of archetypes and the attributes of rock art is important to know the character of human depiction is the product of the collective unconscious. The problem in this study is how the characteristics of human figures attribute to the Ladori cave art site based on the archetype iconography. This study uses formal methods that focus on shapes, postures, and gestures of solid human images according to data found in the field. The data of rock art human form found in the Ladori cave of 37 images into two groups of the single man and the group. The result of the Analysis shows the posture of the human is depicted as standing up and sitting. On the other hand, the gesture of human figures indicates that the hands and feet that the artist has deliberately created according to their territory. As for the conclusion of this study, the characteristic image of the human being suggests the role the subconscious plays in the depiction of the human being as the product of consciousness.
Keywords: Archetype, Attribute, Rock Art, Human Figure, Ladori Cave
[1]. Anati, E. (2019). The Typology of Rock Art. Expression N23, 7–23.
[2]. Aubert, M., Lebe, R., Oktaviana, A. A., Tang, M., Burhan, B., Hamrullah, Jusdi, A., Abdullah, Hakim, B., Zhao, J. xin, Geria, I. M., Sulistyarto, P. H., Sardi, R., & Brumm, A. (2019). Earliest hunting scene in prehistoric art. Nature, 576(7787), 442–445.
[3]. Fones, A. M. (2021). Rock art and ontology of images the ecology of images in hunter-gatherer and agrarian rock art. In O. M. Abadia & M. Porr (Eds.), Ontologies of Rock Art: Images, Relational Approaches, and Indigenous Knowledges. Taylor and Francis.
[4]. Garlake, P. S. (1994). Archetypes and Attributes: Rock Paintings in Zimbabwe. World Archaeology, 25(3), 346–355.
[5]. George, L. (2013). Painting Postures: Body Symbolism in San Rock Art of The North Eastern Cape, South Africa [Dissertation]. University of the Witwatersrand.

Paper Title :: Curve Fitting and Interpolation Polynomiale
Author Name :: Mohammed Abdul Rasoul Tohma
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 11-18
Matching curves is a method in which a mathematical synthesis is made through equations for a number of points through which a curve is created that goes through the specified data, forming the best equation that can go through the points. Curves are of two types: a straight line that passes through the specified points exactly. An approximation that passes through most of the points or close to each other.
The method of least squares is a standard approach to the approximate solution of over determined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns. "Least squares" means that the overall solution minimizes the sum of the squares of the errors made in the results of every single equation. The most important application is in data fitting. The best fit in the least-squares sense minimizes the sum of squared residuals, a residual being the difference between an observed value and the fitted value provided by a model. Least squares problems fall into two categories: linear or ordinary least squares and non-linear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns.
[1]. Lancaster P, Salkauskas K. Curve and Surface Fitting, an Introduction. San Diego (CA), Academic Press Ltd, 1987.
[2]. F. Gerald & P. O. Wheatley, Applied numerical analysis, Pearson, 2004.
[3]. Roberto Cavoretto, A numerical algorithm for multidimensional modeling of scattering data points, Computational and Applied Mathematics. 2013
[4]. Salomon, David 2005, Curves and Surfaces for Computer Graphics. Springer Verlag, August 2005.

Paper Title :: The Yellow Book Women in Indonesia: Exploring the Experience of Ustadzah Zaimar
Author Name :: Erman
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 19-26
This study discussed Yellow BookWomen in Indonesia with a focus on the existence of a female ulama, Ustadzah Zaimar,who has made a major contribution to continuing the yellow book tradition. The research aimed to describe the Yellow Book Woman in Indonesia through a study of theUstadzah Zaimah figure.The phenomenon was discussed using qualitative methods and a historical approach with the following steps; heuristics, source criticism, analysis, and historiography. The research findingswere that Ustadzah Zaimar was a scholar who had a strong desire to continuethe Yellow Book traditionformed through interaction, andsocializationin a long historical process.Therefore,she hadthe cognition and intellectual capitalneeded in the field of yellow books ina reproduction ofroles, such as yellow book teacher andhalaqah guide.
Keyword: Yellow Book, Indonesion Women, Ustadzah Zaimar
[1]. Al-„Azīs, A. (2010). al-Imān al-‘Alāmah Muhammad bin Yusūf al-Sanūsī Wujūduhu fī Khidmah al-Ḥadīṡ al-Nabāwī al-Syarīf. al-Jazāir: Dār al-Kardadah.
[2]. Asrohah, H. (1997). Sejarah Pendidikan Islam.Surabaya: Pustaka Progresif.
[3]. Azra, A. (2002). Surau: Pendidikan Islam Tradisi dan Modernisasi Menuju Millennium Baru. Jakarta: Logos Wacana Ilmu.
[4]. Baijuri, S.B. (n.d.). Ḥāsyiyah bi Tahqīq al-Maqām Kifāyah al-‘Awāmfī ‘Ilm al-Kalām.Jakarta: al-Haramain.
[5]. Bruinessen, M.V. (2012). Kitab Kuning, Pesantren dan Tarekat. Yogyakarta: Gading Publishing.

Paper Title :: Development of Product-Based Lecture Model: An Effort to Increase the Academic Work Productivity of Students and Lecturers in the Arabic Language and Literature Study Program at UIN Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang
Author Name :: Moh Zawawi || Moch. Said || Abdul Basid
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 27-34
This research offers a course lecture model that can produce projects. Facts show that learning strategies that are often used in the context of social science are lectures and discussions. Learning strategies affect learning outcomes that impact the quality of learning. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to describe the product-based lecture model in the Arabic Language and Literature Study Program, Faculty of Humanities, UIN Maulana Malik Ibahim Malang. The sample in this study is a project-based course. This research uses a qualitative approach. The data collection techniques were observation and interview. While the data analysis technique used is qualitative data analysis technique which includes data reduction, data exposure, and conclusion drawing. The results in this study are several lecture models that can use project-based learning methods, these project models are journal articles and others.
Keyword: development, productivity, Model and BSA
[1]. Ahsan, M. M. (2018). Efisiensi Penggunaan Elearning Dengan Memanfaatkan Teknologi Mobile Wireless Pada Stain Parepare. Al-Islah, 16(2), 155–161.
[2]. Amaliyah. (2019). Program Kemitraan Masyarakat: Peningkatan Kemampuan Penulisan Karya Ilmiah dan Teknik Publikasi di Jurnal Internasional. Jurnal Pengabdian Masyarakat, 1(1), 49–56. Retrieved from
[3]. Ang, K. C. S., Afzal, F., & Crawford, L. H. (2021). Transitioning from passive to active learning: Preparing future project leaders. Project Leadership and Society, 2(12), 1–11.
[4]. Aranzabal, A., Epelde, E., & Artetxe, M. (2022). Team formation on the basis of Belbin’s roles to enhance students’ performance in project based learning. Education for Chemical Engineers, 38, 22–37.

Paper Title :: The Effectiveness of Using SONGS and GAMES to Teach and Learn EFL at first and second –form schools in Goma
Author Name :: Prosper Mbuli Kinyamuguma
Country :: The Democratic Republic of Congo
Page Number :: 35-44
This article deals with “The Effectiveness of Teaching and Learning English Language through Songs and Games in First and Second Forms Secondary Schools in Goma: Case Study of Bakanja and Nyabushong Institutes in 2022-2023” Nowadays there are controversial views regarding the acquisition, learning of languages by children. It is commonly agreed that language is learnt through imitation, especially as per behavioural theories. This implies that both first and second or foreign languages are learnt in the same way. They say, learning languages irrespective of whether they are first, second, third… follows the same steps. The purpose of the study is to point the main ideas of English language learning using games and games. The objectives are to study the problem of teaching and learning English as a foreign language, to study trends in teaching a second or foreign language related to games and songs used in the classroom for teaching it; it was also examined the impact of language games and songs on classroom interaction. The methodology includes literature review related to the topic; methods of presentation, analysis and interpretation of both students and teachers data collection using both teacher’s and pupil’s questions and interview. The most important results are understanding how children learn a language, basics of EFL teaching-learning, comparing monitor and input hypothesis, some theories such as accommodation theory, multiple intelligence, different types of interaction through language games. It is concluded that it is necessary to make EFL learning enjoyable, playful and stress free. The best way to do this is to introduce the new language through games and songs. When using them for educational purposes in a classroom setting is accepted as fruitful and beneficial, you can begin to devise language games and songs of different types. They have got a number of advantages in addition to the teaching language elements as well as the role that they play in English as a foreign language classrooms, to teach the First and second form learners. English Language teachers’ and students’ opinions were collected through questionnaires, interview and both direct and indirect methods which contain statements about both Teachers’ and students’ part; the findings were analyzed and interpreted in it.
Keyword: Effectiveness, Using, Teach and Learn, Games and Songs, first and second-form schools,
[1]. Avedon, E.M. & Sutton-Smith, B. (1971). The study of games. London: JohnWiley&sons
[2]. BAKER J. WESTRUPH: Essential speaking skills. 2003. Voluntary service overseas. ISBN: 0-8264-5844-0
[3]. BANCHROFT, W. Jane: Suggesttopedia and Language Acquisition: variations on a theme, Taylor and Francis, 1999
[4]. Chomsky, N.(1965). Aspect of the theory of synthax. Cambridge : The MIT press
[5]. Dakin, J. Songs and Rhymes for the teaching of English. Harlow : long man Group

Paper Title :: Βalance Assessment with Handstand in Artistic Gymnastics A Systematic Review
Author Name :: Dallas C || Mitsakou N || Mellos V || Dallas G
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 46-52
Gymnastics is an Olympic sport that requires long hours of training from a young age. Balance along with control of the body's center of gravity is one of the key elements necessary to produce superior athletic performance and one of the most basic parameters in gymnastics playing an important role in the successful execution of sports skills as well as in the prevention of injuries.It is a combination of innate sense and development of physical and mental training.The method used for the implementation of this study was a systematic review of literature references to collect and process all information on the assessment of balance in the sport of gymnastics. Based on inclusion data (studies from 1980 to 2022, full text published in English, the study involved male and female gymnasts who were assessed in dynamic balance with the handstand exercise. After analyzing the results, it is concluded that the use of handstand is an essential skill for the assessment of dynamic balance.
Keyword: Artistic gymnastics, balance, evaluation, gymnasts, handstand, posture
[1]. Aleksić-Veljković, A., Madić, D., Veličković, S., Herodek, K., Popović, B. (2014). Balance in young gymnasts: Age-related differences. Physical Education and Sport, 12, 3, 289-296.
[2]. Asseman, F., Caron, O., Crémieux, J. (2004). Is there a transfer of postural ability from specific to unspecific postures in elite gymnasts? Neuroscience Letters, 358, 2, 83–86.
[3]. Atilgan, A.O.E., Akin, M., Alpkaya, U., & Pinar, S. (2012). Investigating of relationship between balance parameters and balance lost of elite gymnastics on balance beam. International Journal of Human Sciences, 9, 2, 1260-1271.
[4]. Bettany-Saltikov, J. (2010). Learning how to undertake a systematic review: part 1. Nursing Standard, 24, 50, 47-55.
[5]. Butler, R. J., Southers, C., Gorman, P. P.,Kiesel, K. B., & Plisky, P. J. (2012). Differences in soccer players' dynamic balance across levels of competition. Journal of athletic training, 47, 6, 616-620.

Paper Title :: The Effect of 7-Weeks of Yoga Training on Flexibility, Balance, Upper Extremities Strength, Lower Limbs Power on Middle-Aged Health Women
Author Name :: Costas Dallas || Angela Tsopanidou || Stavroula Mpreggiani || Vasilis Mellos || George Dallas
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 53-59
The study set out to investigate how a yoga interventional training program affected the flexibility, grip strength, lower limb strength, and balance of yoga practitioners. 22 women, with ages of 36.09 ± 12.72 years, body weight of 60.27 ± 11.18 kg, and height of 166.00 ± 5.96 cm, participated in the study. Two groups of participants were formed: the experimental (EG) group and the control group (CG). Women who did not participate in any sports made up the CG, whereas participants in a particular yoga exercise program made up the EG. Over the course of seven weeks, the experimental group's participants completed two 60-minute exercises every week, for a total of 14 sessions spaced 72 hours apart. The baseline measurement was completed by the participants one day before to the commencement of the intervention program, to assess their starting performance level in the parameters under examination. The following tests were administered to all individuals following a brief warm-up that comprised a brisk run and mild stretching exercises: i) sit and reach test; ii) squat leap; iii) grip strength; and iv) Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The participants were assessed using the identical tests used for the baseline measurement one day following the conclusion of the intervention program. Findings indicated a marginal improvement in lower extremity strength together with a statistically significant improvement in the EG's assessment of flexibility and balance. The left hand shown a statistically significant gain in grip strength, while the right hand exhibited a non-significant improvement. On the other hand, the CG displayed a decline in efficiency across all metrics. The study's findings support the notion that women who practise yoga might benefit from increased flexibility, strength in their lower limbs, grip strength, and balance.
Keyword: Pranayam, Savasana, Yoga, flexibility, strength, balance, health population
[1]. Amin, D. J., &Goodman, M. (2014). The effects of selected asanas in Iyengar yoga on flexibility: Pilot study. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 18, 399-404.
[2]. Schmid, A. A., Miller, K. K., Van Puymbroeck M, DeBaun-Sprague E. (2014).Yoga leads to multiple physical improvements after stroke, a pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Medicine, 22, 994-1000.
[3]. Nayek, B., Chatterjee, K. (2016). Effects of 6 Weeks Yoga and Aerobic Exercise on Muscular Strength and Flexibility of Pre-Adolescence Students. International Journal of Yogic, Human Movement and Sport Science, 1, 12-6.
[4]. Ajayagosh, M. V., Mahadevan, V. (2018). Effect of Functional Strength Training and Vinyasa Flow Yoga on Selected Physical Variables among Men Soccer Players. International Journal of Physiology, Nutrition and Physical Education, 3,378-81.
[5]. Kartal, A., Ergin, E. (2020). Investigation of the effect of 6-week Yoga exercises on balance, flexibility, and strength in soccer players. International Journal of Human Movement and Sports Science, 8, 91-6.

Paper Title :: The Significance of Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare Technology Management for Organizational Engagement
Author Name :: Ezekiel Anthony || Norshahrizan Nordin || Wei Chern Ang
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 60-64
This research is designed to investigate the usage of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Healthcare Technology Management and to present its significance on Organizational Engagement among healthcare workers. The fast growth of data in healthcare has created an ideal environment for the development of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Healthcare workers have experienced a paradigm shift brought on by Artificial Intelligence, which promises to increase the quality of services provided. Convenient Sampling is done, and questionnaires are distributed via google forms to respondent. Data is then analyzed using SMART PLS software. All above Cronbach Alpha values are above 0.5, hence indicating that the questions asked are acceptable and hence is reliable for variables of Organizational Engagement, Decision Making, Change Management. The growth of Artificial Intelligence in the healthcare sector in the state of Perlis is indeed upcoming and in the developing stages.
Keyword: Artificial Intelligence, Healthcare Technology Management, Organizational Engagement
[1]. Abbas, R., Norris, T., & David Tudor Parry. (2018, November). Abbas et al Disaster Healthcare: Modelling Cross-Agency Communication. ResearchGate; unknown.
[2]. Abdulhafis Abdulazeez Osuwa, & Huseyin Oztoprak. (2021, October 27). Importance Of Continuous Improvement of Machine Learning Algorithms From A Health Care Management And... ResearchGate; unknown.
[3]. Ali Malik, H., Haider, G., Bhatti, A., Kamal, A. Z., & Khan, S. (2020). HRM Practices and Organizational Resources as Predictors of Collective Organizational Engagement: Mediating Role of Team Work Engagement. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 23(5).Google Scholar
[4]. Chen, L., Fan, H., & Clarke, M. (2021). Artificial Intelligence for COVID-19: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Medicine, 8.
[5]. Diana Cordes Feibert, & Jacobsen, P. (2018, September 20). Factors impacting technologyadoption in hospital bed logistics. ResearchGate; Emerald.

Paper Title :: Paragliding Sports Tourism Development Strategy: A Case Study in Bumiwangi Tourism Village
Author Name :: Tito Pandu Raharjo || Vany Octaviany
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 65-71
The study delves into the specific case of Bumiwangi Village in Bandung Regency, West Java, as a potential hub for sports tourism, particularly in paragliding. Despite its natural beauty and environmental sustainability, the village's tourism potential remains underdeveloped, posing economic challenges for the local community.Through an analysis of the 4A components of tourist attractions—Attractions, Accessibility, Amenities, and Ancillary Services—the study identifies key areas for improvement in Bumiwangi Village's tourism infrastructure. It underscores the importance of government support, community involvement, and strategic development initiatives in harnessing the full potential of paragliding sports tourism.Ultimately, it sets the stage for further research into the potential of paragliding sports tourism in Bumiwangi Village, emphasizing the need for comprehensive strategies to capitalize on its natural resources and promote sustainable growth in the tourism sector.
Keyword: Tourism, Sport, Paragliding, Attraction.
[1] Rowe NF. Sporting capital: a theoretical and empirical analysis of sport participation determinants and its application to sports development policy and practice. Int J Sport Policy. 2015 Jan 2;7:43–61.
[2] Masrurun ZZ. Kajian Strategi Pengembangan Pariwisata Olahraga Paralayang Di Kabupaten Wonosobo. Pariwisata. 2020;1(1):1–11.
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[4]. Djohan MI, Purwanto RE, Fitriansyah YD. Analisis Pengelolaan Water Sport Event sebagai Destinasi Wisata Olahraga di Danau Ranau Kab. Oku Selatan Prov. Sumatera Selatan. PUSAKA (Journal Tour Hosp Travel Bus Event). 2020;2(2):84–97.
[5] Indardi N, Sahri S. Pengembangan Paralayang Ternadi di Kabupaten Kudus. Media Ilmu Keolahragaan Indones. 2020;10(1):19–22.

Paper Title :: A Descriptive Study on the Three Dimensions of Language Assessment among ESL Teachers
Author Name :: Charlene J. Belmonte
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 72-80
Park (2018) argues that a well-written test is an important thing that exam takers will receive from test developers; to motivate them to fully exhibit what they can conceptually process and what they can execute in real-life, realistic, and interactive test content and scenarios are used.
[1]. Belfiore, G., & Lash, D. (2017, October). Assessment design for broader, deeper competencies. Next Generation Learning Challenges.
[2]. Bhat, A. (2022, June 13). Descriptive Research: Definition, Characteristics, Methods, Examples and Advantages. QuestionPro.
[3]. Brockhart, S. (2016, December 12). Performance assessment: What is it and why use it? Medium.
[4]. Brown, H. D. (2004). Language Assessment. Longman.
[5]. Carlson, D., & Albright, J. (2012). Composing a care for the self: A critical history of writing

Paper Title :: Unmuting the Muted: An Exploration of Possibilities towards A Women’s Alternative Radio Channel in Sri Lanka
Author Name :: K.G.L.A.N.S. Jayawardhana || S. Sriram
Country :: Sri Lanka
Page Number :: 81-87
Like many other South Asian countries, in Sri Lanka too, women have been treated in a subordinate way within the family itself, and they rarely find a form to speak up for themselves and about their real-life issues. As radio is very much intimate to women, it is significant to study the role of radio in bringing muted voices of women to the front-line and opening an avenue for women to discuss their issues, find solutions for them, empower themselves, and take part in the decision-making process in the country. It is a timely need as already her voice has been suppressed in domestic and socio-political arenas for decades. Hence, a study was carried out to find reasons for not having a women‟s alternative radio channel so far in Sri Lanka, the potential to establish a women‟s alternative radio channel in Sri Lanka, and the possible initiatives to be taken to establish a women‟s alternative radio channel in Sri Lanka.An audience survey was done using 100 female students from the Department of Languages and Communication Studies, Trincomalee Campus of Eastern University, Sri Lanka. With reference to the primary data collected through survey method it was found that, there are enough reasons for establishing a separate radio station for women in Sri Lanka, because women need a separate space to discuss their issues in a female public sphere and in the male-dominated working environment.Male supremacy in the Sri Lankan media industry and the need for a separate radio for women was not identified by the society are the major reasons for not having a separate radio station for women in Sri Lanka so far. The possible initiatives can be taken by the societal members, the government and the politicians, and by the academia to promote women‟s alternative radio station in Sri Lanka.
Keyword: Gender equality, South Asian region, Women‟s alternative radio
[1]. Crossman, Feminist Theory in Sociology: An overview of key ideas and issues, ThoughtCo.,2020.
[2]. A. De. Silva, Community radio: a tool for feminism in Sri Lanka‟s rural areas, during the webinar Political Strategies for Grassroots Feminist Communications, held by Capire on July 5th, 2022.
[3]. Alchetron. Muted group theory, 2021.
[4]. A. Pavlidis, S. Fullagar, Women, sport and new media technologies: derby grrrls online. In Bennett, A & Robards, B. (Eds). Mediated youth cultures: The internet, belonging and new cultural configurations. London: Palgrave MacMillan. pp.164-181, 2014.
[5]. C. Mitchell, "Dangerously Feminine?" Theory and Praxis of Women‟sAlternative Radio.In Ross, K., & Byerly, C. M. (Eds.), Women and media:international perspectives, 157-182. London: John Wiley & Sons, 2008.

Paper Title :: Western Imperialism and the Emergence of the Resurrection Phenomenon in the Islamic World in the XIX Century AD
Author Name :: Ading Kusdiana || Widiati Isana || Amung Ahmad Syahril Muharam
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 88-93
In the 19th century AD, many Muslim countries on the continents of Asia and Africa were colonialized by Western countries, as a result of their imperialism activities. This paper aims to elaborate the process of Western imperialism and the emergence of the Islamic revival phenomenon in the 19th century AD. The method used in writing the paper is historical methods, conducted through stages of heuristics, criticism, interpretation and historiography. The result of the study indicates that in the 19th century AD, many Muslim countries in the continents of Asia and Africa experienced imperialism from Western countries. This condition has awakened Muslim communities to break away from the imperialist practices of Western countries. In response to this condition, in the 19th century AD, various thoughts, actions and movements emerged in the Islamic world as a manifestation of Muslim community awareness to rise and revive through the appearance of the Wahabiyah movement, pan-Islamism, educational reform, emancipation, and rejection of the presence of absolute government.
Keyword: Western, Imperialism, Islamic, Revival and Awareness
[1]. At-Tahtawi, Rifaah Badawi Rafi. (1995). “Tanah Air dan Perasaaan Cinta Kepada Tanah Air” John J. Donohue dan John L. Esposito (Ed). Terj. Machnun Husein. Islam dan Pembaharuan; Ensiklopedi Masalah-masalah. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada.
[2]. Gibb, H.A.R. (1953). Muhamedanism. New York: Oxford University Press.
[3]. Ira M. Lapidus, Ira M. (1999). Sejarah Sosial Umat Islam, Terj. Ghufron A. Mas’adi. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.
[4]. Jan Romein, Jan. (1956). Aera Eropa sebagai Penyimpangan dari Pola Umum, Terj. Noer Toegiman, Bandung-Djakarta-Amsterdam: Ganaco.
[5]. Khalil, Syauqi Abu. (2021). Menyebar Kedamaian di Muka Bumi; Atlas Penyebaran Islam Mengajak Umat manusia Menuju Kebenaran Hakiki dengan Cara yang Memikat hati. Jakarta: Almahirssa

Paper Title :: Developing Decision Making Models by Understanding Ethics in Digital Marketing through Multiple Linear Regression Analysis
Author Name :: Sudipta Mitra || Dr. Suman Kumar Dawn
Country :: India
Page Number :: 94-105
In today's digital age, internet enterprises must comprehend ethics. While corporations are thrilled to use this data for marketing insights, many individuals are worried that their personal information may slip into the wrong hands and threaten their privacy. This research examines how ethical marketing methods used by digital marketing businesses effect business growth. This study used data from 514 customers who interacted with the study about product-related issues, deceptive advertising, misleading or unethical prices, customer care, deceptive packaging, environmental care, purchasing behaviour, digital marketing satisfaction, and honesty and integrity. Multiple linear regression analysis determines how ethical issues affect customer purchases. The study used regression equation models to identify consumer purchase moral dilemma variables. The main ethical factors impact consumer behaviour more. They offer environmentally approved products, real product presence, and true advertising claims. This study advises that firms analyze the repercussions of a few key ethical marketing strategies to develop long-term ethical practices. The study's major findings on businesses' morality may help establish strategies to sustain this industry.
Keyword: Digital Marketing, Marketing Ethics, Misleading Advertisements, Unethical Prices, Customer Care, Deceptive Packaging, Environment Care, Purchasing Behaviour, Honesty and Integrity
[1]. Abdurrahman, Saregar, A., & Umam, R. (2018): ―The effect of feedback as soft scaffolding on ongoing assessment toward the quantum physics concept mastery of the prospective physics teachers‖, Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 7(1), 34-40
[2]. Assegaf, S. (2016): ―The Effect of Services Quality to Customer Satisfaction by Using Internet Banking Service in Jambi‖, The Asian Journal of Technology Management, vol. 9 Iss. 1, pp. 21-36.
[3]. Brinkmann, J. (2002): ―Business and Marketing Ethics as Professional Ethics. Concepts, Approaches and Typologies‖ . Journal of Business Ethics - J BUS ETHICS. 41. 159-177. 10.1023/A:1021318710382
[4]. Chaffey, D., & Smith, P. (2008): ―E-marketing Excellence: planning, and optimizing digital marketing‖ Routledge. UK. Butter worth Heinemann.
[5]. Chaffey, Dave. (2002): ―E-Business and Ecommerce Management. Strategy, Implementation, and Practice‖. Fourth Edition. Prentice-Hall.

Paper Title :: Code Switching and Code Mixing of Swahili Spoken in Goma Town
Author Name :: Mutabaruka Chiza Faustin
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 106-112
Our concern is Code-switching and code-mixing, evidence from Swahili spoken in Goma. I intended to depict not only the motives that push Goma people to use French words in their utterances but also discover whether the French words used block effective communication.
To reach this objective, I used qualitative methods research among which one on-one interview consisting on getting into contact with people using switch or mixing code, asking them questions in order to discover and understand their utterances on one hand and observing people uttering Swahili in order to take notes after. Carrying out this research, I explained French words that are used in Swahili utterances; I also explained the causes of that push people use French words in Swahili utterances.
Keyword: jargon, code switching, code mixing, effect, Swahili
[1]. AY Lee · (2018). Meshing and Writing Instruction in Multilingual Classrooms University of North alabama › praxis-resources › Code ...
[2]. Daisuke Shinagawa & Nico Nassenstein. (2019). On The Variability of Kiswahili In Bujumbura (Burundi); SWAHILI FORUM 26 (2019): 205-239 SPECIAL ISSUE: Variation in Swahili,
[3]. Eric. (2012). Inoculating against Jargonitis, Sword, Helen Chronicle of Higher Education.
[4]. K Stein-Smith (2020). Multilingualism for Global Solutions and a Better WorldAcade › download
[5]. László Varga (2010). Introduction to English Linguistics, A Companion to the Seminar, Eötvös Loránd University Budapest

Paper Title :: Politesse / Impolitesse Linguistiques Dans Les Interactions Médiatisées Marocaines
Author Name :: Hicham Mahtane
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 113-121
The following study turns to the use of the forms of politeness and impoliteness in Moroccan mediated interactions with instant messaging, synchronical and asynchronical one. We describe and we analyze the language practices of Moroccan chat speakers within the framework of the exchange on line as a sociotechnical communication device. It lies within the scope of sociolinguistics and brings a reflection on the functioning and the characteristics of linguistic representation of the politeness and impoliteness in the Moroccan chat, above all to understand much better how and why.
Keyword: Politeness, impoliteness, mediated interactions, chat, sociolinguistic particularities.
[1]. ATIFI, H. (2003). « La variation culturelle dans les communications en ligne : analyse ethnographique des forums de discussions marocains », Université de Technologie de Troyes – Tech-CICO, Langage et société, nº 104.
[2]. BROWN P. & LEVINSON S. (1987). Politeness, Some Universals in Language Use, Cambridge, CUP.
[3]. CULPEPER, J. (2020). «Impoliteness and entertainment in the television quiz show: The Weakest Link » Journal of Politeness Research 1, 2005., consulté le 05 Janvier 2020.
[4]. GOFFMAN, Erving, La mise en scène de la vie quotidienne, vol.1 et 2 : la présentation de soi, Paris, Minuit, 1973.
[5]. GOFFMAN, Erving, Les rites de l’interaction, paris, Minuit, 1974 MESSAOUDI, Leila. Etudes sociolinguistiques, Rabat, Okad, 2003.

Paper Title :: Autism: Clinical Profile and Methods of Intervention
Author Name :: Eleonora Trachana
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 122-126
Autism is a serious developmental-communicative disorder that lasts throughout the person's life. Its treatment and treatment is a lifelong education of the individual in all life skills. It manifests itself with different symptoms both in the person himself and among other people. It appears before the completion of the first three years of the child's life, but it can be confirmed psychotechnically after the completion of three years. The incidence of autism is estimated at 3-4 children with autism per 10,000 of the child population. As for its etiology, it is considered to be biologically determined. However, the specific cause of the biological pathways remains unknown. Because autism is present from infancy, its causes are prenatally biological and thus cannot be linked to the parents or to the emotional and developmental world of the child. Autism features three main deficits: communication, sociability and creative imagination. The autism spectrum can be interpreted at three different levels: behavioral, biological, and cognitive. Regarding the intervention program to follow in a child with autism, a key step is to make an early assessment and diagnosis to begin early intervention and design an individualized intervention program. There is no specific treatment for autism, but more emphasis is placed on creating an appropriate environment and daily schedule that will be able to reduce difficulties. There are many therapeutic interventions and educational approaches aimed at enhancing functioning and learning social and communication skills for children with pervasive developmental disorders, such as the TEACCH program, Applied Behavior Analysis, social adjustment stories, and nutrition. which could have the character of a therapeutic approach. In addition to the person-child himself who is a shareholder of the whole process, participants are also the family, the school, teachers of either general education or special education, who must have the required knowledge to be able to have in their classroom a student with autism, as well as, of course, doctors as well as specialties such as psychologists, speech therapists, occupational therapists. Children with autism are withdrawn individuals, closed to themselves in a silence that screams deep down. The point is to hear their voice and respond to them.
[1]. Valamoutopoulou, X., Koutelekos, I. (2010). Theoretical approach to Asperger syndrome in children. The step of Asclepius, Volume 9 – Issue 3, pp. 308-322
[2]. Velenza, O., Pappa, A. (2012). Evaluation of the Care of Adults with Autism with the Method of Participatory Observation - Nursing Approach. Nursing, 51(2): 129-138
[3]. Yiannopoulos, G. (2006). Case study of a child with autism. Scientific Review, Issue 6, pp. 191-198
[4]. Gonella, E.H. (2006). Autism. Riddle and reality. From the theoretical approach to educational intervention. Athens: Odysseus Publications.
[5]. Papageorgiou, B. (2001). Individualized Assessment of Children with Autism and Creation of a Psychoeducational Program. New Pediatric Chronicles, Volume 1 - Issue 3, pp. 225-233

Paper Title :: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Civilization Evolution: Technology, Strategy, and Societal Transformation
Author Name :: Xiuli Chen || Joohan Ryoo
Country :: South Korea
Page Number :: 127-140
Human society's development starts with the most superficial cultures and now goes on with knowledge-based civilizations. In this evolution, we see that balance is very important, with spirituality and technology being the main points. Powerhouses such as DeepMind, NVIDIA, FAIR, and Microsoft Azure are taking the lead in shaping modern civilization through artificial intelligence (AI), which hasn't only transformed industries but also created norms in healthcare, communication, and digital interaction. This paper highlights AI's potential to be used in a way that goes beyond commercial use to make society better and create sustainable global progress. It emphasizes how important it is for international collaborations to tackle borderless challenges such as climate change or pandemics using automation's analytical prowess. While these companies are at the forefront of innovation, they have created a landscape filled with ethical dilemmas — reflecting today's more considerable uncertainties for modern civilizations. This discussion brings forward the nature of the volatile tech industry, where intense competition and economic pressures require a delicate balance between immediate technological triumphs and society's overall welfare. This analysis advocates for an approach not limited to pure technological advancement but also harmonized with ethical values focused on culture and humans. It emphasizes that AI development must come from a moral compass, ensuring it resonates with global cultural diversity while upholding human civilization's existence. The paper acknowledges its limitations due to its reliance on current literature or specific case studies, which may not show us the full picture, especially when considering perspectives from underrepresented communities or cultures with few documented AI interactions. Because of this limitation, all-inclusive research and dialogue towards AI discourse is invited.
Keyword: AI adoption, human-machine relationships, knowledge civilization, new forms of civilization, societal transformation
[1]. Abadi, H. H. N., & Pecht, M. (2020). Artificial intelligence trends are based on the patents granted by the United States patent and trademark office. IEEE Access, 8, 81633-81643. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2988815.
[2]. Amrullah, A., Nugroho, A., & Ramadhan, Z. (2023). PERBANDINGAN KINERJA WEB SERVER PADA PENYEDIA LAYANAN CLOUD MICROSOFT AZURE DAN AMAZON WEB SERVICES. Jurnal Informatika Teknologi dan Sains (Jinteks), 5(1), 92-97. DOI:
[3]. Ansyah, A. S. S., Arifin, M., Alfan, M. B., Suriawan, M. V., Farhansyah, N. H., Shiddiqi, A. M., & Studiawan, H. (2023, February). MQTT Broker Performance Comparison between AWS, Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform. In 2023 International Conference on Recent Trends in Electronics and Communication (ICRTEC) (pp. 1-6). IEEE. Doi: 10.1109/ICRTEC56977.2023.10111870.
[4]. Ashurst, C., Hine, E., Sedille, P., & Carlier, A. (2022, June). Ai ethics statements: analysis and lessons learnt from neurips broader impact statements. In Proceedings of the 2022 ACM Conference on Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency (pp. 2047-2056).
[5]. Avlakulov, A. M. (2023). Evolution of Views on ―Technogenic Civilization‖. International Journal of Social Science Research and Review, 6(1), 441-446.DOI:

Paper Title :: A Study of China’s Diplomatic Neologisms: The Language Situation in China from 2010-2020 in the Context of International Relations
Author Name :: Zhang Xingxia
Country :: China
Page Number :: 141-155
The research investigates on China‟s present diplomatic situations from the perspective of media neologisms listed in the The Language Situation inChina2010 to 2020categorizingvariousformsof diplomatic neologisms with respect to international relations. The present data analysis offers a panoramic view of China‟s diplomacy to the readers in anticipation that they will develop a better understanding of China‟s present diplomatic situations so as to generate intellectual support for China‟s future diplomatic practices and setting an example for contemporary international relations. The research established the categories by which these neologisms may be classified. Divided by fields, the subdivisions include economic diplomacy, military diplomacy, and scientific and technological diplomacy, all of which are under the umbrella of hard power diplomacy, whereas political diplomacy, cultural diplomacy and medical diplomacy, come under the umbrella of soft power diplomacy. Divided by their nature, the subdivisions involve policy type, pattern type, event type, achievement type and organization/platform type, as well as site type, color type and figure type. They reflect China‟s present diplomatic situations in a relatively realistic and objective way.
Keyword: diplomatic neologisms; The Language Situation in China; hard power diplomacy; soft power diplomacy; international relations
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[2]. Chen, Yuan. Sociolinguistics (Beijing: The Commercial Press, 2000).
[3]. Compiled by China Institute of CPC Literature Research. Selection and Compilation of Important Documents Since the 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Volume I) (Beijing: People‟s Publishing House, 2003).
[4]. Deng, Xiao-ping. Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping (Volume III) (Beijing: People‟s Publishing House, 1994).
[5]. Guzzini, Stefano and Leander, Anna. Constructivism and International Relations: Alexander Wendt and his Critics (London: Routledge, 2005).

Paper Title :: The Correlation between Kudat, Sabah Primary School Students' Motivation and Acceptance of the History Curriculum
Author Name :: Justafahary Johari || Mohd Mahzan Awang || Norasmah Othman
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 156-162
This quantitative study was conducted to analyze the relationship between motivation and the acceptance of primary school students towards the History curriculum in Kudat, Sabah. The main focus of this study is to identify the extent of students' motivation towards the History curriculum and to measure their level of acceptance. The study involved 177 students from 20 primary schools located in urban, suburban, and rural areas of Kudat, who were selected through simple random sampling to respond to the survey. The findings indicate that students in the Kudat district have high motivation and accept the History curriculum well. In terms of implications, these findings provide guidance for students and teachers. For students, the findings emphasize the importance of having a proactive attitude in acquiring knowledge and discipline in learning to enhance academic achievement. From the teacher's perspective, the study suggests the need for adaptation to modern technology in teaching and learning, in response to changing times. This research is important as a reference for other researchers to expand understanding of the relationship between motivation and acceptance of the History curriculum in Malaysia, especially in the context of primary school students. It also provides practical implications for educators to improve the quality of teaching and learning History in schools. Hopefully, this writing will contribute usefully as a reference for researchers to expand this study.
Keyword: Learning motivation, virtuous behaviour, academic curriculum, and primary school
[1]. Aini ini Hassan & Siti Hawa Abdullah. (2008). Sejarah Perkembangan Kurikulum Sejarah di Malaysia dalam "Perjuangan Memperkasakan Pendidikan di Malaysia: Pengalaman 50 Tahun Merdeka" oleh Nik Azis Nik Pa dan Noraini Idris, 2008, Oleh Nik Azis Nik Pa dan Noraini Idris. Utusan Publications and Distributors Sdn. Bhd.
[2]. Anuar Ahmad, Siti Haishah Abdul Rahman & Nor Atiqah T. Abdullah. (2009). Tahap Keupayaan Pengajaran Guru Sejarah dan Hubungannya dengan Pencapaian Murid di Sekolah Berprestasi Rendah. "Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia," 34 (1), 53-66.
[3]. Ahmad, A. R., Seman, A. A., Awang, M. M. & Sulaiman, F. (2015). Application of multiple intelligence theory to increase student motivation in learning history. "Asian Culture and History," 7(1), 210.
[4]. Ahmad, A,. & Jinggan, N. (2017). Pengaruh Kompetensi Kemahiran guru dalam pengajaran Terhadap pencapaian akademik pelajar dalam mata pelajaran Sejarah. "JuKu: Jurnal Kurikulum & Pengajaran Asia Pasifik," 3 (2), 1-11.
[5]. Ahmad Rahim, Azwani Ismail, Abdul Razaq Ahmad, Zahara Aziz & Sharifah Nur. (2011). Kurikulum Sejarah ke Arah Pembentukan Perpaduan Kaum di Malaysia. "Jurnal Pendidikan dan Latihan."

Paper Title :: Resilience Strategy for Farmers Faced with Boko Haram Armed Groups in the Far North of Cameroon
Author Name :: Dr. Christelle Edwige ANABA NAAMBOW
Country :: Cameroon
Page Number :: 163-177
The objective of this article is to analyze the resilience of the peasant populations, victims of the abuses of the Islamist Group Boko Haram in the Far North Region of Cameroon.This article is qualitative. Field data was collected in the Far North Region, in parallel with documentary research in March and April 2021. Interviews were carried out with officials from the Cameroonian Government, NGOs, and Community Organizations. United Nations in charge of internally displaced persons and Refugees, internally displaced persons, members of host families. In addition, direct observation was made of the structures set up to facilitate the resilience of vulnerable populations in the Far North Region. The conflict with Boko Haram regularly commits massacres and violence of rare cruelty perpetrated against civilians, intentional homicides (suicide bombings in civilian areas), acts of torture, hostage-taking, kidnappings, recruitment of child soldiers, looting and destruction of public, private and religious property, suicide attacks often committed by women and children, affecting the survival of local populations. Overnight, in search of means of survival, a former cattle breeder moved to an office job offered by NGOs or other international structures set up for conflict and post-conflict management. However, this tertiarisation of activities and this modification of flows constitute obstacles to the resilience of the people of the Far North. The tertiarisation of activities removes the victims of the Boko Haram conflict from their original cultures, from their ways of life before the passage of Boko Haram. How can we enable a population to recover in such a context if the actions of the Cameroonian Government and its partners in the management of internally displaced persons, refugees and host populations have the consequences of causing the bases of their identities, their traditions, to disappear, their habits and customs.
Keyword: Boko Haram, peasantry, insecurity, vigilante groups, resilience, Mayo-Tsanaga, Cameroon
[1]. Bonhôte J. Cameroon | Displacement Report, Far North Region. 2017;
[2]. ILC [Internet]. [cité 21 févr 2024]. MBORORO SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATION. Disponible sur:
[4]. Résilience organisationnelle - Guy Koninckx, Gilles Teneau | [Internet]. [cité 21 févr 2024]. Disponible sur:
[5]. Cyrulnik B. Préface. In: Famille et Résilience [Internet]. Paris: Odile Jacob; 2010 [cité 21 févr 2024]. p. 7‑13. (Hors collection). Disponible sur:

Paper Title :: The Challenges of Implementation of Islamic Criminal Law in Bangladesh: An Analysis Based on Islamic Point of View and Contemporary Legal System
Author Name :: AHM Shafiqul Islam || Dr. Hj. Ahmad Nasir Mohd Yusoff
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 178-186
Islam, as a comprehensive way of life, provides guidance on various aspects of humanexistence through Shariyah. Among the crucial branches of Shariyah, Islamic criminal law serving as aframework within the Islamic legal system. Shariyah, rooted in Quranic and Sunnah teachings, stands as a necessity for Muslims. This article examines into the challenges related to the implementation of Islamic criminal law in the context of Bangladesh, putting it side by side with conventional legal frameworks. Through a comprehensive analysis compressing in both Islamic principles and contemporary legal perspectives, the article investigates the intersection of Islamic jurisprudence and modern legal systems. Key challenges such as compatibility with human rights standards, Interpretation and Consensus, adaption of modern legal framework, educational reform, societal acceptance, and the role of state institutions are examined. The study aims to contribute to the ongoing discourse on the harmonization of Islamic criminal law with the existing legal framework, shedding light on the complexities and potential solutions in steering this complex environment.
[1]. Banu, Razia Akter (1992) Islam in Bangladesh, E.J. Brill, New York
[2]. Riaz, Ali (2010) Religion and Politics in South Asia, Routledge, 270 Madison Ave, New York
[3]. Rahman, Md. Ashikur (2023) How British colonial rule has shaped todays Bangladesh. Dhaka, Dhaka University press.
[4]. Ismail, F. B. H., & Sulong, J. Bin. (2018). The Development and Obstacles in Applying theIslamic Criminal Law in the State of Kelantan, Malaysia. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences,
[5]. Badar, Hammad. (2011) Marketing of Agriculture Product in Pakistan: Theory and Practice, Higher Education Commission of Pakistan

Paper Title :: ChatGPT's Reflections on the Changing Paradigm of Foreign Language Education
Author Name :: Shuying Lu || Jiaxue Zhou
Country :: China
Page Number :: 187-195
Artificial Intelligence (AI) technology is rapidly developing and increasingly used in many fields. Especially in the field of education, the use of AI technology is pushing the traditional education model to evolve in the direction of more intelligence and personalization. ChatGPT, as a model capable of understanding and generating natural language, brings new learning opportunities for foreign language education. As a model that can understand and generate natural language, ChatGPT brings new learning opportunities to foreign language education. The AI model represented by ChatGPT will certainly be deeply integrated into more foreign language scenarios to further improve the quality and efficiency of foreign language teaching. In order to cultivate talent more adapted to the development of the new era, this paper proposes that participants in foreign language education should change their teaching concepts and modes, recognize the potential problems and challenges, and promote the development of the foreign language education mode in the direction of being more intelligent and humanized, so as to realize the continuous improvement and optimization of the foreign language education mode.
Keyword: ChatGPT; foreign language education; reflection
[1]. M. Neumann, M. Rauschenberger and E.-M. Schön, ""We Need To Talk About ChatGPT": the Future of AI and Higher Education," 2023 IEEE/ACM 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering Education for the Next Generation (SEENG), Melbourne, Australia, 2023, pp. 29-32.
[2]. ZHANG, Zhixiong, ZENG Jianxun, XIA Cuijuan, WANG, Dongbo, LI Baiyang, and CAI Yingchun. "Information Resource Management Researchers' Thinking about the Opportunities and Challenges of AIGC." Nongye Tushu Qingbao Xuekan 35.1 (2023): 4-25.
[3]. Zhou Hongyu,Li Yuyang. The impact of ChatGPT on education ecology and coping strategies [J]. Journal of Xinjiang Normal University (Philosophy and Social Science Edition), 2023, 44(04):102-112.
[4]. Feng Yuhuan. The value of ChatGPT in education, potential ethical risks and governance path [J]. Thought Theory Education, 2023, No.528 (04): 26-32.
[5]. YU Hao,ZHANG Wenlan. Should ChatGPT be banned from academics--Depth thinking about teaching and learning[J]. Shanghai Educational Research, 2023, No.431 (04):6-11+29.