Volume 04 - Issue 09

Propuesta pedagógica desde las perspectivas de Piaget y Vygotsky
Author Name :: Lilian Daniela Monsalvo Cogua || Camila Andrea Hurtado Mayorga || Yuly Carolina Bayona Rodríguez || Leidy Johanna Pedreros Páez || María del Pilar Ochoa Núñez
Country :: Colombia
Page Number :: 01-08
This article presents the current state of progress of a proposal whose objective is to demonstrate the pedagogical possibilities of artistic education for the development of language and thought in early childhood of the preschool education level in an institution in the municipality of Soacha, Colombia. The theoretical foundation of the research has three major references, namely: Piaget, Vygotsky and the governing documents of the Ministry of National Education (MEN). From a descriptive-qualitative methodology, the research work rescues the validity of the works of Piaget and Vygotsky in the pedagogical setting. Among the main conclusions, is the importance of culture and society in learning processes, the need for pedagogical professionals to know the curricular guidelines of the MEN, the essential and reciprocal link between language development and thought and, finally, the teleological sense that artistic education should have in the integral formation of early childhood.
Keywords: Arts education, language, thought, early childhood, Piaget and Vygotsky.
[1]. 360Kids. (Agosto de 2021). Liceo Educativo 360 Kids. Obtenido de
[2]. Bonilla, E., & Rodríguez, P. (2014). Más allá del dilema de los métodos. Bogotá DC: Norma.
[3]. DANE. (2021). Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística. Obtenido de
[4]. Delors, J. (1996). LA EDUCACIÓN ENCIERRA UN TESORO. Madrid: UNESCO.
[5]. Dewey, J. (2008). El arte como experiencia. Barcelona: Paidós.

Paper Title :: Teacher Education, Hypermedia Language, and Social Constructions of Time
Author Name :: Lucila Pesce
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 09-15
In this paper, we undertake a dialectical analysis of the relationship between teacher training for the pedagogical usage of hypermedia language and social constructions of time. Drawing on Habermas‟ works, we argue that instrumental rationality is intrinsic to the currently hegemonic social construction of time, which relies on the concept of Chronos, objective time as measured by a clock; because Chronos does not account for contemporary social subjects‟ lived time, it promotes human objectification. On the other dialectical pole, we demonstrate the compatibility between communicative rationality and the concept of time as Kairos: lived time, something unique to each human being. Next, we elaborate on how Kairos and communicative rationality can help shape an Education whose goal is human emancipation. As a result of the dialectical contrast between these theoretical perspectives, we propose changes to teacher training processes so that the usage of hypermedia language may promote the emancipation of future teachers, enabling them to take on their role of makers of their own historical and social circumstances.
Keywords: Communicative rationality, instrumental reason, hypermedia language, social construction of time, teacher education.
[1] L. Santaella, “Gêneros discursivos híbridos na era da hipermídia” [HybridDiscursive Genres in theHypermedia Era], Bakhtiniana: Revista de Estudos do Discurso, (9), pp. 211-221, 2014.Available:,”
[2] R. Bogdan, S. Biklen. Qualitative research for education: an introduction to theory and methods, 3rd ed., Allyn & Bacon, Inc., 1998.
[3] J. Habermas. Consciência moral e agir comunicativo [Moral ConsciousnessandCommunicativeAction] (G. A. de Almeida, Trans.), 2nd ed., Tempo Brasileiro, 2003.
[4] M. F. Enguitta. La cara oculta de la escuela: educación y trabajo en el capitalismo. [The hidden face of schools: education and work under capitalism],Siglo XXI Editores, 1990.
[5] J. Habermas. Agir comunicativo e razão descentralizada. [Communicative action and the descentralized „use of reason‟], L. Aragão, Trans.; D. C. da Silva, Proof., Tempo Brasileiro, 2002.

Paper Title :: Contrastive Analysis of English and French Noun Phrases
Author Name :: Mukuru Mafurebo Théophile
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 16-34
Languages have some similarities as they have differences. This is confirmed by many linguists in fact.
Many languages have some similarities, sounds for example; in fact that humans live and have the same language faculty with the possibility however for some groups exploit this faculty more than another.
English and French languages being our concern may have not escaped. We are going to point out similarities and differences and try to predict difficulties a second language learner can encounter in learning.
[1]. Close. R.A(1975), A reference grammar of students of English , Combridge , Cup
[2]. Francoise Dubois – Chartier (1970), comment s’initier à la linguistique, librairie Larousse, Paris
[3]. Francoise Dubois – Chartier (1970),élément de la linguistique française et syntaxe, librairie Larousse, Paris
[4]. Geoffrey Leech JS (1984) A communocative grammar of English , London Longman group Ltd
[5]. VINELS et al (1984), Applied Linguistics and the Teaning and Teatching Foreign Languages, London Eduard Ltd amold

Paper Title :: The Role of Spiritual Intelligence in Encouraging Professionalism and Independence of Auditor to Improve Audit Quality
Author Name :: Amilin Amilin || Yessi Fitri || Sharifah Norzehan Syed Yusuf || Zuwesty Eka Putri || Wilda Farah
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 35-39
The objective of the study to obtain empirical evidence about: (1) The effect of auditor professionalisc on audit quality; (2) The effect of auditor independence on audit quality; (3) The role of spiritual intelligence in moderating the influence of auditor professionalism on audit quality, and (4) The role of spiritual intelligence in moderating the effect of auditor independence on audit quality. The hypothesis testing method uses Moderated Regression Analyzes. Data collection techniques through surveys. The type of data needed is primary data. Data collection using a questionnaire. The sample selection uses a purposive sampling method. The results of testing the data obtained empirical evidence as follows: (1). Auditor professionalism has a positive effect on audit quality; (2) auditor independence has a negative effect on audit quality; (3) Spiritual intelligence is not able to moderate the effect of auditor professionalism on audit quality; and (4) Spiritual intelligence is able to moderate the effect of auditor independencec audit quality in a negative direction. Auditors need to maintain a professional attitude and independence in carrying out their duties. Spiritual intelligence is not always required by an auditor in maintaining his professionalism and independence.
Keywords: auditor professionalism, auditor independence, spiritual intelligence, audit qualitc
[1]. Adekoya, A. C., Oboh, C. S., & Oyewumi, O. R. (2020). Accountants perception of the factors influencing auditors’ ethical behaviour in Nigeria. Heliyon, 6(6).
[2]. Anggadini, S. D., Norzehan, S., & Yusuf, S. (2021). Examining the Effect of User Participation and User Capabilities on the Accounting Information System Performance. 5(1), 1–8.
[3]. Atmadja, A. T., & Saputra, K. A. K. S. (2014). The Effect Of Emotional Spiritual Quotient (ESQ) To Ethical Behavior In Accounting Profession With Tri Hita Karana Culture’s As A Moderating Variable. In Research Journal of Finance and Accounting (Vol. 5, Issue 7, pp. 187–197).
[4]. Barrainkua, I., & Espinosa-pike, M. (2017). Differences among practitioners and postgraduate students. Cómo Citar Este Artículo:, xx, 1–12.
[5]. Barrainkua, I., & Espinosa-Pike, M. (2018). The influence of auditors’ professionalism on ethical judgement: Differences among practitioners and postgraduate students. In Revista de Contabilidad-Spanish Accounting Review (Vol. 21, Issue 2, pp. 176–187).

Paper Title :: Team building in organizations working remotely during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Author Name :: Catherine Nicca M. Carlos
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 40-43
When a member of a common group faces a common crisis, it pushes them to get through it together. But, working together in remoteness,caused by this COVID-19 crisis, is a very challenging set-up.If the expectation is to stay competent and work in one‘s full potentiality despite the demands of this pandemic situation, then this necessitates a proactive approach to nurture every member‘s holistic well-being. To intervene, modified and digitalizedteam building processes were found feasible by some organizations. This paper shows the contrast betweenthe conventional team-building strategies, and that ofthe New Normal team-building that is appropriated to the work-from-home set-up. Promising practicesare also mentioned; which organizations may find helpful to implement in their respective groups. Future qualitative researches can be conducted to describe the impacts of the New Normal mode of team building.
Key Words: Team building; Organizational development; New Normal;Work-from-home; COVID-19
[1]. CMAJ (2020) May 11;192:E522. Doi: 10.1503/cmaj.75499
[2]. Fennessy, F. M., Mandell, J. C., Boland, G. W., Seltzer, S. E., &Giess, C. S. (2021). ―Strategies to increase resilience, team building, and productivity among radiologists during the COVID-19 era.‖ Journal of the American College of Radiology, 18(5), 675-678.
[3]. Fidia, O. and Annisa, M. N. (2020) ―Team Building Training: To Improve the Effectiveness of Work Group.‖
[4]. Gunderman, R. (2019). ―An Appreciative Approach to Burnout.‖ Academic Radiology, Vol. 26, Issue 8, Pages 1118-1119, ISSN 1076-6332,
[5]. Han, H., Kim, W., &Jeong, C. (2016). ―Workplace fun for better team performance: Focus on frontline hotel employees.‖ International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 28(7), 1391–1416.

Paper Title :: Microfinance and Financial Empowerment of Low-Income Earners
Author Name :: Mojisola Oladunni Jacob-Udeme || Fanimokun Iyanuoluwa Olaoluwa || Godwin Emmanuel Oyedokun
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 44-49
In this article microfinance as a tool for empowering low-income earners to succeedfinancially was reviewed. In doing this it is appropriate to define the term microfinance and microcredit. Moreover, poverty which is a multi-dimensional problem and hence needs multifaceted Intervention was considered before discussing the relationship that is likely to exist between microfinance and poverty. The led to review criticism of microfinance policy of basically providing financial support to women after which a conclusion was reached.
Key Words: Banks, Empowerment, Finance, Microfinance, Low-income earners
[1]. Adjei, J.K., Arun, T., Hossain, F. (2009). The Role of Microfinance in Asset Building and Poverty Reduction: The Case of Sinapi Aba Trust of Ghana. Manchester: Brooks World Poverty Institute
[2]. Alam, A. B. K. N. (2005). Rural Women in Micro-Credit Programmes of Poverty Alleviation: A Study of BRAC in SadarUpazila of Netrokona District. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, Department of Agricultural Finance. Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh.
[3]. Arora S and Romijn H (2012) The empty rhetoric of poverty reduction at the base of the pyramid. Organization 19(4): 481–505.
[4]. Bakhtiari (2006). Microfinance and poverty Reduction. Some International Evidence. International Business and Economics Research Journal Dec 2006, 5(12)
[5]. Banerjee AV and Duflo E (2007) The economic lives of the poor. Journal of Economic Perspectives 21(1): 141–167.

Paper Title :: Analysis of the Last Planner System (LPS) and Least Cost Analysis (LCA) Methods on Time and Cost Performance in High-rise Residential Building Projects
Author Name :: Stefanus Willem Kastanja || Mawardi Amin || Syafwandi
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 50-55
Building construction is made by planning at the beginning of the project plan so that at that time, the building owner determines the type of building and the desired benefits. In the implementation of construction projects, the project duration is often accelerated due to certain conditions; for example, the project owner may want the project to be completed earlier than the original plan, or the owner will give a bonus if the project is completed earlier than planned. Herman Gregory Ballard, in his 2000 dissertation entitled The Last Planner System of Production Control. This research aims to find out whether LPS can increase the reliability of work plans with PPC above 70.00%. The study was conducted on several construction projects. This study concluded that LPS could increase planning reliability above 70.00%. Construction of the world in Indonesia today is faced with very complex projects and a short period and is expected to maximize the function of the schedule on time, minimum cost, and high-quality goods. To meet these challenges required a method to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness in increasing competitiveness in the competitive construction industry market. This study aims to determine and examine (a) How the understanding of project workers is related to the implementation of the method Last Planner System (LPS), Least Cost Analysis (LCA), and process control in high-rise residential building projects?; (b) How to apply Least Cost Analysis (LCA) to high-rise residential building projects resulting in project completion on time and cost according to the schedule and budget?; (c) How does the analysis of the LPS & LCA method affect the control process in the completion of high-rise residential building projects?; and (d) Can the method LPS & LCA work well in synergy or can it become an obstacle to each other in the control process in the completion of high-rise residential building projects?The research findings are (a) understanding of project workers related to the implementation of the method Last Planner System (LPS), Least Cost Analysis (LCA). Furthermore, control process in high-rise residential building projects, categorized as adequate, even close to good; (b) Implementation of Least Cost Analysis (LCA) on high-rise residential building projects resulted in project completion with a completion time of 109 weeks, and with an accelerated time it could be shortened to 102 weeks; (c) The understanding of project workers about LPS, and LCA, partially has a significant positive effect on understanding the importance of process control in every job in the project; and (d) There is a synergistic effect of project workers' understanding of LPS and LCA which can increase understanding of the importance of process control for each job in the project.
Keywords: LPS, LCA, and Project Control Process
[1]. Arditi,D.,Sikangwan, P., and Tokdemir, O. (2002). “Scheduling system for high-rise building construction.” Constr. Manage. Econom., 204,
[2]. Dipohusodo, Istimawan. (1996).“ManajemenProyek&Konstruksi – Jilid I”.Kanisius: Yogyakarta.
[3]. Ervianto, WulframI.(2002).“ManajemenProyekKonstruksi”. Andi: Yogyakarta.
[4]. Hegazy,T and Wassef, N.(2001).“Cost optimization in projects with repetitive nonserial activities.” J. Constr. Eng. Manager., 1273, 183– 191.
[5]. Hegazy, Tareq and Ehab Kamarah. (2008). “Efficient Repetitive Scheduling for High-Rise Construction”.ASCE Journal.

Paper Title :: Comparison of existing opinions on Volume in Plato’s “Menon” with modern-day studentsin Greece
Author Name :: Andreas Marinos
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 56-63
In this paper an attempt is made to repeat historical events related to how modern students perceive changes in the dimensions of objects (volume) in relation to those described in ancient texts. The research was undertaken by us in the 1stLyceum (senior high school) in the academic year 2011 in a large island city. There were 432 children in the sample. It would seem that modern students face the same problems in explaining how the volume of an object changes when changing its dimensions of width, length and height.
[1]. Aprea, C., & Ebner, H. J. G. (1999, August). The impact of active graphical representation on the acquisition and application of knowledge in the context of business education. Paper presented at the 8th European Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction, Göteborg, Sweden.
[2]. Avgerinos E. & Marinos A (2009). On using a dynamic Geometry software in the comprehension of the similarity of triangles. 6th Mediterranean Conference on Mathematics Education 22-26 April pp 194-204 b, Plovdin, Bulgaria
[3]. Brousseau, G. (1997). Theory of didactical situations in mathematics (Edited and translated by N. Balacheff, M. Cooper, R. Sutherland, & V. Warfield). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer
[4]. De Bock Dirk, Verschaffel Lieven and Janssens Dirk (1998).The predominance of the linear model in secondary school students‘ solutions of word problems involving length and area of similar plane figures Educational Studies in Mathematics 35 pp. 65–83
[5]. De Bock, D., Van Dooren, W., Janssens, D. &Verschaffel, L. (2002). Improper use of linear reasoning: An in-depth study of the nature and the irresistibility of secondary school students' errors. Educational Studies in Mathematics, (50), 311-314.

Paper Title :: Reverse Logistics: Disposal of Medicines Logística Reversa: O Descarte de Medicamentos
Author Name :: Prof. M. Sc. Rickardo Léo Ramos Gomes || Eveline Rocha Veras
Country :: Brasil
Page Number :: 64-72
This article focuses on reverse logistics and drug disposal. The general objective of this scientific article is to discuss the reverse logistics of correct medication disposal. The specific objectives are: talk about reverse logistics; comment on public policies and current legislation; address the rules for disposal and reason about the disposal of medications. The research is justified because it is a very current theme and involves life safety, environmental preservation and proper medication disposal management. As for the methodology used in the article's development, it is characterized by being a qualitative approach. In this work, a bibliographical research in books and scientific articles was developed, complemented by a documental analysis of official documents with the objective of providing concrete data for the discussion of the chosen theme. At the end of the theoretical survey developed in this research, it can be concluded that the awareness and collaboration of the population, in partnership with the government spheres, are very important to mitigate the potential environmental and public health risks that are caused by the incorrect destination of medicines.
Keywords: Reverse Logistics. Medicines. Discard.
[1] ALVARENGA, L.S.V.; NICOLETTI, M.A. Descarte Doméstico de Medicamentos e Algumas Considerações Sobre o Impacto Ambiental. Revista Saúde, 4(3) 2010. Disponível em: Acesso em 25/01/2021. ISSN 1809-0761.
[2] ANVISA. Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada – RDC 338. Diário Oficial da União. 38ª Edição. 1ª Seção. 20 de fevereiro de 2020. Disponível em: Acesso em 12/06/2021.
[3] ANVISA. Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada – RDC 222. Diário Oficial da União. 61ª Edição. 1ª Seção. 29 de março de 2018. Disponível em: Acesso em 12/06/2021.
[4] ANVISA, Resolução da Diretoria Colegiada – RDC 306. Diário Oficial da União. 7 de dezembro de 2004. Disponível em Acesso em 01/05/2021.
[5] BHS – BRASIL Health Service. Programa de Descarte Consciente. 2013. Disponível em: Acesso em 21/06/2021.

Paper Title :: Proposed Press Regulation Bill and Press Freedom in Nigeria: An Attempt at Chaining the Watch Dog or Training It?
Author Name :: Philip Teniola David || Sanyaolu Oluwaseyi || Emmanuel O. Sijuade
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 73-81
The Nigerian Press Council was established in the year 1992 with a mandate of serving as a bridge between the public, government and media in terms of instilling high ethical standards in the activities of the press through a decree known as the Nigerian Press Council Act. However, observations from both within and without shows that nearly three decades after the enactment of the act, the Nigerian media industry is replete with a plethora of ethical issues, thereby misrepresenting the core values which the press stands for. The federal government in a bid to bring a much needed reforms to the press has made multiple attempts to amend the constitution guiding the activities of the press through press council amendment bill, this move has however faced stiff opposition from the stakeholders within the industry on each occasion due to what they perceive as nothing but a move to gag the press. This is due to the stringent and extreme propositions of certain aspects of the bill which the stakeholders believe will take away press freedom. This paper therefore examines the pros and cons of the proposed amendment bill and concludes that rather outright rejection of the bill by media practitioners, there is need for a more elaborate dialogue between the government and the various stakeholders on how the press can be regulated without throwing away the baby with the bathing water.
[1]. Aliede, J. (2003). Mass media and politics in Nigeria: A historical and contemporary overview” In I.E. Nwosu(Ed.) Polimedia: Media and politics in Nigeria. Enugu: ACCE, Nigerian Chapter and Prime Targets.
[2]. Committee on Information, National Orientation, ethics and values. Public Hearing. (2021, June 17). [Video]. YouTube.
[3]. Ezeah, G.H. (2004). Problems facing freedom of information in Nigeria. Nsukka Journal of Mass Communication 1(1), 17-26.
[4]. Hon Odebunmi Olusegun Dokun,20 Nov 2019 Bill to amend the Nigeria Press Council Act 2004. (2019, November 21). [Video]. YouTube.
[5]. Ibrahim, A., Pate, U., & Usman, A. (2020). Silencing the Media and Chaining the Watchdog. Advances in Media, Entertainment, And The Arts, 214-240. doi: 10.4018/978-1-7998-1298-2.ch01

Paper Title :: Difficulties in Learning English: Views of Immigrant Students in the USA
Author Name :: Hatice Gonca Usta || Celal Teyyar Ugurlu || Esmira Mehdiyev
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 82-95
The problems faced by students leaning a foreign language in non-English-speaking countries may not only be psychological in nature, like motivation, attitude, and perception, but also practical, in the sense that students lack the opportunity to learn English through day-to-day interaction. To address this latter issue, some students prefer to learn English in native English-speaking countries. This study has aimed to explore the lived experiences of learning ESL from the perspective of immigrant students in the USA. The descriptive phenomenology method was used in this study. All the participants indicated that their levels of English were insufficient before they came to the USA. In examining the primary difficulties, the participants faced in learning English, it was found that in terms of speaking, it was shyness, in terms of listening, it was accent, in terms of writing, it was the difference between alphabets, and in terms of reading, it was vocabulary. To overcome these difficulties, students should be encouraged to speak the language and be provided with psychological support to overcome their shyness about speaking. Studies similar to the present study should be conducted with immigrants who live in other English speaking countries.
Keywords: Difficulties in English learning, English learning, immigrant students, phenomenon study
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[2]. Akkakoson, S.. (2019). Thai Language Learners' Sense of English Ownership. PASAA. 58. 235-263.
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[5]. Bongaerts, T., Summeren, C., Planken, B. and Schils, E. (1997) Age and ultimate attainment in the production of foreign language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 19, 447-465.

Paper Title :: The Stylistic Characteristics of the Rock Arts in the Ruins of Kars-Sarıçayır
Author Name :: Asst. Prof.Sait Toprak
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 96-105
The Sarıçayır Ruins is an old settlement located within the borders of Ataköy, about 8 km south of the city of Kars. Unlike the drawings in the Borluk Valley and the surrounding areas, which mainly depict prey animals and hunting scenes, the main theme of the drawings in the Sarıçayır Ruins is war. Among the rock arts found in Turkey so far, no stylistic equivalent of the examples here has been found. Paintings in this region markedly differ from other paintings in the region with their unique design characteristics. Rock paintings depicting the theme of war as a whole in Turkey have first been encountered in this region. In the depictive content of the drawings made with the scratching technique, there are mostly the visual narrations of the mounted archers holding an arrow in their hands to throw it, and infantrymen. All of the warrior images, which are always shown in profile, are depicted in a naturalistic style, and it is understood that the theme of war, which is handled with a conscious drawing practice, is intended to be explained to the audience in a plain language without stylistic distortions. Almost all of the drawings are related to each other in a certain order and arranged in groups. In this study, the stylistic characteristics and contents of the rock drawings in the Sarıçayır Ruins were assessed.
Keywords: The Ruins of Kars-Sarıçayır, Petroglyphs, Prehistoric Art,Mounted Archer and Infantryman Depictions
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