Volume 07 - Issue 05

Paper Title :: Linguistic expressions of CHẾT in Vietnamese an Exploration into Modality
Author Name :: Ly Ngoc Toan
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 01-11
This study analyzes epistemic and deontic modalities regarding CHẾT (to die) in Vietnamese using Scopus texts to gain cultural insights on mortality conceptualizations. The linguistic theories of researchers like Nuyts, Bybee and Fleischman, and Vietnamese scholars inform the frameworks concerning epistemic factuality judgments and deontic necessity/permissibility assessments. Methodologically, statistical and descriptive modal expression analysis combined with comparative, contextual and quality assessments elucidate patterns conveying evidential reasoning, social norms, obligations and existential perspectives tied to dying. Quantifying and detailing prevalent grammatical structures and semantic nuances of key modal terms used in death discussions reveals the hybrid interfacing of traditional morality and modern rationality markers. The results should enrich philosophical, anthropological and linguistic perspectives on this profound existential domain by uncovering enduring belief systems, values and symbolic meanings regarding Vietnamese interpretations of mortality’s ontology. Findings elucidate how modal verbal processes linguistically embed cultural conceptualizations of the fundamental experience of human dying. Implications encompass enhanced scholarly views on Vietnamese thought across the spectrum from moral propriety to logical probability in the pivotal context of inevitable mortality. This investigation into modal linguistic forms represents an insightful conduit for expanding academic understandings of Vietnamese social psychology regarding mortality.
Keywords: Modality; Epistemic; Deontic; Mortality, Vietnamese linguistics
[1]. Bybee, J. & Fleischman, S. (1995). Modality in grammar and discourse. John Benjamins Publishing.
[2]. Bybee, J. and Fleischman, S. (1995). Modality in Grammar and Discourse: An Introductory Essay. In Bybee,J. and Fleischman, S. (eds) Modality in Grammar and Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp. 1–14.
[3]. Coates, J. (1983). The semantics of the modal auxiliaries. Croom Helm.
[4]. Givón, T. (1982). Evidentiality and epistemic space. Studies in Language, 6(1), 23–49.
[5]. Halliday, M. A. K. (1985). An introduction to functional grammar. Edward Arnold.

Paper Title :: Quality Assurance of Joint Degree Programs: A Literature Review
Author Name :: Pham Thi Thu Huyen
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 12-19
Joint degree programs have been developed in reaction to globalization, providing students with the chance to pursue higher education internationally. This study examines the quality assurance procedures that govern such programs. Commencing with the fundamental ideas and a chronological survey, it charts the development of joint degree programs, emphasizing their importance in promoting intercultural cooperation and scholarly interchange. Subsequently, an evaluation of internal quality assurance is conducted at both the home and host institutions, with a focus on the significance of upholding uniform standards in various educational settings. This entails ensuring the congruence of courses, assessment modalities, and student assistance provisions. Furthermore, external quality assurance measures, including as assessment standards and accreditation procedures, are crucial in maintaining the legitimacy and comparability of joint degree programs at a worldwide level. Accreditation agencies and regulatory bodies play a crucial role in verifying the quality of programs and promoting their recognition. Nevertheless, the study also examines the difficulties that naturally arise in ensuring quality, such as variations in academic cultures, legal frameworks, and logistical obstacles. These challenges require creative methods to align standards and improve clarity in evaluation procedures. In conclusion, this literature review highlights the complex and diverse aspects of quality assurance in international joint degree programs. It emphasizes the importance of stakeholder collaboration in order to guarantee academic excellence and the achievement of students studying abroad.
Keywords: quality assurance, joint program, transnational education, accreditation, student mobility
[1]. Aerden, A., & Reczulska, H. (2013). Guidelines for good practice for awarding joint degrees. European Consortium for Accreditation in Higher Education.
[2]. Central Council for Education. (2014). Guidelines for building international joint diploma programs including double and joint degree programs. Central Council for Education, Working Group on the Internationalization of Universities, Japan.
[3]. Chan, C. J. (2012). Going international: Double/joint degree programs in a Taiwanese university. Asia Pacific Journal of Educational Development, 1(2), 1–11.
[4]. The Government (2018). Decree 86/2018/ND-CP dated June 6th, 2018 on foreign cooperation and investment in education. The Government of Vietnam.
[5]. Hou, Y.-C. (2020). Quality assurance of joint degree programmes: What Asia can learn from Erasmus Mundus joint degree programmes in Europe. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 18(1), 19-29.

Paper Title :: “Be Water, My Friend”: The Adaptive Approach to English Language Learning
Author Name :: Dr. Musaed A. Al-Mutairi
Country :: Kuwait
Page Number :: 20-29
This article explores the adaptable approach to learning English, inspired by Bruce Lee's famous quote: "You put water into a bottle, it becomes the bottle..." The exploration starts by summarising the difficulties of becoming proficient in English. The text delves into Bruce Lee's idea of adaptability, drawing connections between martial arts adaptability and language learning, emphasising the crucial role of adaptability in various learning settings. The following sections discuss traditional classroom settings, immersive language environments, and internet platforms, providing insights into the constraints, benefits, and flexible techniques specific to each context. The article discusses the importance of identifying personalised learning styles and offers adaptive strategies for visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learners. The text delves into methods for overcoming typical challenges in language acquisition, fostering perseverance, and appreciating cultural subtleties, highlighting the interdependence of language and culture. Strategies for cultivating a flexible and adaptive mindset in language acquisition, such as fostering a growth mindset and creating versatile study schedules, are outlined. The story includes successful examples of individuals who have overcome challenges by adapting and embodying the principle of flexibility in their quest to achieve English language proficiency.
[1]. Baker, R. S. (2010). Data mining for education: Adaptive learning systems. In M. C. Romero, S. Ventura, M. Pechenizkiy, & R. S. J. D. Baker (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Data Mining (pp. 143-160). CRC Press.
[2]. Byram, M., & Risager, K. (1999). Language Teachers, Politics and Cultures. Multilingual Matters.
[3]. CAST. (2018). Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.2. Retrieved from
[4]. Clark, R. C., & Mayer, R. E. (2016). E-learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumers and designers of multimedia learning. John Wiley & Sons.
[5]. Crystal, D. (2003). English as a Global Language. Cambridge University Press.

Paper Title :: Course Redesign for Student Success-A Case Study
Author Name :: Hwangji Lu, Robert Smiles
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 30-39
Online learning modality has become an indispensable part of higher education because it offers flexibility in time and space and allows learners to access and manage their learning anywhere. However, the feeling of isolation causes high student attrition rates in online learning, which significantly impacts quality and economic consequences in higher education. The quality of course content is a critical factor influencing student perception and satisfaction with their online courses. Providing well-structured and well-designed online courses can engage learners, improve their learning experiences, and facilitate achieving their academic goals. This study aims to ascertain the effectiveness of a revised online course in the master‘s program of health care administration. The community of inquiry serves as the theoretical foundation for this research study. A mixed-method research design is utilized to collect data from multiple sources for triangulation. The findings from this study confirm results generated from various empirical research projects. The limitations and future research are discussed. The implications for online education instructors, instructional designers, and administrators are also presented.
Keywords: content quality, course redesign, online learning, student success, the community of inquiry.
[1] J. Bowers, P. Kumar, ―Students‘ Perceptions of Teaching and Social Presence: A Comparative Analysis of Face-To-Face and Online Learning Environments,‖Web-Based Learning and Teaching Technologies. vol. 10, pp. 27-44, 2015.
[2] M. Britto, S. Rush, ―Developing and Implementing Comprehensive Student Support Services for Online Students,‖ Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks,vol.17, no. 1, pp. 29–42, 2013.
[3] S.Akbaba Altun, T. E. Johnson, ―How to Improve the Quality of Online Education from Online Education Directors‘ Perspectives,‖ Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education (TOJDE),vol. 23,no. 2, pp. 15–30, 2022.
[4] A. Amka, J. Dalle, ―The Satisfaction of The Special Need‘s Students with E-Learning Experience During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case of Educational Institutions in Indonesia,‖ Contemporary Educational Technology, vol. 14,no. 1, Article ep334, 2022.
[5] T. Anderson, J. Dron, ―Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy,‖ International Review of Research in Online and Distance Learning, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 80–97, 2011. php/irrodl/article/view/890/1663

Paper Title :: Implementation of Indonesian Government Policy in Anticipation Impact of the Global Covid-19 Pandemic
Author Name :: F.C. Susila Adiyanta
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 40-46
The aim of this research is to determine the synergy of regulations, fiscal support, and government policies to anticipate the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic. The research was carried out using empirical legal research methods. Conclusions from the research results: 1) running of state power and carrying out of government tasks and public services during the emergency period of the Covid-19 pandemic disaster, can be done based on the state in exception or the condition of the state in civil emergency. Article 22 of the Constitution of Indonesia in 1945 uses the terms: a) a state of danger, and b) matters of compelling urgency, as stated in the Elucidation to Article 22 as urgent regulations by the President. At a practical level, the Government has established regulations based on the Constitution Article 4 paragraph (1) by issuing Government Regulation in lieu of Law Number 1 of 2020 as Law Nr. 2 of 2020. 2) To anticipate the social and economic impact of the Covid-19 Global Pandemic, the Government has made efforts to save health and the national economy, with a focus on health spending, social safety nets, as well as economic recovery for the business world and affected communities.
Keywords: Covid-19 Pandemic, Policy Implementation, National Economic Recovery.
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[3]. Bowman, James S., 2010, Archieving Competencies in Public Service, The Professional Edge, Second edition, Armonk N.Y.,: M.E. Sharpe
[4]. Dunn, William N., 2010,Pengantar Analisis Kebijakan Publik, Gadjahmada University Press, Yogyakarta
[5]. Dwiyanto, Agus, 2010, Manajemen Pelayanan Publik: Peduli, Inklusif, dan Kolaboratif, Gadjahmada University Press, Yogyakarta

Paper Title :: The Efficiency of Neuromuscular Control Training in Increasing Psychomotor Potential in Argentine Tango Dancers
Author Name :: Csongor KICSI
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 47-58
The research highlights the role of neuromuscular control training in the case of Argentine tango, as a performance sport. This means of training is a huge reserve of performance, in the current context in which, the training factors known on a large scale, bring more and more limited progress. Methods: The study was conducted in 2019, using the Ergosim condition simulator in order to analyze proprioceptive sense and neuromuscular control in the trunk for the subjects involved in the study. It is a “real experiment” type investigation in which the emphasis is placed on the component parameters of the model, respectively: the force level, the brake constant and the length of the movement. The recording of the mechanical effect of neuromuscular control was performed by applying an isotonic exercise, specific to Argentine tango on the two groups of subjects. The exercise was performed in different directions (left and right), with and without visual stimulus. Results: 10 Argentine tango dancers participated in the study. Statistical analysis revealed differences in A left (p <0.10), B right (p <0.08) for the procedure “Without feedback in real time” and C left (p <0.01), D right (p <0.005) for ”Feedback in real time''. Significant differences were observed for C left and D right within p <0.05, but not for the procedure without visual stimulus. Conclusions: An effective training program on neuromuscular control has benefits in improving the technique of tango dance, with a high degree of increase in the psychomotor potential of the dancer.
Keywords: tango; psychomotor development; neuromuscular control; perception; dance, motion capture
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Paper Title :: Workplace Spirituality: A Tool for Promoting Mindfulness and Enhanced Well-Being in Employees
Author Name :: Haris Fujiari || Siti Sumiati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 59-69
A key component of a healthy organization is the mental well-being of its employees. Workplace spirituality and mindfulness are increasingly favored by organizations. Nonetheless, research on how these elements influence employee wellbeing remains insufficiently explored. The main goal of this study is to investigate how mindfulness and workplace spirituality jointly affect employee well-being. The findings indicate a significant relationship among the three studied variables. Additionally, both workplace spirituality and mindfulness were identified as important predictors of mental well-being. This study enhances existing literature by shedding light on the factors that influence employees’ mental well-being and suggests ways to improve it within organizations.
Keywords: Workplace Spirituality, Mindfulness, Employee Well-being
[1]. Abdulai, M. (2021). The Culture of Toxic Organizational Leadership in Sub-Saharan Africa: Why Contexts Matter. Debating Bad Leadership.
[2]. Allen, R. J., Baddeley, A. D., and Hitch, G. J., 2006, Is the binding of visual features in working memory resource demanding? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol.135, No.2, pp.298–313.
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[4]. Baptiste, N. R. (2007). Tightening the link between employee well-being at work and perform: A New dimension for term. Management Decision, 46 (2), 284-309
[5]. Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13(1), 27-45. 10.1177/1073191105283504.

Paper Title :: The Development of FDI in Zimbabwe
Author Name :: Tatenda Calvin Nevanji
Country :: China
Page Number :: 70-79
This paper conducts a thorough examination of the intricate factors influencing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Zimbabwe, spanning from its post-independence economic surge to the challenging period of 2000-2023. Hyperinflation, currency depreciation, governance challenges, infrastructure deficiencies, fiscal policies, and corruption are scrutinized to comprehend their collective impact on FDI. Through historical context, data points, and pertinent citations, the study highlights the multifaceted challenges faced by Zimbabwe in attracting and sustaining FDI. It underscores the necessity for strategic adjustments, targeted incentives, and robust anti-corruption measures to foster a transparent and conducive environment for sustainable economic development.
Keywords: Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Corruption and FDI, Zimbabwean Economy, Policy Adjustments, Sustainable Development
[1]. Asiedu, E. (2002). On the Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment to Developing Countries: Is Africa Different? World Development, 30(1), 107-119.
[2]. Blomström, M., Kokko, A., & Zejan, M. (1994). Host Country Competition and Technology Transfer by Multinationals. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, 130(3), 521-533.
[3]. Busse, M., & Hefeker, C. (2007). Political Risk, Institutions, and Foreign Direct Investment. European Journal of Political Economy, 23(2), 397-415.
[4]. Chikowore, J., & Zirima, H. (2020). Harnessing Renewable Energy for Sustainable Development in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, 10(3), 31-41.
[5]. Javorcik, B. S. (2004). Does Foreign Direct Investment Increase the Productivity of Domestic Firms? In Search of Spillovers Through Backward Linkages. The American Economic Review, 94(3), 605-627.

Paper Title :: Gig Economy Challenges through the Lens of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
Author Name :: Dr. Manasi Gore || Dr. Meenal Annachhatre || Ms. Dhanashree Kandalgaonkar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 80-88
Gig economy is the exchange of labour for money between the employer and workers on a gig basis. Gig is a slang word for a job that is held for a specified time.
As per the latest report of the NITI Aayog, India‟s Booming Gig and Platform Economy (June 2022), “The gig workforce is expected to expand to 2.35 crore (23.5 million) workers by 2029-30. The Employment elasticity to the GDP for these Gig workers have been greater than one which is greater than the general Employment elasticity to the GDP. This would further result into the conversion of the non-Gig workers to the Gig workers in future. The Gig economy thus is a free market system creating temporary and flexible jobs, granting more autonomy to workers and enabling companies to operate in a competent and cost-effective way and as such it is a win-win game for both, the workers and the employers. The Gig economy has proved as a boon for workers who lost their jobs during the Pandemic and those who belong to the informal sector. However, this emergence of the digital workers offers an opportunity to reap the demographic dividend along with a huge bundle of challenges too.
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[4]. Jalan, Y. (2024, January 30). Swiggy - business model, history, funding, Partnerships. Aryan Jalan.
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Paper Title :: Calvino's Critical Vision of the Active Self and the Recipient
Author Name :: Lect. Zainab Jawad Musa Al-Shahtoor || Prof. Dr. Majid Abdul Hamid Abdul Kaabi
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 89-98
The topic of reception constitutes a complete theory that has an impact on literary discourse and interest in the reader as “(a basic concept used in analyzing the conditions for receiving impact, which is the primary meaning of the text)” (Alqathy et al, 2010, p. 314), and its place in this theory, Reception was a revolution in the face of old theories and ancient approaches such as historical, Marxist and others, which went beyond the role of the recipient and his influence in evaluating literary works, in contrast to modern critical approaches and their new theories, which paid great attention to the recipient because he is one of the important elements in the literary process. Calvino tries in his novel If a Traveler in the Night Winter to explain his critical view on the role of the writer and the reader in the reading process, by addressing the reading process in detail, explaining the role that the reader plays in evaluating literary texts, and the role of the writer* (the active self: which is the self that produces literature represented by the writer or author), ( Odeh, p. 134) He is the active self who is considered the first pillar of the process of reading through the text that he edits and highlights his vision regarding the matters he wants to present, as Calvino tried to comprehend the theories of reading in his novel If a Traveler in the Night Winterwhich It was one of his most prominent literary works.
[1]. Aiser, Wolfgang (1984).The act of reading: A theory of aesthetic response. translated by Abdel Wahab Alloub. Baghdad: The National Translation Project.
[2]. Alqathy et al (2010). Dictionary of Narratives: Tunisia: Publishing House, A collection of authors.
[3]. Boukrouh, Makhlouf (2011). Reception in Culture and Media. Algeria: Maqamat Publishing and Distribution.
[4]. Calvino, Italo (1992). A Hermit in Paris. 1st edition, Translated by Dalal Nasrallah. Baghdad. Dar Al-Mada.
[5]. Calvino, Italo (2013). If a Traveler was on a Winter’s Night. translated by Hossam Ibrahim. Cairo: General Authority for Cultural Palaces.

Paper Title :: Portuguese Young People at Risk in a House of Hosts: From the Educational Course to Autonomy for Life (Case Study)
Author Name :: Ernesto Candeias Martins
Country :: Portugal
Page Number :: 99-112
Residential care is considered a last resort for children/young people at risk, when all other options have proven to be ineffective in terms of protection, promotion and development of their life project. Institutionalization in shelters aims to satisfy all basic needs in young people at risk, promoting their integration, both in the family, at school (educational/training path) and in the community, in order to contribute to their personal, social and professional valorization, in the construction of your life project, which implies the issue of your autonomy and empowerment. The theme had within the theoretical-conceptual framework and literature on institutionalized children and young people at risk and their academic career/performance, research in this area and, in particular, some studies carried out in institutions in Castelo Branco, as our approach focuses at the Shelter in the city of Castelo Branco (ADME) -Portugal. The problem of the qualitative methodology study (case study), which took place between 2021-22, aimed to understand what support and interventions institutional care technicians at the school develop, so that these young people at risk (sample N= 11) could build their life project. We established the following objectives: analyze the perception of young people hosted in the foster home regarding the process of autonomy and the challenges it entails; analyze the integration of these young people at risk in the school context, knowing that they attend different schools; understand the learning difficulties of these young people in their schooling process; determine the socio-educational path of these institutionalized young people with their respective academic performance and performance; understand the intervention of the institution's technicians in the school and training process of these young people; learn about the collaboration between the host institution and the school, in promoting coexistence and socialization relationships; understand the construction of these young people‟s life projects, identifying their perceptions, expectations and ambitions. We used the following techniques and instruments to obtain data: documentary, natural/empirical and participant observation; semi-structured interviews (young people; technicians; school teachers); recording field notes; „Focus Group‟ at ADME with young people. We performed content analysis and data triangulation in evaluating the research questions formulated. The results confirmed the important role of the institution's technicians in supporting young people's academic career and performance and in building their life projects. We highlight the good interrelationship between the host institution and schools with regard to the development of autonomy skills and young people's desires for their personal/social integration into society.
Keywords: Institutionalization, Young people at risk, Educational path, Life project, Foster home.
[1]. Aguiar, Marcelle M. C. N. (2021). Projeto de vida e percurso socioeducativo das crianças-jovens em risco institucionalizadas: Estudo de caso num lar de acolhimento em Castelo Branco. Trabalho de Projeto Final no Mestrado de Intervenção Social Escolar, Escola Superior de Educação, Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco. Castelo Branco
[2]. Alves, S. N. (2007). Filhos da Madrugada-Percursos adolescentes em Lares de Infância e Juventude. Lisboa: Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Políticas de Lisboa.
[3]. Bodgan, R. & Biklen, S. (1994). Investigação qualitativa em educação – Uma introdução à teoria e aos métodos. Porto: Porto Editora.
[4]. Brandão, R. (2015). Desenvolvimento de competências de vida e os processos de autonomização em Lares de Infância e Juventude. Tese de Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Intervenção Social, Inovação e Empreendedorismo na Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra/Portugal.
[5]. Caio, E. (2014). Inclusão Escolar de Crianças e Jovens Institucionalizados - Um desafio entre o Ideal e o Real. Trabalho de Projeto Final no Mestrado em Intervenção Social Escolar – Especialização em Crianças e Jovens em Risco na ESECB do Instituto Politécnico de Castelo Branco, Portugal.

Paper Title :: The Relationship of Business Management Skills with Entrepreneurial Culture Tendencies among Secondary School Students
Author Name :: Dayang Nur Syahirah Mohd Hanafi || Radin Siti Aishah Radin A Rahman
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 113-120
A country makes entrepreneurship the basis of the economic transformation of developed countries, especially in creating new jobs for graduates. The business management skills that students possess before graduation are important in entrepreneurship. The business management skills possessed by high school students still do not enable and encourage them to understand how important entrepreneurial culture is to society. Therefore this study was conducted with the aim of; a) identify differences in entrepreneurial cultural tendencies of different genders; b) identify a significant relationship between business management skills and entrepreneurial culture tendencies among high school students. This study involved 226 2 students at Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Dato Mahmud Paduka Raja (1), Tanah Merah who were randomly selected as the study sample. The research instrument used is a quantitative descriptive study in the form of a survey using a questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. The results of the study show that gender differences do not affect differences in entrepreneurial culture tendencies. The results of the study also show a significant relationship between business management skills and entrepreneurial culture tendencies among high school students. This study provides important implications for educational policy makers and educators in planning curricula and learning programs that support the development of business management skills and foster entrepreneurial tendencies among high school students.
Keywords: skills, business management, culture, entrepreneurship, high school
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[2]. Ahmad Anuar, A. & Esa, A. 2010. Penerapan Kemahiran Insaniah di Pusat Giat Mara (PGM): Satu Analisis Perbandingan dalam Kemahiran Insaniah: Kajian di Institusi-Institusi Pengajian, disunting oleh Esa, A. & Mustafa, M.Z. Batu Pahat: Penerbit UTHM. Ms 1-19
[3]. Ahmad, N. L., & Majid, N. A. (2018). Program Praktikum Sebagai Medium Pengukuhan Kemahiran Insaniah dalam Kalangan Guru Pelatih. Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia, 43(2), 17-27.
[4]. Ahmed, Z. (2018). Kesan Pendidikan Keusahawanan terhadap Pembangunan Kemahiran Keusahawanan. Journal of Education and Entrepreneurship, 4(2), 75-88.
[5]. Aytac, O. ve Ilhan, S. (2007), “Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial: A Sociological Perspective”, Selcuk Universitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitusu Dergisi, 18: 101-120

Paper Title :: Alienation and Trauma in the Context of Nuclear Wars: A Study of Badal Sircar’s Plays
Author Name :: Tamalika Das
Country :: India
Page Number :: 121-126
Badal Sircar came to prominence in the theatre scene of Bengal in the 1960s. It was an era of change and regeneration in the history of World literature. The rise of new tendencies like postmodernism, marxism, postcolonialism, absurdism, surrealism, existentialism was gradually taking the place of older philosophical beliefs. Britain emerged from the two World Wars triumphant but exhausted. The theatres of Ivor Novello and Noel Coward were entertaining to the wartime audience. Terence Rattigan and Samuel Beckett produced work that evoked a ravaged post-war world beset with uncertainty. The war literally and metaphorically changed the scenario of the British Theatre. This is true in case of the other countries of the world—Poland, Nigeria and Germany. The Western world was still going through the aftermath of the two World Wars when in 1950 a new kind of drama came into prominence with John Osborne‟s Look Back in Anger. Jimmy emerges as the Angry Young Man finding himself maladjusted in the society. He vents out his anger and unrest through the play and thus becomes the voice of the maladjusted youth of the post-war era. The other forms of drama like the kitchen-sink drama, the avant-garde or the Theatre of the Absurd became prominent in the West. The philosophy of life has undergone a complete change with the Wars and the different forms of drama went on to focus on the present social scenario. The drawing room comedies of the previous century were gradually displaced by social plays. The epic theatre of Brecht was an innovation that redefined theatre in a new way altogether.
[1]. Bandyopadhyay, Samik. „On Third Theatre: Interview with BadalSircar‟,BadalSircar:Search for a Language of Theatre. Ed. Kirti Jain, New Delhi: Niyogi Books, 2016.
[2]. Barry, Peter. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. 2 nded. NewYork: Manchester University Press, 2002.
[3]. Camus, Albert. The Myth of Sisyphus. London: Penguin Books, 1975.
[4]. Crow, Brian and Chris Banfield. “An Introduction to Post-colonial Theatre.” Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1996.
[5]. Dubey, Satyadev. Introduction.Evam Indrajit. London: Oxford University Press, 1974.

Paper Title :: The Relationship of Knowledge, Attitude, and Interest with Entrepreneurial Motivation of Small Traders in Telupid Town
Author Name :: Ika Norizanie || Sheerad Sahid
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 127-134
There are so many entrepreneurial motivational factors that drive a business to be set up, especially in the SME industry. Found through past studies, motivational factors in entrepreneurship play a key role in being the reason traders can succeed and last longer in the SME industry (Mashenene & Kumburu, 2020). The main purpose of this study is to analyze knowledge factors, attitude factors and interest factors of small traders in Telupid Town. Next, can those three factors be the driving force for the entrepreneurial motivation of these small traders? A total of 170 traders from Telupid Town were selected as respondents for this study. A questionnaire distributed to obtain data from all respondents. All data obtained through questionnaires are analyzed using descriptive statistical methods involving mean scores and standard deviations. To analyze the data, the Statistical Package Social Science Software (SPSS) version 27 was used in this study. Based on the research that has been conducted, the results of each factor can be seen that interest, attitude and knowledge are at an important level. This proves that the knowledge factor, the attitude factor, and the interest factor are very influential in being a motivating factor for a trader's motivation. Implications from this study, the parties should study the level of motivation towards entrepreneurship among the community, especially high school students. This may help the school and those involved to shape and help young school leavers to venture into business.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial Motivation, Knowledge, Attitude, Interest, Small Traders
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[3]. Boso, N., Story, V. M., and Cadogan, J. W. (2013). Entrepreneurial orientation, market orientation, network ties, and performance: study of entrepreneurial firms in a developing economy.
[4]. Carsrud, A. L., & Brannback, M. (2009). Understanding the entrepreneurial mind. Springer Science and Business Media
[5]. De Silva, L. R. (2010). Business start-up and growth motives of entrepreneurs: A case in Bradford, United Kingdom. SSRN Electronic Journal, 16, 597.

Paper Title :: The Polarisation of Currency Preferences
Author Name :: Dr. Meenal Annachhatre
Country :: India
Page Number :: 135-141
All sorts of cross-border activities promote demand for and supply of foreign currency, which is catered through the foreign exchange market of the country. Historical data shows that the Advanced countries‘ currencies were more preferred for any cross-border transactions and even to maintain the foreign exchange reserves in the form of national security. Due to rapid changes in the geopolitical scenarios and international relations in the world, countries, other than advanced countries or EEC members, are about to change their currency preferences and are trying to revamp country‘s foreign exchange market. Country wise the case is differing.
Whether it is Full capital account convertibility or internationalisation of currency, academic discussions of such topics are inevitable. This paper intends to initiate such discussions, taking the process of internationalisation of Indian rupee also into account.
Keywords: Currency, internationalisation, de-dollarization, financial market, trade, etc.
[1]. Mohan, Rakesh, Patra, Michael Debabrata and MuneeshKapur (2013). ―Currency Internationalization and Reforms in the Architecture of the International Monetary System: Managing the Impossible Trinity‖, The Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) and Asia, Currency Internationalization and International Monetary Reform, Paper No. 5.
[2]. Krugman, Paul. (1984). ―The International Role of the Dollar: Theory and Prospect‖, In Exchange Rate Theory and Practice, edited by John Bilson and Richard Marston. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
[3]. IMF (2022). Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange Reserves data, IMF, June 2022, available at
[4]. Das, Shaktikanta (2020). ―Accelerating Financial Market Reforms in India‖, Speech at 4th Annual Day of FEDAI, November 26, 2020.

Paper Title :: Relationship between Income Level and Poverty in Pakistan
Author Name :: Rashid Nasir || Dr. Sardar Javaid Iqbal Khan || Sardar Adil Iqbal Khan
Country :: Pakistan
Page Number :: 142-153
This paper analyses the relationship between Income level and poverty in Pakistan. The results relay on regression estimates by using the time series data for the period of fifty-nine year. By using the OLS technique a single equation model has been regressed. For the accuracy of results, two tests have been performed, one is Pre-estimation test (Test of stationary) used before regression, and two is Post- estimation test (Test of Phillips-Perron test) used after regression. We have used per capita income as dependent variable and check its relation with poverty in the Pakistan economy.
Aim of the paper is to analyze the existing relation between income level and poverty in Pakistan. The error correction model is used to estimate the relationship between income level and poverty. The estimates show that there is negative relationship between income level and poverty in the economy over the period.
Keywords: Income Level, Poverty
[1]. Abdul, Q.Arif, M.Umaima. (2008) Impact of remittances on economic growth and poverty evidence from Pakistan, Pakistan institute of development economic Islamabad MAPRA paper No: 22941, posted 28 May
[2]. Afzal, M.Malik, E.Begum, I.Sarwar, K.Fatima, H. (2010)Relationship between poverty and economic growth, Pakistan development Review,1,22,:23-45
[3]. Agarwal AK, et al. (2008) Genomic and genetic approaches for the identification of antifungal drug targets 8(1):2-15
[4]. Ahluwalia, Carter and chenery (1979) Growth and poverty in developing countries. Journal of Development Economics Volume 6, Issue 3, Pages 299-341
[5]. Ahsin Shahid, Hibba Saeed & S. Muhammad Ali Tirmizi. (2015) Economic development and banking sector growth in Pakistan, Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment, 5:3, 121-135, DOI: 10.1080/20430795.2015.1063976

Paper Title :: Analysis of Teachers' Difficulties in using Audio-Visual Media
Author Name :: Erna Mena Niman
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 154-158
This study aims to find and describe the various difficulties of teachers in using audio-visual media. The subjects of this research are principals and educators at Kantar Catholic Elementary School (hereinafter SDK Kantar) Manggarai, Indonesia. The object of this research is to analyse teachers' difficulties in using audio visual media. Data collection techniques used observation and interviews as well as documentation studies, with triangulation as a tool to test the validity of the data. The results of the study found that there are still some teachers who are old and cannot use IT-based media such as laptops, projectors and so on. Apart from the age factor, there are also some teachers who cannot use audio-visual media in the learning process because they lack the knowledge to use it and even if they have a laptop but are unable to access and develop audio-visual media. Furthermore, the limited IT facilities at school are also one of the factors causing teachers not to use audio-visual media in the learning process.
Keywords: Teacher, Audio Visual Media
[1]. Adianti, Titin Nur, Muhammad Irawan Zain, and Lalu Hamdian Affandi. “Problematika Guru Dalam Menggunakan Media Pembelajaran Pada Kurikulum 2013 (Studi Kasus Di Sd Negeri 1 Taman Ayu).” Jurnal Ilmiah Pendas: Primary Education Journal, 2 (2) 147-56.
[2]. Akbar, Amin, dan Nia Noviani. 2019. Tantangan Dan Solusi Dalam Perkembangan Teknologi Pendidikan Di Indonesia. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Pendidikan Program Pascasarjana Universitas Pgri Palembang,2 (1) 18-25
[3]. Ananda, Rizki. 2018. Penggunaan Media Audio Visual Untuk Meningkatkan Hasil Belajar Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan Siswa Kelas Iv Sd Negeri 016 Bangkinang Kota.” Jurnal Basicedu, 1(10) 21-30
[4]. Antoro, Warno Dwi, And Gunawan Sridiyatmiko. “Penggunaan Media Audio Visual Untuk Meningkatkan Motivasi Dan Hasil Belajar.” Proceedings Series On Social Sciences & Humanities, (3) (1) 197- 202.
[5]. Aras, L. (2019). Pengaruh Penggunaan Media Blok Pecahan Terhadap Minat BelajarPada Mata Pelajaran Matematika Siswa Kelas III SD Kompleks Lariang Bangi Kecamatan Makassar Kota Makassar. JIKAP PGSD: Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu Kependidikan, 3(1), 40-49

Paper Title :: Descriptions of Self Efficacy on Self-Adjustment of New Students of the Psychology Study Program at Muhammadiyah University of North Maluku
Author Name :: Siti Munadiyah || Namira Ismail || Aliyah Rahmadani
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 159-162
This research aims to determine the description of self-efficacy regarding the adjustment of new students, in the psychology study program, Muhammadiyah University, North Maluku. What factors influence self-efficacy. The research method used in this research is a descriptive qualitative method. The data collection techniques used are interviews, observation and documentation. There were three participants in this study, consisting of 2 female and 1 male. The results of this research show that the factors that make their self-efficacy not develop optimally are due to lack of experience in life, lack of role modeling and low social support from the immediate environment as well as poor emotional management.
Keywords: self efficacy, self adjustment, adolescent
[1]. Adjarwati, C.A., Mayangsari, M.D., & Ekaputri, F.K (2020). Hubungan antara efikasi diri dengan kecemasan menghadapi dunia kerja pada siswa SMKN 1 Gambut. Jurnal kognisia: jurnal mahasiswa psikologi online, 3(1)
[2]. Afkari, R., & Wekke, S. I. (2018). Intelektual mahasiswa islam. Deepublish: Yogyakarta
[3]. Agustina, N. (2018). Perkembangan Peserta Didik. Deepublish: Yogyakarta
[4]. Baker, R., Siryk, B. (1984). Measuring adjustment to college. Journal of counseling psychology, Vol. 31 (2).
[5]. Bandura, A. (1997) .Self efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H Freeman Company

Paper Title :: An Investigation of Faculty and Undergraduate Students’ Beliefs about Student Engagement Activities in Online Courses
Author Name :: Melanie DiLoreto
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 163-173
Past research suggests that student engagement, interaction, and collaboration in online learning environments have positive effects on both student satisfaction and students‟ perceived learning (Eom, Wen, & Ashill, 2006; Gray & DiLoreto, 2016; Swan, 2001; Thurmond & Wambach, 2004). Although there is evidence of the importance of student engagement and interaction, there is little support of specific engagement and interaction strategies successfully implemented in online courses. Furthermore, faculty members‟ beliefs about the use of engagement strategies in online courses is lacking in the literature. Using the Seven Principles for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education (Chickering & Gamson, 1987) as a guide for effective engagement strategies, the researcher collected data from both students completing online courses and faculty teaching online courses to investigate the beliefs about the level and type of engagement activities embedded within online courses. Results indicated a statistically significant model for both student satisfaction and perceived learning with instructor presence accounting for the majority of the variability in both satisfaction (R2 = 0.869) and perceived learning (R2 = 0.863). Although instructor presence accounted for most of the variability in both student satisfaction and perceived learning, findings from course observations and faculty interviews illustrated that this engagement rarely occurred in these classes. These findings suggest additional research about engagement strategies in online courses is needed.
Keywords: Student engagement, Active learning, Student satisfaction, Perceived learning
[1]. Amerstorfer, C. M., & Freiin von Münster-Kistner, C. (2021). Student Perceptions of Academic Engagement and Student-Teacher Relationships in Problem-Based Learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 12.
[2]. Astin, A.W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Bruffee.
[3]. Baber, H. (2020). Determinants of Students‟ Perceived Learning Outcome and Satisfaction in Online Learning during the Pandemic of COVID19. Journal of Education and E-Learning Research, 7(3), 285–292.
[4]. Brown, G. T. L. (2004). Measuring attitude with positively packed self-report ratings: Comparison of agreement and frequency scales. Psychological Reports, 94(3), 1015-1024. doi:10.2466/pro.94+3.1015-1024
[5]. Chang, C., Hun-Yi, S., & Zhi-Feng, L. (2014). University faculty‟s perspectives on the roles of e-instructors and their online instruction practice. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 15(3). Retrieved from

Paper Title :: Brics and Maritime Security in the Western Indo-Pacific Region
Author Name :: Dr. Cliff Ooga Obwogi || Dr. Michael Sitawa || Tessy Lulia Salano || Brian Twalah Lekarie
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 174-182
The Western Indo Pacific biogeographic region spans across the Western and Central part of the Indian Ocean towards the Pacific Ocean. It is a regional strategic hotspot for trade, global geopolitics, environmental concerns and maritime security for numerous countries across Eastern Africa, the Arabian Gulf, East and South Asia and Australia. China and India have been key players in the geopolitics of the region, each aiming to make known their dominance and hinting at geostrategic power play. In recent years there has been an observable commercial shift and focus on the Western Indo Pacific as a global economic epicentre (Saon, 2021) which has equally contributed to other rising concerns in the region, among them territorial disputes and maritime security.
[1]. Association of South East Asian Nations. (2023, August 24). Retrieved from ASEAN Political-Security Community Blueprint:
[2]. BBC. (2023, July 7). What is The South China Sea Dispute? Retrieved August 24, 2023 from BBC:
[3]. BRICS. (2022). Concept Paper on Thematic Issues. Retrieved August 24, 2023, from BRICS China:
[4]. BRICS. (2023). Three Pillars of Cooperation. Retrieved August 24, 2023, from BRICS 2023 South Africa:
[5]. CSIS. (2017, October 2). How Much Trade Transits the South China Sea? Retrieved from China Power:

Paper Title :: Traditional African Festival: Elements and Properties in Akashiede Kingdom’s Ikenge Festival in Ukwuani Local Government Area, Delta State
Author Name :: OSSAI-ULOKU, Chinaza Fidelis || ANYANWU, Chukwuma
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 183-190
Culture is a broad spectrum of human phenomena, including material accomplishments, conventions, ideas, emotions, behaviours, morality, and more. It is the structured manner of living of a certain group of people which serves as a source of identification. The term traditional festival implies an indigenous cultural institution, an integral dynamic part of a culture of an un-alienated Africa, and the occasion to which it responds spontaneously not just a religious occasion, because it commends more than a tiny fraction of interest among the people. Ikenge festival of Akashiede kingdom is a very important festival as it is the most widely celebrated in Ukwuani Local Government Area, Delta State. The dramatic elements which make up the Ikenge festival and which are associated with the life experiences of Akashiede people includes the Igbudu dance, Ukwata dance, Ogbenegbe dance, Omu-Enudance, and the Iwu-Olie. These activities build up dramatic tension and throw the community into festive and celebrating mood. The Ikenge festival in its unique form just like other traditional festivals across Africa, Nigeria in particular is derived from ritual activities that connect the worship of gods and deified beings. Apart from the religious nature of Ikenge festival, it assist in channeling the artistic life of Akashiede people like costume and make-up, mask, dance, song and music. In traditional African festival celebration there is always an attempt to achieve effective interplay of various factors of performance, the Ikenge festival is not an exemption. The Ikenge festival attempts to achieve effective interplay in the various factors of its performance.
Keywords: Traditional, African, Festival, Functions, Elements, Ikenge.
[1]. Anigala, A. (2005). Traditional African Festival Drama in Performance. Ibadan: Kraft Books Limited. pp. 24-25.
[2]. Anyanwu, C. (2019). Nigeria‟s Cultural Policy and the Needs of the Performing Arts. International Review of Humanities Studies: 4 (2). Available at:
[3]. Akpochafo, W.P. (2020). Gender and Cultural issues in Africa: Reconsidering some Aspects of Patriarchy. Journal of Perspectives in Gender Development. 1(1), Pp. 1-9.
[4]. Aziza, R.C. (2001). The Relationship between Language use and Survival of Culture: the case of Umobo youth. Nigerian Language Studies. 4.
[5]. Bello, S. (1991). Culture and Decision Making in Nigeria. Lagos: National Council for Arts and Culture.

Paper Title :: The New Skills of the Modern Manager
Author Name :: Alin-Adrian DINCĂ || Ion STEGAROIU || Bianca-Cristina (VOICULESCU) PROCOPIU
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 191-195
The trends in modern management endow today's manager with new characteristics or skills, which are constantly practiced to achieve a degree of perfection as close as possible to the desired one. Skills in modern management involve a series of skills derived from group social qualities, new techniques for motivating staff through non-financial values, communication adapted to the typology of the individual, decision-making power based on consultation and feed-back. The manager's performance is quantified including through a self-evaluation, managed through self-awareness as well as one's own qualities and flaws.
Keywords: communication, motivation, decision making, self-awareness, modern management.
[1]. Adair J., Cum să formezi lideri, Editura Meteor Publishing, București, 2014
[2]. Cornescu V., Mihăilescu I., Stanciu S. Management General, Editura Actami, București, 2001
[3]. Deci E. L., Ryan R. M., Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behaviour, Springer Science & Business Media, 2013
[4]. Ellis C., W., Management Skills for New Managers, American Management Associantion, 2005
[5]. Fowler S., Noua știintă a motivării. Cum să conduci, să energizezi și să implici prin Metoda Motivației Optime, Publica, 2016

Paper Title :: Guidelines for Digital Leadership Development of Primary School Chinese Language Teachers in Shuangliu District, Chengdu City
Author Name :: Deng Yuwei || Nuttamon Punchatree || Wichian Irtarasompun
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 196-209
The objectives of this study are to 1) study the digital leadership level of primary school Chinese language teachers in Shuangliu District, Chengdu City.2)study the guidelines for digital leadership development of primary school Chinese language teachers in Shuangliu District, Chengdu City. This study selected a sample of 235 primary school Chinese language teachers in Shuangliu District, Chengdu City, through random sampling. And 9 education administrators from primary schools in Shuangliu District, Chengdu City. The main research instruments were questionnaires and structured interviews. Data statistics covers various statistical measures such as percentages, means, and standard deviations. The research results found that: 1. The state of the digital leadership level of primary school Chinese language teachers in Shuangliu District, Chengdu was at a high level.2. Analyze the current status of the digital leadership based on the following five dimensions: 1) digital analysis capability 2) digital design capability 3) digital implementation capability 4) digital evaluation capability 5) digital innovation capability. This study proposes a guideline for improving the digital leadership of primary school Chinese language teachers.
Keywords: Digital leadership, Primary school, Chinese language teachers
[1]. Cheng Xunyong. (2018). Current situation and improvement methods of information technology teaching design ability of vocational schoolteachers. China New Communications, 20 (24): 183.
[2]. Dang Yanxia. (2013). Analysis of the Current Situation and Countermeasures of Informationization Teaching Ability of Middle School English Teachers. Northwest Normal University.
[3]. Guo Xu. (2017). Assessing and Enhancing Digital Design Capability among Elementary School Chinese Language Teachers: A Framework for Professional Growth. Educational Technology Research and Development, 65(2), 187-202.
[4]. Gu Jingsi, Nuttamon Punchatree & Wichian Intarasompun. (2023). Guidelines for the Development of characteristics of students program in Broadcasting and hosting at Guangxi Vocational and Technical College.International Journal of Latest Research in Humanities and Social Science (IJLRHSS). 6(10): 227-237.
[5]. Jin Xin. & Shu Guo. (2018). Research on the Training Model of Information Teaching Design Capability of Higher Vocational Teachers: Based on the Perspective of TPACK. Journal of Wuxi Vocational and Technical College, 17(06): 22-25.

Paper Title :: A Guideline to the 21st Century Core Competencies Development of Mathematics Teachers in Higher Vocational Colleges in Sichuan
Author Name :: Hu Yanyan || Nuttamon Punchatree || Wichian Irtarasompun
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 210-223
The objectives of this study are to 1) study the current situation of the 21st century core competencies for mathematics teachers in higher vocational colleges in Sichuan.2) propose a guideline for the development of the 21st-century core competencies for mathematics teachers in higher vocational colleges in Sichuan. This study selected a sample group of 283 mathematics teachers from higher vocational colleges in Chengdu, through random sampling. And conducted interviews with 5 education administrators from the above colleges. The main research instruments were questionnaires and structured interviews. Data statistics covers various statistical measures such as percentages, means, and standard deviations. The research results found that: 1. The state of the 21st-century core competencies for mathematics teachers in higher vocational colleges in Sichuan was at a high level.2) . Analyze the current status of the 21st-century core competencies for mathematics teachers based on the following five dimensions: 1) civil literacy 2) social literacy 3) communication literacy 4) network literacy 5) teamwork literacy 6) STEM literacy. This study proposes guidelines for the 21st-century core competencies for mathematics teachers.
Keywords: mathematics teacher, 21st century core competencies, vocational colleges.
[1]. Ding Liping. (2021). Comparative Analysis of Theory and Practice of Collaborative Learning for Mathematics Teachers. Journal of Mathematics Education, (3): 4-11.
[2]. Dong Bolin. (2017). Teacher Literacy from the Perspective of Student Development Core Literacy. Reference for Middle School Political Teaching, (22): 11-12.
[3]. Cao Peiying. (2015). Basic Mathematical Thought from the Perspective of Subject Core Literacy and Subject Education Value. Curriculum and Textbook Teaching Methods, (35): 40-44.
[4]. Chen Gang & Pi Liansheng. (2016). From the perspective of science-oriented teaching theory, students' "core literacy" and its system construction. Journal of Education Science, Hunan Normal University, (5): 24.
[5]. Chen Liujuan, Lin Qinglan. (2017). Reflections on Teacher Education and Teaching Based on Mathematical Core Literacy. Teaching and Management,(7): 110-111.

Paper Title :: Sustainable Development Ability of Accounting Teachers in Higher Vocational Colleges in Sichuan, China
Author Name :: LI Xiangmei || Nuttamon Punchatree || Wichian Irtarasompun
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 224-237
The objectives of this study are to 1) study the level of sustainable development ability of accounting teachers in Higher Vocational Colleges in Sichuan, China. 2) study the guidelines of sustainable development ability of accounting teachers in Higher Vocational Colleges in Sichuan, China.This research selected a sample of 240 accounting teachers from 10 higher vocational colleges in Sichuan,through random sampling. and conducted interviews with 5 education administrators from the 10 higher vocational colleges in Sichuan. The main research instruments were questionnaires and structured interviews. Data statistics covers various statistical measures such as percentages, means, and standard deviations. The research results found that: 1. The state of the sustainable development ability of accounting teachers in Sichuan higher vocational colleges, China is at a high level. 2. Analyze the status quo of the sustainable development ability of accounting teachers in Sichuan higher vocational colleges based on the following five dimensions: 1) Continuous learning ability 2) Continuous practice ability 3) Continuous assessment ability 4) Continuous interdisciplinary ability 5) Continuous innovation ability. This study proposes guidelines for the sustainable development ability of accounting teachers in Sichuan higher vocational colleges.
Keywords: accounting teachers, sustainable development, vocational colleges.
[1]. Blok, V., Wesselink, R., & Studynka, O. (2015). What impedes and facilitates a sustainable business model? The case of the Dutch housing sector. Business Strategy and the Environment, 24(6), 355-370.
[2]. Chen Dongyan, Nuttamon Punchatree, Wichian Intarasompun。(2023). Guidelines for Developing Blended Learning Management in the Accounting Department of Guangxi Financial Vocational College. International Journal of New Developments in Education.5(21):146-155.
[3]. Chen, Y., Wang, H., Yang, C., & Su, C. (2019). Cultivating College Students' Sustainability Literacy: An Experimental Study. Sustainability, 11(7), 2010.
[4]. Cheng Xinzhi. (2006). A brief discussion on the sustainable development capacity building of college teachers. Educational Development Research, 11:82-83+86.
[5]. Feng Hongqi. (2016). Research on teacher sustainable development innovation from the perspective of modern educational technology. Continuing Education Research, (08): 93-95.

Paper Title :: On Commercial Public Office and Working System
Author Name :: Zhu Hongzhen
Country :: China
Page Number :: 238-239
This article explains a kind of free, fair and can limit crime to the maximum social system.
Keywords: commercial public office, level-by-level election system, basicization of job qualification
[1]. “The Communist Manifesto”, published by Karl Heinrich Marx and Friedrich Engels on February 24, 1848.
[2]. “Deng Xiaoping theory” in the “Constitution of the Communist Party of China”, published October 22, 2022.

Paper Title :: Examination of Common Words and Suffixes between Ottoman Period Turkish and Native Iraqi Arabic
Author Name :: Alaa Falah Hasan AL-HAMADANI
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 240-247
Common Words and Suffixes used between Arabic 'Iraqi Dialect' and Turkey Turkish in the Ottoman Period before the Turks came to Anatolia, they got to know the Arabs, and exchanged with them in the field of trade and culture. After the Ottoman Empire ruled the regions of Arabs, the effects of Arabs on their civilizations and social lives as well as their language and literature were seen. Since the Ottoman Empire ruled by many Arab countries for nearly 600 years and daily contact was established between Arabs and Turks, Arabic Ottoman Turkish was very influenced and hundreds of Turkish-origin words were transferred to Arabic. One of these Arab countries is Iraq, which is in the south of Turkey, so the interaction between languages has been at a high level. In these periods, hundreds of words passed from Ottoman Turkish to Arabic. Turkey is socially and economically intertwined with Baghdad, the capital of Iraq, and other cities. Therefore, many words have passed from Turkish to "Iraq" dialect. Of course, the Iraqi language can also be influenced by other languages and has been influenced by a language like Ottoman Turkish. Ottoman Turkish has transformed the words coming from foreign languages into the "Iraqi" dialect by acting as a bridge. Again, many words in pure Ottoman Turkish have passed into the dialect of "Iraq". Some Ottoman words are pronounced differently in "Iraq" dialect. In general, we used the term "Ottoman Turkish" because many words were used in the "Iraq" dialect during the Ottoman period.
Keywords: Ottoman period, Turkish, Iraqi dialect, common words
[1]. AKAR, A. (2010). „‟Türkçe-Arapça Arasındaki Sözcük ĠliĢkileri‟‟, Ankara, Karadeniz dergisi, Sayı: 08/2010.
[2]. AKSOY, Ömer Asım (1993). “Atasözleri ve Deyimleri Sözlüğü”, Ġstanbul: 1. Cilt, Ġnkılâp
[3]. AL-HAMADANI, Alaa Falah (2020). 3. Uluslararası Sosyal Bilimler Kongresi, Tam Metin E-kitabı, Türkiye Kayseri, Kayseri Üniversitesi, s.234-341
[4]. AYTAÇ, B. (1994). Arap lehçelerindeki Türkçe kelimeler. Türk Dünyası AraĢtırmaları Vakfı
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Paper Title :: The Legal Policy on the Regulation of Sanctions for Illegal Logging Crimes in Indonesia
Author Name :: Kamin || Helmi || Hartati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 248-256
Illegal logging is the highest forest destruction crime compared to other forest destruction crimes such as environmental damage, forest and land fires, forest encroachment, pollution, and wild plants and animals during the last decade in Indonesia. Based on this phenomenon, this research aims to determine the legal policy regarding sanction arrangements for criminal offenses in Indonesia. The findings show that the regulation of sanctions for the criminal offense of Illegal logging in Indonesia does not yet reflect justice because the content that regulates the criminal offense of illegal logging still creates legal uncertainty. This will then affect law enforcement efforts related to the criminal act of illegal logging, namely related to prosecution and imposition of criminal sanctions on perpetrators of illegal logging. Furthermore, the Revision of Law Number 11 of 2020 on Job Creation goes beyond philosophical and juridical considerations, which emphasize the importance of a conducive investment climate by improving the licensing process and not removing or changing provisions in the Law Number 41 of 1998 on Forestry, Law Number 18 of 2013 on the Prevention and Eradication of Forest Destruction and Law Number 32 of 2009 on the Environmental Protection and Management. The revision of the Job Creation Law fulfills the lex posterior derogate legi priori principle. However, it also contradicts the principle of lex specialist derogate legigeneralis because it discusses more general matters than specific provisions on forestry. Consequently, this contradiction will create injustice in the implementation of law enforcement efforts and the imposition of sanctions in Indonesia.
Keywords: Legal Policy, Sanctions, Criminal Offence of Illegal Logging.
[1]. A. L. Muhammad and S. Muhammad, “Juridical analysis of criminal liability against corporations for forest destruction,” Rectum Journal , vol. 3, no. 1, 2021.
[2]. T. J. Masriani, Introduction to Indonesian law. Jakarta: Fifth Printing, Sinar Graphics, 2009.
[3]. DPR RI Secretariat, “Academic Manuscript Draft Job Creation Law,” Jakarta, 2019.
[4]. J. Asshiddiqie, Green Constitution: Green Shades of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. PT Raja GrafindoPersada, Jakarta, 2009.
[5]. K. Sonny, Environmental ethics. Jakarta: Kompas Book Publishers, 2010.

Paper Title :: The Ultimum Remedium Principle in the Criminal Law Policy of Road Organizers to Realize Justice, Certainty and Legal Benefits
Author Name :: Desri Iswandy
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 257-265
This study departs from the issue of criminal regulation of road organizers regulated by Article 273 of the Road Traffic and Transportation Law which adheres to the principle of primum remedium. It causes injustice and not in line with the constitutional rights of state organizers guaranteed by the constitution in Article 28D Paragraph (1) and Article 28G Paragraph (1). The present study utilizes normative juridical research with a statutory approach supported by philosophical, conceptual, and comparative legal approaches. The findings of the research show that the criminal regulation of road organizers that prioritizes the principle of primum remedium that exists in substance, purpose and objective is contrary to the values of Pancasila (especially the value of a just and civilized humanity and justice for all Indonesian people), the national goals of the Indonesian state (namely protecting all Indonesian people and the blood of Indonesia), contrary to Articles 28D and 28G of the 1945 Constitution; contrary to the Constitutional Guarantee and violates human rights, namely the right to recognition, guarantees, protection and certainty of a just law and equal treatment before the law for road organizers. The urgency of the ultimum remedium principle in the criminal policy arrangements for road organizers because the arrangements as stipulated in the law do not have a strong philosophical basis and are excessive because criminal law should be used as an ultimum remedium (ultimate weapon) not premium remedium (main weapon) if other more effective legal means can be used to discipline road organizers so that it is necessary to have a criminal policy for road organizers based on the principle of balance that places criminal sanctions as an ultimum remedium for criminal acts of road organizers to achieve justice, legal certainty, expediency in Indonesia.
Keywords: Criminal Policy, Highway Operator Crime, Ultimum Remedium, Justness, Certainty, Benefit
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[2]. Bahder Johan Nasution, Negara Hukum dan Asasi Manusia, Cetakan ke-3. Bandung: Mandar Maju, 2014.
[3]. Adami Chazawi, Pelajaran Hukum Pidana 2. Jakarta: PT RajaGrafindo Persada, 2011.
[4]. Tonga, Pidana Seumur Hidup Dalam Sistem Hukum Pidana di Indonesia. Malang: UMM press, 2004.
[5]. Lili Rasjidi and B. Arief Sidharta, Filsafat Hukum Madzab dan Refleksi,. Bandung: PT. Remaja Rosda Karya, 1994.

Paper Title :: Elements of Epistemic Savagery in Orhan Pamuk’s My Name is Red
Author Name :: Paul Thomas Raj V || Dr. J. Bobby Rajakanthi
Country :: India
Page Number :: 266-268
This paper explores the concept of epistemic savagery in Orhan Pamuk’s novel My Name is Red. It examines how the narrative technique and the perspectives of the characters reflect a clash between individualism and religious communitarianism within the context of Ottoman art and culture. By analyzing the use of first-person narration and the ideological conflict over artistic representation, the study reveals how characters struggle with the influence of Western individualism on traditional Islamic values. The paper also delves into the symbolism of classical miniature painting, the role of the artist under the Sultan’s rule, and the presence of homoeroticism and pederasty in the novel. These elements are discussed to illustrate the broader epistemic violence experienced during a period when Renaissance ideals began to permeate the Ottoman Empire. Ultimately, the study highlights the contradictions between the characters' professed beliefs and their actions, offering a nuanced understanding of the tension between preserving cultural heritage and embracing new artistic paradigms.
Keywords: Epistemic savagery, individualism, religious communitarianism, Renaissance influence, narrative technique, homoeroticism, pederasty, cultural heritage, artistic representation.
[1]. Pamuk, Orhan. My Name is Red. Translated by Erdağ M. Göknar, Knopf, 2001.
[2]. Wickens, G. M. “Persian Thought and Its Expression.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland, vol. 106, no. 2, 1974, pp. 233-250.
[3]. Murray, Stephen O. Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature. Edited by Stephen O. Murray and Will Roscoe, New York University Press, 1997.
[4]. Pamuk, Orhan and Erdağ M Göknar. My Name Is Red. 1st American ed. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 2001.
[5]. Lewis, Bernard. The Emergence of Modern Turkey. Oxford University Press, 2002.

Paper Title :: Concept Mapping, Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA), and Know-Want to Know-Learned (KWL) Reading Strategies and Iranian Secondary School Learners’ Reading Comprehension
Author Name :: Kashayar Najafi
Country :: Iran
Page Number :: 269-278
The present study was an attemptto explore theeffects of concept mapping (CM), directed reading thinking activity (DRTA), and know-want to know-learned (KWL) reading strategies on Iranian secondary school students’ reading comprehension. To perform this, 69 male secondary school students in Doroud, Lorestan province were selected to take part in this study. Then, the participants were divided into three equal-sized experimental groups namely CM, DRTA and KWL groups.Toevaluate the students’ reading comprehensionat the onset of the study, a teacher-made reading pretest was administered. After the treatment sessions, the participants in the groups took a readingposttest to measure their ability in reading after the instruction. Obtained results showed that using CM strategy did not have significanteffect on the EFL students’ reading comprehension. On the other hand, DRTA and KWL did have significanteffects on thestudents’ reading. That is, utilizing DRTA and KWL strategies significantly boosted the participants’ reading ability. Moreover, DRTA was the most effective strategy in enhancing the participants’ reading comprehension. Implications of the study suggest that administering DRTA and KWLcan enhance reading comprehension of Iranian secondary EFL students.
Keywords: CM, DRTA, KWL, Reading Comprehension
[1]. Adani, U. S., Yufrizal, H., & Munifatullah, F. (2019).A comparative study of students’ reading comprehension in narrative text through mind mapping technique and directed reading thinking activity (DRTA) technique at the second grade of SMP Negeri 25 Bandar Lampung.U-JET: Unila Journal of English Teaching, 8(4), 1-8.
[2]. Aksan, N., & Kisac, B. (2009). A descriptive study: Reading comprehension and cognitive awareness skills. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 834-837.
[3]. AlAdwani, A., AlFadley, A., AlGasab, M., & Alnwaiem, A. F. (2022).The effect of using KWL (Know-Want-Learned) strategy on reading comprehension of 5th grade EFL students in Kuwait.English Language Teaching, 15(1), 79-91.
[4]. Alavi Moghaddam, S. B., Kheirabadi, R., Foroozandeh Shahraki, E., Khadir Sharabyan, S., & Nikoopour, J. (2014). Prospect 2: English for schools.Iran’s Textbooks Printing and Publishing Company.
[5]. Al-Khateeb, O. S. M., & Idrees, M. W. K. (2010).The impact of using KWL strategy on grade ten female students’ reading comprehension of religious concepts in Ma’an city. European Journal of Social Sciences, 12(3), 471-489.

Paper Title :: The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Cognitive Style and Their Listening Tasks Performance
Author Name :: Maryam Alimohammadi
Country :: Iran
Page Number :: 279-286
The present study was an attempt to explore the relationship between field-dependence and field-independence cognitive style and IELTS listening comprehension ability. To do the research as an experimental study, 90 Iranian female intermediate EFL Learners were selected to participate in the study. The instruments of the study were: a) General English Proficiency Test of PET to homogenize the leaners. b) The E&L questionnaire was applied to classify the EFL learners into FI/FD groups. c) A pretest and a posttest of IELTS listening comprehension. In order to homogenize the participants, 180 learners were given a PET test. After homogenization, 90 learners were selected to participate in the research. Then, In order to classify the learners into FI/FD groups, the F&D questionnaire was given to the learners. As a result, the learners were divided into three groups: One control group and the two experimental groups (FD/FI groups). Each group consisted of 30 language learners. In order to investigate the three groups in listening comprehension, two standardized tests of IELTS listening comprehension were used as a pretest and a posttest. After administration of the tests, the ANCOVA test was used to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that field-independent participants were strongly better in the IELTS listening comprehension than field-dependent individuals.
Keywords: cognitive style, field dependence, field independence, listening performance
[1]. Barker, L. L. (1971). Listening behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
[2]. Bozorgian H, & Pillay, H. (2013). Enhancing foreign language learning through listening strategies delivered in L1: An experimental study. International Journal of Instruction, 6, 58-71.
[3]. Cele-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a second or foreign language (3rd ed.).Boston. MA: Heinle & Heinle.
[4]. Dunkel P. (1986). Developing listening fluency in L2: Theoretical principles and pedagogical considerations. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 99-106.
[5]. Ehrman, M. E., Leaver, B. L., & Oxford, R. L. (2003). A Brief Overview of individual difference in Second Language Learning.

Paper Title :: The Effect of Teaching Reading Skill based on Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)Principles on Iranian Payame Noor University Students’ Reading Comprehension Performance
Author Name :: Mona Naeimzadeh Khorasani
Country :: Iran
Page Number :: 287-295
The present study was an attempt to explore the effect of teaching reading skill based on TPACKprinciples on Payame Nooruniversity students’ reading comprehension performance.To achieve the purpose,114 Iranianstudentsat Payame Noor Universityin Garmsar, Semnan province, Iranwere selected. They took Oxford Placement Test and 48 intermediate-level students were randomly assigned into two equal groups (i.e., one experimental and one control group). Then, both groups were pretested on reading to evaluate the learners’ reading knowledge at the beginning of the research. During the treatment, the experimental group received reading teachingbased on TPACK principles. On the other hand, there were no TPACK principlesin teaching reading sections for the control group. In other words, the control groups received the reading instruction based on conventional way of teaching.At last, to become aware of the students' achievement in reading skill after the treatment, the posttest was administered to both groups. Data were analyzed through a series of independent samples t-test to compare the groups' scores before and after the treatment. The findings revealed that teaching reading skill based on TPACKprinciples did have statistically significant effects on the students’ reading comprehension performance. Conversely, reading comprehension performance of the control group was not developed significantly in comparison with the experiment al group. Implications of the study suggest that that teaching reading skill based on TPACK principles can enhanceIranian university students’ reading comprehension.
Keywords: Reading, TPACK, University Students
[1]. Alhadiah, A. (2020). EFL learners’ experience of a MALL-based vocabulary learning tool. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 10(2), 283-291.
[2]. Cavus, N., & Ibrahim, D. (2009). M-Learning: An experiment in using SMS to support learning new English language words. British Journal of Educational Technology 40 (1), 78-91.
[3]. Chwo, G. S. M., Marek, M. W., & Wu, W. C. V. (2018).Meta-analysis of MALL research and design. System, 74, 62-72.
[4]. Fageeh, A. (2013). Effects of MALL applications on vocabulary acquisition. AWEJ, 4(4), 420-447.
[5]. Gilakjani, A. P., Leong, L. M., & Ismail, H. N. (2013).Teachers’ use of technology and constructivism.International Journal of Modern Education and Computer Science (IJMECS), 5(4), 49-68.

Paper Title :: Management Optimization of Waste Facilities / Infrastructure Provision in Bogor Regency
Author Name :: Fredi Andria || Dinalara Dermawati Butar Butar
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 296-304
Bogor Regency has made efforts to create a waste management model and encourage the community to process waste at waste producing sources. However, there is still a large volume of waste disposed of in final disposal sites (TPA) which is a burden for the government which in the end is also shared with the community by collecting levies. To reduce waste thrown into landfill, it is still necessary to empower the community in managing waste at the source, including by channeling the results of waste management so that it has economic value which becomes an incentive for waste processors at the source.
This research focuses on a comprehensive study (1) Knowing the existing management of waste levies in the Bogor Regency area; (2) Know the structure and amount of levy rates regarding the procedures for calculating levy rates in waste management; (3) Propose an optimal mechanism for collecting and collecting cleaning fees in Bogor Regency. The research method used is quantitative with descriptive analysis, comparative analysis and qualitative methods through literature study approaches, field surveys and in-depth interviews. This research is a form of continued implementation of the results of research conducted by the Team Leader which focuses on IKS (Social Resilience Index) in the field of BPJS (Health Insurance Administering Agency) Health in the informal sector [1; 2; 3; 4; and 5], and research related to the Village Development Index (IDM) in Bogor Regency [6; 7 and 8].
Research Stages: 1). Recapitulation of waste data and information and waste collection mechanisms, 2). Field observations and surveys 3). In-depth interviews and technical recapitulation of waste, and 4). Formulation of an optimization model for the provision of waste facilities/infrastructure.
The research results of the three method tools above essentially show the tariff structure and waste collection systems in various regions as input to the Bogor Regency Environmental Service (DLH) by comparing the "market mechanisms" that occur. Although the determination of this tariff system in each region is very dependent on many factors in that region, such as: the distance of the transportation object to the landfill, the inflation rate, the number of fleets, the transportation system, the tariff calculation system and so on. Including a SWOT analysis which shows various: strengths, weaknesses, threats and challenges that DLH Bogor Regency has, in implementing the waste levy system, and in the future determining patterns and mechanisms that are more effective, efficient and improving calculation categories and transportation mechanisms that are not yet optimal. Furthermore, this recommendation section becomes the culmination of the entire study by narrowing down specific, effective and efficient tariff system patterns and mechanisms that are more reliable, provide convenience, and simplify structures and mechanisms.
Keywords: Management; Optimization_of Facilities/Infrastructure; Waste; Bogor_Regency
[1] Andria F dan N Kusnadi, 2018,“Model Alternatif Pembiayaan Jaminan Kesehatan bagi Pekerja Informal di Bogor”, Pakuan Law Review, Vol. 4, Nomor 2, Juli - Desember 2018, e-ISSN: 2614-485.
[2] Andria F dan N Kusnadi, 2017,“Dampak Kepesertaan BPJS bagi Pekerja Informal di Bogor”, JIMFE, Vol. 3 No. 1 tahun 2017, Hal 1-15,e-ISSN 2502-5678.
[3] Andria F., ET Tosida, N Kusnadi and S Andriani, 2019,“Prediction Model of Health Insurance Membership for Informal Workers”, AJHSSR, Vol 3, Issue-4, pp 236-246, e-ISSN: 2378-703X.
[4] Andria F., Thaheer H., dan Tosida ET, 2013,“Pemetaan Pemda dalam Mendukung Persiapan BPJS Kesehatan Menuju Universal Health Coverage (UHC)”, Seminar Hasil Penelitian Bersumber Dana Hibah DJSN, Jakarta, 8 Juni 2013.
[5] Salmah, F Andria and I Wahyudin, 2019,“Implementation of Big Data Concept for Variability Mapping Control of Financing Assessment of Informal Sector Workers in Bogor City”, World Scientific News, Vol. 135, pp 261-282.