Volume 06 - Issue 07

Paper Title :: Community Perception on Co-Management Strategy in Mitigating Fisheries Conflicts at Homabay County in Kenya
Author Name :: Orwa N. T. Odhiambo || Vike Lucy || Kimeli M. Chirchir
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 01-16
There has been conflict in the fishing industry world over. Fisheries conflicts are among the persistent problems affecting the security of food, livelihoods and fishing environments crucial to poor fishing communities in developing countries. In Kenya, the same has been a major problem and it has taken government‟s efforts to curb. One of the strategies introduced more so in Homa Bay County is the Co-Management Strategy in which all stakeholders are involved. Although this co-management strategy has been suggested as a solution to the problem of fisheries use, conflicts still persist. The study examined the effectiveness of co-management strategy in mitigating fisheries conflicts in Homa Bay County. It was guided by a specific objective: to find out Community Perception on the Co-Management Strategy in mitigating fisheries conflicts in Homa Bay County. The common property theory which assumes that individual interest will not prevail over the best interest of the community as a whole and Marx‟s Conflict Theory which assumes that Conflict theory states that tensions and conflicts arise when resources, status, and power are unevenly distributed between groups in society and that these conflicts become the engine for social change were used in the study. This study was guided by a conceptual framework of common property. The framework was based on the driver-problem-issue- intervention analysis that put into context the dynamics of variables that addressed the objectives of the study. The research design used was descriptive in nature. The population of the study was 18, 300 registered members of BMUs. Multi stage sampling was used to identify two beaches in each of the five divisions namely: Mfangano, Mbita, Lambwe, Central and Gwassi. Homa Bay County was selected because it has the largest share of L. Victoria and highest number of BMUs in the country. The pilot study established that averagely there were about 100 registered members in each BMU. 40% of BMUs from each of the five divisions were sampled, resulting to 39 BMUs. From each BMU sampled, 10 registered members were randomly sampled yielding a sample of 390. The respondents were also clustered as Fishermen; Boat Owners; Fish Traders and Owners of fishing gears and government officers. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, interview schedules, observation and Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). Descriptive statistics was generated to build a picture of the respondents‟ characteristics utilizing SPSS tool. Inferential Statistics was also employed through regression models and ANOVA. The study found out that Co-Management Strategy mitigates fisheries conflict. The study also found that the community perception of co-management strategy was positive. Lastly, study also found that challenges faced by Co-Management strategy were an impediment in the mitigation of fisheries conflict. The findings of this study support and add knowledge to previous studies on fisheries conflicts. It is envisaged that the study will contribute to the field of conflict management within the broader context of co-management strategy in the fisheries sector, thus leading to harmonious coexistence at the beaches, sustainable utilization of fisheries resources and improved livelihood of the people. The study suggests more stakeholders should be involved in the policy formulation and that there should be more seminars and training of stakeholders. Studies also suggest further research targeting cultural issues and cross border fishing that is causing fisheries conflicts.
Keywords: Teenage Pregnancies, School Girls, Peer Pressure
[1]. Abila, R.O., Odongkara, K. O. and Onyango P. (2006): Implementing Co-managementof Lake Victoria’s Fisheries: Achievements and Challenges, Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute (KEMFRI), Kenya.
[2]. Abila R.O. (2002). „Socio-economic Analysis of the Fishery Co-operatives of LakeVictoria (Kenya)‟. PhD Thesis, University of Hull, UK.
[3]. Ahmed, A., A.D. Capistrano and M. Hossain (2004): Experiences of PartnershipModelsfor the Co-Management of Bangladesh Fisheries. Fisheries Management and Ecology 4 (3), 233–248.
[4]. Akahat Tsuneo (1993): From Conflict to Cooperation: Fishery Relations in the Sea of Japan, Pacific Rim Law and Policy Association.
[5]. Allison, E. H. (2001): Big laws, small catches: global ocean governance and thefisheries crisis. Journal of International Development, 13,933–950.

Paper Title :: Teacher Delocalization as a Means of Improving School Performance and Integration in Kenyan Basic Education Institutions
Author Name :: Vike Lucy || Kimeli M. Chirchir
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 17-22
The teacher delocalization program is a policy arrangement that entails moving/ transferring teachers holding administrative positions, mostly head teachers, principals, Special needs education teachers, and senior teachers by Teachers Service Commission (TSC) from their home areas/counties to strengthen school management, improve their effectiveness, addressing cases of conflict of interest, enhancing national cohesion among other national interests.
[1]. Akunga, A., Midi, L., Mogere, J., Muia, D., Mwangi, M., Oriko, L., Yulu, T., Wandera Solomon, C. & Ennew, J. (2000). The impact of HIV/AIDs on education in Kenya. Nairobi: Government of Kenya/UNICEF Kenya.
[2]. Chapman, D. W. 2003. Stealing an Education: Corruption in Education. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Department of Policy and Administration.
[3]. Choti, T.M, (2009). University in Context: A case of the Gusii students of South Western Kenya. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Retrieved November 14th, 2009, from Digital Dissertation Database: University of Maryland-College Park: (pp, 20-112).
[4]. Cotton, K. (2003). Principals and Student Achievement. Melbourne: Hawker Brownlow Education.
[5]. Government of Kenya. 2004. Kenya Careers Information Guide, Nairobi; Kenya; Government Printer.

Paper Title :: Role of Landscape Vegetation in Treating Slope Failure
Author Name :: Nurfaradilla Roza Shazalee || Mohd Ramzi Mohd Hussain || Izawati Tukiman || Amira Arisya Mohamad Nadzri
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 23-30
Slope failure is becoming one of the world's environmental issues, including in Malaysia, that may affect the community and change the earth's surface. The decreased amount or the removal of forest vegetation species, especially on hillside areas because of hillside clearing, cutting, and fill processes, affect the slope stability. Many options exist to treat slope failure, including biological or landscape vegetation measures, which may offer the best option to cater to this problem for long-term benefit. Thus, this research aims to investigate the role of landscape vegetation in treating slope failure. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey, non-participant observation, and semi-structured interviews are performed to gain insights. The findings suggest vegetation plays a vital role in treating the slope, supported by the findings of the suitable characteristics of vegetation being able to protect against slope failure. As potential slope vegetation, the vegetation can protect the slope by absorbing moisture, strengthening the soil structure, and preventing surface water runoff through its mechanical and hydrological characteristics. Large canopy, deep root system, and fast-growing and native vegetation characteristics are needed for ecological treatment to sustain the long-term solution.
Keywords: Biological measure, forest removal, the role of vegetation, slope stability, vegetation’s characteristics
[1]. Kazmi, D., Qasim, S., Harahap, I.S.H., Baharom, S., Imran, M., and Moin, S. (2016). A Study on the Contributing Factors of Major Landslides in Malaysia. Journal on civil engineering, 2(12), 669-678. doi:10.28991/cej-2016-00000066
[2]. Majid, U. (2018). Research Fundamentals: Study Design, Population, and Sample Size. Journal on natural, clinical science and technology, 2(1), 1-7,
[3]. Osman, N., Saifuddin, M., and Halim, A. (2014). Contribution of Vegetation to Alleviate Slope’s Erosion and Acidity. Journal on environmental risk assessment of soil contamination, 18, 520-541.
[4]. Rahman, H.A., Mapjabil, J. (2017). Landslides Disaster in Malaysia: An Overview. Journal on health and environment, 8(1), 58-71
[5]. Stokes, A., Doughlas, G.B., Fourcaud, T., Gjadrossich, F., Gillies, C., Hubble, T., Kim, J.H, Loades, K.W., Mao, Z., McIvor, I.R., Mickoyski, S.B., Mitchell, S., Osman, N., Phillips, C., Poesen, J., Polster, D., Preti, F., Raymond, P., Rey, F., Schwarz, M., and Walker, L.R. (2014). Ecological Mitigation of Hillslope Instability: Ten Key Issues Facing Researchers and Practitioners. Journal on plant soil, 377, 1-23. doi: 10.1007/s11104-014-2044-6

Paper Title :: Hate Speech Impoliteness Strategies in TikTok Comment Columns
Author Name :: Fina Nabilah Layaliya || Subyantoro || Hari Bakti Mardikantoro
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 31-36
This study aims to determine the potential violation of the law on the ITE Law Article 28 paragraph (2) in conjunction with Article 45 paragraph (2) in the comments column on the TikTok social media. The data were analyzed by utilizing the hate speech form theory and Jonathan Culpeper's language impoliteness strategy theory. In this study, two approaches were used, namely a methodological approach (descriptive qualitative) and a theoretical approach (forensic linguistics). The data collection methods and techniques used are the see method. In conducting data analysis the methods and techniques used in this research are the pragmatic equivalent method and the normative method.
Keywords: Forensic Linguistics, Impoliteness Strategies, Hate Speech, TikTok
[1]. Mardikantoro, Service Day. 2013. "Javanese as a Disclosure of Local Wisdom of the Samin Community in Blora Regency". Community Journal 5: 197-207.
[2]. Rizaty, M. A. 2022.Top 10 Most Downloaded Apps in the World (2021). (downloaded 09 January 2023).
[3]. Wisnuadi, Krisno. 2022. Statistical Data on the Number of TikTok Users [April 2022] (downloaded December 24, 2022).
[4]. Annur, C. M., Kominfo-KIC Frequency of Sharing Information on TikTok Has Increased in the Last 1 Year. (downloaded 24 December 2022).
[5]. Culpeper, J. (1996). Towards an anatomy of impoliteness. Journal of pragmatics, 25(3), 349-367.

Paper Title :: Identities in Movement: Female Depiction and Gender Associations in Angela Carter's Work
Author Name :: Karrar kamal Hamid || Azhar Kadhim Sabr || Elaf Ahmed jaafer
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 37-42
The notion of identities in motion, proposed in the title of the thesis, is understood as a kind of investigation of the construction mechanisms of social narratives explored by Angela Carter in her novels and the process through which gender relations are built in them, as well as the author's critical stance on the way in which such relationships are articulated by the dominant ideology. The goal is to highlight her ability to expose aspects of society capable of challenging the relationship between sex and power, which almost always leads to a reflection on men and women's roles. In this sense, the characters in Angela Carter's two novels Heroes and Villains and The Passion of New Eve constantly question and reframe female identity and gender relations. We'll also talk about how her novels deal with female representation and gender relations, putting them in the setting of female literature. We'll look at how female demonstration and gender relations are handled in the novels she's chosen.
Keywords: Gender, Female identity, Angela Carter, Heroes and Villains and The Passion of New Eve.
[1]. Beauvoir, S. “The second sex: the lived experience”. vol.2. Trans. Sergio Milliet. São Paulo: Círculo do Livro, 1991.
[2]. Bourdieu, P. “Male domination. Trans. Maria Helena Kuhner”. Rio de Janeiro: Bertrand Brazil, 2007.
[3]. Butler, J. “Gender Problems: Feminism and Identity Subversion. Trans. Renato Aguiar.” Rio de Janeiro: Brazilian Civilization, 2003.
[4]. Carter, A. Heroes and Villains. London: Penguin Books, 1981a.
[5]. Carter, A. The Alchemy of the Word. In: CARTER, A. Shaking a Leg: Journalism and Writing. London: Chatto & Windus, 1997, p. 507 - 512.

Paper Title :: Analysis of the Financial Performance of Quoted and Non-Quoted Insurance Firms in Nigeria Using Asset Base and Revenue as Determinants
Author Name :: Osirim, Monday || Wadike, Chile George || Davies, Stanley Diepiriye
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 43-48
The thrust of this paper is to contribute to the unending controversies as to what constitute the financial metrics of firms. The study is hinged on the philosophy and perception that quoted firms perform better than unquoted firms. Data for the study was sourced from insurance annual financial statements. The one for quoted firms were obtained from the Stock Exchange while unquoted insurance financial reports were sourced from various publications and firms audited accounts. The population of the study comprises licensed insurance firms in Nigeria. A sample of ten (10) insurance firms was selected; five apiece for both quoted and unquoted firms using their five years financial performance from 2015 to 2019.A panel data fixed effect was used to determine the financial performance of the selected firms. Empirical results indicate that asset base and revenue have positive impacts on the financial performance of quoted insurance firms while only revenue has a positive relationship with the financial performance of unquoted insurance firms. The study concludes that there is a difference in the financial performance of quoted and unquoted insurance firms and quoted insurance firms are stronger in terms of asset base and capacity to generate revenue. Hence, it was recommended that regulatory agencies should relax some of the listing requirements to accommodate the listing interest of unquoted insurance firms.
Keywords: asset base; revenue; quoted; unquoted; financial performance, insurance
[1]. Ahamdu, S. Aminu, S.M. & Tukur, G. (2005), “Corporate Governance Mechanism and Firm Financial performance in Nigeria’ African Economic Research Consortium, 149.
[2]. Ajao & Ogieriakhi (2018). “Firm specific factors and performance of insurance firms in Nigeria”, Amity Journal of Finance, 3(1), 14-28.
[3]. Ahmed, N; Ahmed, Z; & Usman, A. (2011). Determinants of performance: A case of life insurance sector of Pakistan. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, 6(1), 123-128.
[4]. Alomari, M.W. & Azzam, I.A. (2017). Effect of the micro and macro factors on the performance of the listed Jordanian insurance companies. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 8(2), 66-73.
[5]. Atje, R.S. & Jovanovic, B. (1993), “Stock Markets and Development” European Economic Review, 37, 632 – 40.

Paper Title :: A survey of high school teachers' opinions on using the APOS theory to help students develop problem-solving skills while studying the coordinate method in the plane in class 10
Author Name :: Tran Thị Hong Dao || Duong Huu Tong
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 49-57
APOS theory is an instructional theory on how to learn the mathematical concepts studied; the application of APOS theory to the teaching of mathematics to help build students' understanding of various mathematical concepts. APOS theory creates a detailed structure consistent with learning mathematical concepts. APOS theory also assumes that mathematical knowledge results from the one-on-one construction of knowledge and helps students build a good academic spirit and understanding of mathematical ideas. The application of APOS theory to teaching mathematics helps to improve the ability to understand concepts, contributing to the formation and development of mathematical competencies for students. This study surveyed 43 high school teachers' general understanding and views on math competencies, problem-solving abilities, and APOS theory in teaching and learning the coordinate method in the plane in class 10; the research is carried out to serve as the basis for applying APOS theory to teaching the topic of coordinate method in the plane in class 10. Research results show that most teachers understand and see the importance of teaching in developing students' competencies (especially the ability to solve mathematical problems). However, most of the teachers in this survey barely knew the APOS theory.
Keywords: APOS theory, problem-solving, the coordinate method in the plane, teacher's opinion.
[1]. D. A. Istikomah and P. Jana, "Mathematical Prolem Solving Ability in APOS Modified Learning Model (M-APOS)," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 1264, pp. 1-6, 2019. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1254/1/012071.
[2]. G. Polya, How to Solve It, 2nd ed. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985.
[3]. H. Salado and M. Trigueros, "Teaching Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors Using Models and APOS Theory," The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, Vol. 39, pp. 100-120, 2015.
[4]. I. Arnon, J. Cottrill, E. Dubinsky, A. Oktaç, S. R. Fuentes, M. Trigueros, K. Weller, APOS Theory. A framework for research and curriculum development in mathematics education. New York: Springer, 2014.
[5]. I. M. Arnawa, Yanita, Yerizon, B. Ginting, and S. Nita, "Does the Use of APOS Theory Promote Students' Achievement in Elementary Linear Algebra?," International Journal of Instruction, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 175-186, 2021.

Paper Title :: The Role of Sensation Seeking and Self-Efficacy in Cannabis Use among Youths in Makurdi Metropolis
Author Name :: Judith Ayangeawam Mase || Joseph Terseer Hyambe || Tertindi Lordsent Tyokyaa || Godwin Aondongu Akpehe || Yiman Torkwase Peniel || Susie Nguemo Hembah
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 58-63
This study investigated cannabis use and the roles of sensation seeking and self-efficacy among the youths in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State Nigeria. Data were collected using standard questionnaires on a sample of 150 participants. Three hypotheses were tested usinghierarchical regression and the result for hypothesis one indicated that only disinhibition (β = .993, t= 50.659, p <.01) and thrill and adventure (β= .240, t= 2.503, p <.05) significantly predicted cannabis use. While, boredom (β-.075, t= -.119, p>.05) and experience seeking (β= .106, t= .168, p>.05) did not. Furthermore, result indicated that self-efficacy (β=-.171, t= -1.733, p>.05) did not predict cannabis use. Additionally, sensation seeking and self-efficacy had significant, joint predictive effect [R2 = .001, F (5,142) = 3.003, p <.01], accounting for a significant change of 0.1% of the variance in cannabis use. Findings implies that youths who are disinhibited, thrill and adventurous stand a higher risk of indulging in cannabis use. Thus, the government and non-government organizations should give adequate attention to curbing the menace of cannabis use by creating awareness on the dangers of its use.
Keywords: Sensation seeking, self-efficacy, cannabis use
[1]. Adamson, S.J., Kay-Lambkin, F.J., Baker, A.L., Lewin, T.J., Thornton, L., Kelly, B.J., & Sellman, J.D. (2010). An Improved Brief Measure of Cannabis Misuse: The Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test – Revised (CUDIT-R). Drug and Alcohol Dependence 110,137-143.
[2]. Degenhardt, L., Ferrari, A.J., Calabria, B., Hall, W.D., Norman, R.E., McGrath, J., Flaxman, A.D., Engell, R.E., Freeman, G.D., Whiteford, H.A., & Vos T (2013). The global epidemiology and contribution of cannabis use and dependence to the global burden of disease: results from the GBD 2010 study. PLoS One (8), 10
[3]. Lozano, B.E., Stephens, R.S., Roffman, R.A. (2006). Abstinence and moderate use goals in the treatment of marijuana dependence. Addiction PubMed: 17034438
[4]. Masson, M., Lamoureux, J., & de-Guise, E (2019). Self-report risk taking and sensation seeking behaviour predict helmet wear amongst Canadian ski and snowboard instructors. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science doi: 10.11037/cbs0000153
[5]. Zuckerman, M (2009). Sensation Seeking. In Leary & Hoyle (eds). Handbook of Individual Differences in Social Behaviour. New York/London: The Guilford Press. PP. 455-465

Paper Title :: The Influence of Human Resource Capacity, SAP Implementation and Internal Control on the Quality of Simeulue Regency Work Unit Financial Reports (SKPK)
Author Name :: Rosmawar || Aliamin || Nuraini
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 64-72
This research is to look at the factors that affect the quality of the Simeulue District Work Unit Financial Reports (SKPK). Three variables are used: human resource capacity, SAP implementation, and internal control. This study aims to determine the effect of human resource capacity on the quality of the financial reports of the district work unit (SKPK) of Simeulue Regency, to determine the effect of SAP implementation on the quality of the financial reports of the Simeulue Regency work unit (SKPK), to determine the effect of internal control on quality the financial reports of the Simeulue Regency work unit (SKPK) and to determine the effect of human resource capacity, SAP implementation and internal control on the quality of the Simeulue Regency work unit (SKPK) financial reports. This research is included in quantitative research, the sampling technique is determined by the census method. The sample in this study was 180 respondents. Collecting data in this study by distributing questionnaires to respondents within a period of one to three weeks. The answers were tabulated and measured using a Likert scale expressed at intervals of 1 to 5. Data analysis used multiple regression analysis with the help of SPSS V23.0 software. The results of the study prove that human resource capacity has a positive and significant effect on the quality of the Simeulue District Government's SKPK financial statements, the application of SAP has a positive and significant effect on the quality of the Simeulue District Government's SKPK financial reports, internal control has a positive and significant effect on the quality of the Simeulue District Government's SKPK financial reports and human resource capacity, SAP implementation and internal control have a significant effect on the quality of the Simeulue District SKPK financial reports.
Keywords: HR Capacity, SAP Implementation, Internal Control, and Quality of Financial Reports.
[1]. Alvin A.Arens, Randal J.Elder, Mark S.Beasley (2014), Auditing and Assurance Services: An Integrated Approach, Jakarta: Erlangga.
[2]. Anggie Rizka S, Zamzami, Muhammad Gowon, (2021), The Influence of Human Resource Competence and Internal Control Systems on the Quality of Financial Reports With the Successful Application of Regional Financial Management Information Systems as Intervening Variables (Empirical Studies in Jambi City Regional Government). Jambi University Journal of Accounting and Finance Vol. 6 No. 3 p. 136-148.
[3]. Anwar, Chairul., & Mukadarul, D. Meliana. (2016). The Influence Of Human Resources, Commitment Leader, The Use Of Information Technology, And System Internal Control On The Quality Of Local Government Financial Report Pringsewu. The Third International Conference on Law, Business, and Government. Lampung: University of Bandar Lampung.
[4]. Ardeno Kurniawan (2015), Internal Audit: Added Value for Organizations, Yogyakarta: BPFE
[5]. Arens, Alvin A., Elder, Randal J., Beasley, Mark S (2015)., Auditing and Insurance Service: An Integrated Approach, Ninth Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Paper Title :: A Bakhtinian Carnivalesque Approach to Virginia Woolf's Between the Acts
Author Name :: Beyza Emine Ayaz
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 73-77
In Between the Acts, Virginia Woolf creates a vivid portrait of a world in which social hierarchies disintegrate, conventional standards are challenged, and satire has a significant impact. The story erases social boundaries and places a priority on critical thinking while enveloping readers in a joyful and jubilant atmos-phere evocative of carnival. Woolf uses satire and parody as tools to examine societal conventions, topple hie-rarchies, and provide readers a critical viewpoint by questioning them, welcoming change, and challenging the current social order. This activity invites readers to consider and assess the current social structure. Through its depiction of a chaotic village pageant, the transforming potential inherent in the carnivalesque setting, and the purposeful use of satire and parody as carnivalesque methods, the work successfully depicts these dynamics. These components work together to encourage readers to question and carefully examine the tenets of the exist-ing social structure and to assist social critique.
Keywords: Carnivalesque, Satire, Parody, Social Norms, Identities
[1]. Ames, C. (1998). Carnivalesque Comedy in Between the Acts. Twentieth Century Literature, 44(4), 394–408.
[2]. Bakhtin, M. (1984). Rabelais and his World. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.
[3]. McWhirter, D. (1993). The Novel, the Play, and the Book: Between the Acts and the Tragicomedy of History. ELH, 60(3), 787–812.
[4]. Woolf, V. (1941). Between the Acts. Harcourt, Brace, and Company.

Paper Title :: Impact of Mgnrega on Rural Development: A Case Study of Kolar District
Author Name :: Hemamalini B. V
Country :: India
Page Number :: 78-81
MGNREGA is the prospectus adopted for the campestral disclosure in India. The plot is to foresee commission at least one parson in the class for hundred practical days in year. It fetters more matter to subjugate the compass the meagerness in rustic range and with the calling breed. This office grow scheme that induce to campestral females empowerment and campestral growth. Through these prospectus females get more business opportunities .It relieve to rising their class interest and average of leaving. So the grant meditation is canopy as “Impact of MGNREGA on rural development: A case study of Kolar District”.
Keywords: MGNREGA, Rural Employment, Households,
[1]. Ahuja Rani Usha, Tyagi Dushayant. eds, Conference on Impact of MGNREGA on Rural Employment and Migration: A Study in Agriculturally-backward and Agriculturally-advanced Districts of Haryana, Agricultural Economics Research Review. 2011, 24.
[2]. Chitra M, Dr Ganesan L, Dr Implication of MGNREGA Activities in Rural Employment Opportunities: A Micro Level Analysis, Shanlax International Journal of Economics. 2013.
[3]. Dey Moitri. National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) A Range of Possibilities, International Journal of Rural Studies, 2010; 17.
[4]. Kumar Sasi B, Rengasamy Kalaran. Participation of rural workers in the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act in India, International Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 2012, 2.
[5]. Kanika, Nancy, Gupta PB. Dr, Impact of Narega on Rural Areas of Hoshiarpur, International Journal of Management & Information Technology, 2013, 4.

Paper Title :: The Influence of a Greek Traditional Dance Program on Body Composition and Lipidemic Profile in Postmenopausal Women
Author Name :: Kontaxi Efthalia || Argiriadou Eirini || Mavrovouniotis Argyrios || Mavrovouniotis Fotios
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 82-92
The present study aims at the examination of the influence of a Greek Traditional Dance program on body composition parameters and lipidemic profile in postmenopausal women. In the research participated voluntarily twenty-three postmenopausal women, who were randomly, divided into a dance group (DG; n=13) and a control group (CG; n=10). The DG participated in sessions of Greek traditional dances (GTD), three times a week, for 50 minutes, for 12 weeks, while the CG did not engage in any physical activity. Body weight, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and body skinfolds were measured, and body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BF%), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed. In addition, total cholesterol (TC), High-Density Lipoproteins (HDL-C), Low-Density Lipoproteins (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were measured in collected venous blood by enzymatic procedures, while Risk Index Factor was calculated. All measurements were taken pre and post the 12-week period. The statistical package SPSS/PC version 29.0 for windows was used for statistical analysis. Regarding DG, the data analysis showed significant improvements in body weight (p<0.05), BMI (p<0.05), BF% (p<0.01), skinfold sum (p<0.01), WC (p<0.01), HC (p<0.01), and TG (p<0.05), a 2.11% decrease in TC and 1.06% in LDL-C, while HDL-C and Risk Index Factor remained at the same levels. Conversely, in the CG, either no alteration or deterioration of the studied variables was observed. The results showed beneficial effects on body composition and lipidemic profile parameters highlighting the value of a GTD program for postmenopausal women’s health.
Keywords: aerobic physical activity, lipids, triglycerides, body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage.
[1]. Adiputra, N., Alex, P., Sutjana, D.P., Tirtayasa, K., Manuaba, A. (1996). Balinese dance exercises improve the maximum aerobic capacity. Journal of Human Ergology, 25: 25-29. PMID: 9551128.
[2]. Arslan, F. (2011). The effects of an eight-week step-aerobic dance exercise programme on body composition parameters in middle-aged sedentary obese women. International SportMed Journal, 12(4): 160-168.
[3]. Asikainen, T.M., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., Miilunpalo, S. (2004). Exercise for health for early postmenopausal women: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Sports Med, 34(11): 753-78. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200434110-00004
[4]. Asikainen, T.M., Miilunpalo, S., Kukkonen-Harjula, K., Nenonen, A., Pasanen, M., Rinne, M., Uusi-Rasi, K., Oja, P., Vuori, I. (2003). Walking trials in postmenopausal women: effect of low doses of exercise and exercise fractionization on coronary risk factors. Scand J Med Sci Sports, 13(5): 284-292. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0838.2003.00331.x
[5]. Blackman, L., Hunter, G., Hilyer, J., Harrison, P. (1988). The effects of dance team participation on female adolescent physical fitness and self-concept. Adolescence, 23: 437-448. PMID: 3407504.

Paper Title :: Reading Skills of Grade 1 in the Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual Education
Author Name :: Moleño, Sheela Marie B
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 93-100
The Carmen South and North District in Carmen, Cotabato, served as the study's location. With a focus on the question of whether there is a noticeable difference in the reading skills between the pure Maguindanaon and pure Manobo classes and the class with mixed native languages, this study sought to assess the reading abilities of grade 1 students in selected elementary schools in the aforementioned Municipality. Based on their reading comprehension and reading speed, respondents were 100 grade 1 students in three (3) grade 1 classes taught by a Maguindanaon teacher, a Manobo teacher, and a Christian teacher. For this study, reading materials were employed in three different languages: English, Filipino, and the researcher's mother tongue. The students' reading abilities were focused on reading, comprehension, and reading speed. The reading speed was determined by the amount of time spent reading, precisely in seconds, whereas the reading comprehension was determined by the number of questions that were properly answered. In this study, it was discovered that just 1-2% of students had excellent comprehension of what they were reading, and only 2-6% of students gave accurate answers.
Keywords: Reading Skills, Grade 1, Mother tongue, Multilingual Education
[1]. DO 16, s. 2012. Guidelines on the implementation of the mother tongue-based- multilingual education (MTB-MLE).
[2]. Luistro, A. (2012). Kapampangan, Pangasinense, Iloko, Waray, 12 major language as medium of instruction up to Grade 3.

Paper Title :: The Influence of Financial Technology Services on Customer Decisions in Choosing Online Loan Funds
Author Name :: Hedwigis Esti Riwayati || Aviliani Aviliani || Wilda Lumban Tobing
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 101-109
This study aims to determine and analyze how much influence financial technology services have on customer decisions in choosing loan funds at PT Dana Lending Inclusive. The variables used in this study include perceived ease of use, perceived benefits and perceived risk towards the decision to choose loan funds. The population in this study is PT Dana Lending Inclusive customers totaling 17,515 active borrowers. Determination of the sample using the Slovin method so that a sample of 100 respondents was obtained. The data analysis tool uses IBM SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science) Statistic Version 26 program. The results found that the perception of ease of use did not have an influence on customers' decisions to borrow loan funds. Meanwhile, the perception of benefits and the perception of risk have a significant positive influence on the customer's decision to borrow loan funds. The results of this study also found that the perception of benefits has a more dominant influence on customer decisions in borrowing loan funds.
Keywords: financial technology. customer decisions, PinjamanGo
[1]. Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50 (2): 179-211.
[2]. Alamsyah, H. (2014). Pentingnya Keuangan Inklusif dalam Meningkatkan Akses Masyarakat dan UMKM terhadap Fasilitas Jasa Keuangan Syariah. Surabaya.
[3]. Amalia, F. (2016). The Fintech Book: The Financial Technology Handbook for Investors, Entrepreneurs and Visionaries. Journal of Indonesia Economy and Business, 31 (3): 345- 348.
[4]. Andryanto, R. (2016). Pengaruh Kepercayaan, Persepsi Manfaat, dan Persepsi Kemudahan Penggunaan Terhadap Minat Beli Di Toko Online (Studi Empiris Yang Dilakukan Pada OLX.Co.Id Di Yogyakarta). Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta.
[5]. Ardela, F. (2017). Sudah Resmi! Pahami Klasifikasi Fintech Menurut Bank Indonesia. Diperoleh dari Finansialku.Com:

Paper Title :: Sinergistic Duality between Destiny & Freewill in the Context of Diversity towards Universal Spirituality: Reflections on Book of Amos 9:11-15
Author Name :: Justiani Liem || Gregorius Neonbasu
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 110-119
The reality of the existence of chasms separating various thoughts, which is caused among others by religions, nowadays, is increasing severely, even though essentially (intrinsically) the teachings of religions actually refer to the same meaning of spirituality. Why is this happening more and more and how should the teachings be disseminated? This study takes the example of the interpretation of the Book of Amos 9:11-15 which is an example of prophetic verses ("miracle") which in the process of divinity (spirituality) can be interpreted as duality (reciprocal synergy) between "destiny" and "free will". There are two principles that must be synergized, namely the understanding of monism depending on the Absolute Essence (Hyang Divine) and the placement of the natural law "Sow Reap" as a teaching of life. These two factors must be managed to synergize to realize Divine promises within the framework of the duality of destiny and free will. In the Book of Amos 9:11-15 it also clearly contains the aspect of pluralism where all nations in the world belong to the Divine, the consequence of which is the meaning of the universality of teachings. If the intended meaning of the teachings is applied correctly, the promise of victory and peace will come true for anyone regardless of label/identity. Such an interpretation of spiritual universality should be an option to realize the essence of the teachings of religions.
Keywords: Duality of Destiny and Free Will; Religious Diversity; Universal Spirituality; Divine Totality
[1]. Abdullah. 2013. ―Metodologi Penafsiran Kontemporer: Telaah Pemikiran Sahiron Samsudin 1990-2013‖. Skripsi. Yogyakarta: UIN Sunan Kalijaga.
[2]. Admizal, Iril. 2021. ―Takdir dalam Islam (Suatu Kajian Tematik).‖ Ishlah: Jurnal Ilmu Ushuluddin, Adab Dan Dakwah, Vol.3 No.1, (2021): 87-107.
[3]. Amfotis, David. 2020. ―Ziarah Manusia dalam Bingkai Iman‖. Jogjakarta: Pohon Cahaya & GAG Kupang.
[4]. Amstrong, Karen. 2002. ―Sejarah Tuhan‖. Bandung: Mizan, 2002.
[5]. Arafat, M. Yaser. 2018. ―Analisis Antropologi Struktural Kisah Musa dan Khidir dalam Al Quran.‖ Al-Araf Jurnal Pemikiran Islam dan Filsafat Vol. 15 No. 2 (2018): 233-272.

Paper Title :: Analysis of Bank Health Levels Using Camel, RGEC, and Altman Z-Score Methods
(Study on Regional Development Banks of Central Java, East Java, West Java and Banten Period 2019 - 2021)
Author Name :: Rahmaninggar Dewanggi || Agus Endro Suwarno
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 120-126
This study aims to determine the level of financial performance of Regional Development Banks assessed using the CAMEL, RGEC, and Altman Z-Score methods. The population in this study used Regional Development Banks in Indonesia for the 2019-2021 period. The samples for this study were 3 Regional Development Banks, namely BPD Central Java, BPD East Java, and BPD West Java and Banten. Data analysis methods CAMEL (Capital, Assets, Management, Earnings and Liquidity), RGEC (Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earnings, and Capital) and Altman Z-score
Keywords: Bank Health Level, Financial Performance, Regional Development Bank, CAMEL, RGEC, Altman Z-Score
[1] Bank Indonesia. 2011. Surat Edaran Bank Indonesia No.13/24/DPNP Perihal Penilaian Tingkat Kesehatan Bank Umum. Jakarta: Bank Indonesia
[2] Febrianto, H.G., & Fitriana, A.I. (2020). Menilai Tingkat Kesehatan Bank Dengan Analisis Metode Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance, Earnings, Capital Pada Bank Syariah Di Indonesia. Islamic Banking: Jurnal Pemikiran dan Pengembangan Perbankan Syariah, 6(1), 139-160.
[3] Gaffar, A. (2021). Analisis Kesehatan Bank Dengan Metode CAMEL Pada PT. Bank Mandiri Indonesia. Jambura Accounting Review, 2(1), 12-26.
[4] Hosen, M. N. (2022). Analisa Tingkat Kesehatan PT. Bank BTPN Syariah Tbk. Periode 2016-2020 Dengan Metode Camels, RGEC Dan Altman Z-Score.
[5] Khaddafi, M., Heikal, M., & Nandari, A. (2017). Analysis Z-score to predict bankruptcy in banks listed in Indonesia stock exchange. International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, 7(3), 326-330.

Paper Title :: School Learning Action Cell and Professional Development
Author Name :: Renalyn D. Moises || Guarin S. Maguate
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 127-133
The goal of Department of Education is to ensure that every Filipino has access to a basic education that is thorough, equitable, and of the highest caliber so that they can realize their full potential and contribute significantly to the growth of the nation. This claim states that all instructors must be knowledgeable about the skills to be developed in teaching. It can be acquired by reviewing their teaching-learning performance based on the effectiveness and efficiency of their identified developmental needs through a professional development program.According to the survey findings, the demographic profile of teacher respondents was based on age, gender, and degree. Teachers with 6-10 years of experience had the highest proportion of SLAC and Professional Development implementation, while teachers with 0-2 years had the lowest rate. The Level of Implementation of SLAC and Professional Development among Teachers' Core Behavioral Competencies were also excellent.The School Learning Action Cell (SLAC) has a high level of implementation relevance to teachers' performance, with a mean of 4.36 in Assessment and Reporting, 4.27 in Personal Growth and Development, 4.26 in Content Knowledge and Pedagogy, 4.22 in Learning Environment and Diversity of Learners, and 4.09 in Curriculum and Planning. Conduct the Implementation of SLAC through proper monitoring, empowering school-based seminars, training, and programs for teachers, giving proper orientation and mentoring for starting teachers, and sharing equal opportunities to gain knowledge and opportunities. Meanwhile, the Level of Implementation of SLAC and Professional Development among Teachers' Core Behavioral Competencies is high, with professionalism, ethics, teamwork, self-management, service orientation, results focus, and innovation all having high extent interpretations. Innovation needs to be alleviated and emphasized, while commitment, new ideas, and the end product of teaching and learning need to be revisited and given priority.The study recommends strengthening SLAC practice and the Professional Development of teachers, providing a SLAC Implementation plan, motivating teachers to participate, disseminating the results, and conducting a quantitative-qualitative study on the impact of SLAC and Professional Development.
Keywords: Professional Development, Teachers Training, School Learning Cell
[1]. Bagayas, S. (2020). Students Of Top 4 PH Schools Urge CHED To Suspend Online Classes. Pasig, PH: Rappler.
[2]. .Baticulon, R. E., Alberto, N. R., Baron, M. B., Mabulay, R. E., Rizada, L. G., Sy, J. J., Tiu, C. J., Clarion, C. A. & Reyes, J. C. (2020). Barriers to online learning in the time of COVID-19: A national survey of medical students in the Philippines. medRxiv.
[3]. Briones, L. M. (2020). Secretary Department of Education.
[4]. Dollanganger, C. (2020) Philippines: The Rich and Poor Divide in Distance Learning.
[5]. Esposito, S. & Principi, N. (2020). School Closure During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic: An Effective Intervention at the Global Level? JAMA Pediatr. 2020; 174(10):921–922. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1892

Paper Title :: Analysis of the Project-Based Learning Model in Social Studies learning Referring to the Merdeka Curriculum
Author Name :: Agustinus Sugeng Priyanto || Idayatul Mafuroh || Juhadi Juhadi || Lukki Lukitawati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 134-140
The learning outcomes of high school social studies referring to the Regulation of the Minister of Education and Culture include aspects of concept understanding and process skills. The purpose of this research is to analyse descriptively qualitative development and effectiveness of PjBL learning model in social studies learning outcomes referring to independent curriculum in Indonesia. This research uses a descriptive qualitative research approach with data collection techniques through in-depth interviews, data observation, literature study. The research was conducted in three high schools in Semarang City from 1 July to 31 August 2022. Data sources consisted of history teachers, geography teachers, and economics teachers. The literature study used publish or perish (PoP). In the literature study, data was collected based on google scholar database with the keywords project-based learning; social science; driving school. Data analysis was conducted using the Miles and Huberman (2014) model, which includes data reduction, display, and verification stages. The results showed that most teachers who implement social studies learning in the independent curriculum have not used the PjBL learning model and still experience many obstacles in preparing learning scenarios, so that social studies learning outcomes are still low. Supported by the results of a literature study using PoP illustrates that the trend of social studies publications from 2017-2022 is dominated by PjBL learning at the high school level. This research provides recommendations for the availability of guidelines or manuals for the application of the PjBL model in social studies learning online and offline at the driving school.
Keywords: PjBL, Social Science, Mobile School
[1] Aditomo, A. (2021). Keputusan Kepala Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan dan Perbukuan No 028/H/KU/2021 tentang Capaian Pembelajaran PAUD, SD, SMP, SMA, SDLB, SMPLB, dan SMALB pada Program Sekolah Penggerak (p. 217). Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan dan Perbukuan.
[2] Aiken, L. R. (1985). Three Coefficients For Analyzing The Reliability And Validity Of Ratings. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45, 131–141.
[3] Ariandy, M. (2019). Kebijakan Kurikulum dan Dinamika Penguatan Pendidikan Karakter di Indonesia. Sukma: Jurnal Pendidikan, 3(2), 137–168.
[4] Dalyono, B., & Lestariningsih, E. D. (2020). Implementasi Program Penguatan Pendidikan Karakter Di Sekolah. Phinisi Integration Review, 3(2), 305.
[5] Dari, W. P., Hermansyah, & Selegi, S. F. (2021). Efektivitas Model Pembelajaran Project Based Learning Terhadap Hasil Belajar IPS Kelas IV. 2, 79–87.

Paper Title :: The Effectiveness of Condoms Supply with its Usage among University Students in Iringa, Tanzania
Author Name :: Joshua Juma Mugane
Country :: Tanzania
Page Number :: 141-148
This study was done in order to examine the accessibility and sufficiency of supplied condoms together with their use among university students in Iringa, Tanzania. Survey research design and quantitative research approach were employed in order to let questionnaires effect data collection within a sample size of 164 university students, which was recruited through stratified sampling technique. The results have evidently stipulated that, there is insufficient supply and less effective use of condoms among university students when compared to the need and risky occasions that they are exposed to. That might be due to the fact that their universities show less concern in providing free condoms; while on the other side it might be due to the fact that, students value their sexual feelings and emotions without considering their vulnerability. Also it might be due to failure of getting enough packets that would satisfy their use, especially when trying to access condom boxes/dispensers. For such cases, the study recommends that the government should set and enforce policies regarding condom supply and use, so that universities through their respective students’ organizations/governments may ensure condom boxes are procured and adequately supplied during semester sessions; while students being provided with safe sex education, so that they may either effectively use condoms or not do sex with their lovers without regular HIV retests.
Keywords: Condoms; Condom boxes; Condom dispensers; Condom packets; Condoms supply; Condom use; University students
[1]. Adu-Oppong, A., Grimes, R., Ross, M. W., Risser, J., & Kessie, G. (2007). Social and behavioral determinants of consistent condom use among female commercial sex workers in Ghana. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19(2), 160–72.
[2]. Ajayi, A. I., Omonaiye, O., & Nwogwugwu, C. (2022). Barriers and facilitators of consistent condom use among adolescents and young adults in South Africa: A cross-sectional survey. Research square, 1-22. 1485959/v1
[3]. Beksinska, M. E., Smit, J. A., & Mantell, J. E. (2012). Progress and challenges to male and female condomuse in South Africa. Sexual Health, 9(1), 51–58.
[4]. Black, D. S., Sun, P., Rohrbach, L. A., & Sussman, S. (2011). Decision-making style and gender moderation of the self-efficacy–condom use link among adolescents and young adults: informing targeted STI/HIV prevention programs. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 165(4), 320-325.
[5]. Brandt, A. (1985). No Magic Bullet: A Social History of Venereal Disease in the United States since 1880. New York: Oxford University Press.

Paper Title :: TikTok: Undistressing Tool for Teachers
Author Name :: June Grace D. Ohoylan || Guarin S. Maguate
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 149-155
Due to covid 19 pandemic, stress becomes so alarming to people, especially public school teachers. In response to stress, teachers use the Tiktok application as their de-stressing break at work or home. The purpose of this study is to create TikTok Videos, determine the TikTok Videos' acceptability in terms of Organization, Accuracy of Information, Accuracy of language use, Appropriateness to the target audience, Originality, Content, and Technicalities; determine the teacher’s stress level before and after using the TikTok application and significant difference in the stress level of teachers before and after the TikTok application and to identify a program to unstressed further the public school teachers This study employed a quantitative research design utilizing descriptive method developmental research design. Purposive sampling was used to determine the respondents of the survey. Findings revealed that the created TikTok videos have a very High level of acceptability with a Mean of 4.8412 and SD of 0.2573. The result shows a mean score of 2.9528 and a SD of .09974 which means that the teachers were moderately stressed before using the TikTok videos; in contrast, after using the TikTok videos, the result showed a Mean Score of 2.5583 and a SD of .20665 which means the teachers had a mildly stressed level. Moreover, the result showed a t-value of 10.374 and a P-value of .000 with a description of significant difference in the teachers' stress levels before and after using the developed TikTok videos. This study concluded that the created TikTok videos effectively cope with stress among secondary public school teachers.
Keywords: Acceptability, Secondary Teachers, TikTok Videos, Undistressing
[1]. Clark, H. (2021). Theory of Change in a nutshell, New York, United States of America,
[2]. Collie, R.J., Perry, N.E., & Martin, A.J. (2018). School context and educational system factors impacting educator stress. In McIntyre, T. M., McIntyre, S. E., & Francis, D. J. (Eds.),Educator stress: An occupational health perspective. New York, NY: Springer.
[3]. Cool, J., Zappetti, D. (2019). The Physiology of Stress. In: Zappetti, D., Avery, J. (eds) Medical Student Well-Being. Springer, Cham.
[4]. Davies, Simon (2021). Describe the theory of Change,
[5]. Alron Godrian E. Gajo (2023) stated in his study entitled "Sustaining Students' Mental Health Through The Use of TikTok Application Opportunity for Teaching and Learning Science Communication Online

Paper Title :: The Role of Authentic Malay Songs in the Social Life of Malay Society
Author Name :: Tengku Ritawati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 156-161
This research focuses on the role of original Malay songs in the social life of the Malay community. The importance of describing the role of traditional music, considering that the art of singing original Malay songs is a cultural treasure of the Malay community that has been inherited from generation to generation and has a long history. As a basic cultural expression in the field of music, it certainly has a close relationship in the social life of the supporting community. The selection of Original Malay Song Singing is because the art belongs to and the cultural identity of the Malay community collectively. His works that seem beautiful and alive are able to be preserved in a long span of time for several generations as a form that has noble values, meaning and beauty. The phenomenological method is an approach used to seek in-depth understanding, and try to understand the meaning of events and their relationships to people who are in certain situations in revealing the phenomena and symptoms caused in this case describing the role that Nyanyian Lagu Melayu Asli has which implicitly frames three roles that are relevant to the social life of the Malay community. Based on the elaboration that has been done, three important roles were found to answer the problem, first as a unifier of the Malay community, second, as cultural communication and third, as the identity of the Malay community.
Keywords: role; original Malay songs; social life; Malay community.
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[2]. Cherbo, J. M., Stewart, R. A., & Wyszomirski, M. J. (Eds.). (2008). Understanding the Arts and Creative Sector in the United States Rutgers University Press.
[3]. Harwanto D.C, Sunarto. (2018). Form and Structure of Kentrung Art in Ngasem Village Batealit District Jepara Regensi. Catharsis Jurnal Unnes, 7(1), 23-33. doi:
[4]. Huka R.Y, Letma I, Navi N.M. (2022). Kajian etnomusikologi Nyanyian Desa Yo Day Nengo Sebagaipengiringtarian Lego-lego Pada Masyarakat Desakamaiful, Kecamatan Mataru, Suku Avbui, Kabupaten Alor. Tambur: Journal of Music Creation, Study and performance, 2(2), 85-108. doi:
[5]. Irawati E. (2016). Transmisi Kepentingan Dalam Masyarakat Dayak Benuaq. Resital: Jurnal Seni Pertunjukan, 17(1), 1-18. doi:

Paper Title :: Homestead Vegetable Cultivation by the Rural Women: Problem, Prospect, and Recommendation
Author Name :: Nipa Monalesa || Md Masum Abdullah || Tanushree Mondal || Nowshin Jahan
Country :: Bangladesh
Page Number :: 162-167
The major purpose of this research was to determine rural womens’ problems and prospects of homestead vegetable cultivation. The study was conducted in five villages of Nabinagar upazila under Brahmanbaria district. A structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Appropriate scales were developed in order to measure the variables. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, range and percentage were used to describe the variables under consideration. Among the ten selected problem ‘lack of credit’ was ranked first followed by ‘lack of technical knowledge’, ‘insect and disease infestation’, ‘higher price of inputs’, ‘lack of quality seeds and seedlings’, ‘cattle and goat destroy the vegetables’ ‘lack of homestead land’, ‘lower fertility of homestead land’ and ‘lower market price of products’. Lack of required information in time’ was identified as other major problems which also hinder the homestead vegetable production. Hence, it may be recommended that, Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE) and other agriculture related organizations should organize necessary training and skill development program like training on vegetable cultivation, fertilizer application etc. so that the rural women could increase vegetable cultivation in their homestead as well as can increase their family income.
Keywords: Homestead vegetable; cultivation; problem; problem index; women; agriculture; Bangladesh.
[1] Abdullah, T. 1986. Homestead Agricultural Production in Bangladesh. ADAB News, 13(5):1-7.
[2] Agriculture Information Service (AIS). 2004. Dissemination of Information on successful NAP activities for advancement of women, Dhaka: AIS. Retrieved April 11, 2011.
[3] BARC. 1990. Farming Systems Agribusiness Newsletter Vol. 1 No.2. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council,
[4] BBS. 2011. Statistical Year Book of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh.
[5] Chadha, M. L., Shanmugassundram, S., Hossain, A. K. M. A. and Hossain, S. M. M. 1994. Vegetable research and development in Bangladesh. AVRDC, BARI, Gazipur.

Paper Title :: The Effect of Personality Education in Wisdom Education in China
Author Name :: Cui Lei || Lee Leok Cheong
Country :: China
Page Number :: 168-178
Cultivating individual life wisdom is the ultimate goal of wisdom education. Wisdom education should not only stop at the construction of smart campus, the design of smart classroom, the renewal of smart learning, the laying of smart classroom and other changes in school education forms, but also extend to the society. With the support from all walks of life, we will make wisdom education to accompany people's lifelong growth, and take cultivating their life wisdom as our unswerving goal.
As an educational institution originating from and growing up in China, the Traditional Academy represents the typical form of ancient education. In the traditional academy personality education, the logic of character cultivation, the practical reason of cultivating personality, the characteristic orientation of humanness and the way of advocating daily moral education are undoubtedly enlightening and referential for cultivating new people of the times. It has long been proposed that humanistic spirit should be permeated into the teaching of professional courses to improve the humanistic quality of college students.
Keywords: wisdom education, personality education, the Traditional Academy, humanness
[1]. Jincheng Wang (2021). The Essence and Composition Elements of Wisdom Education. Science Insights (36):265-270.
[2]. Qin Yanchun (2017). Temperament and personality: From Tang Junyi's diary. Development and Evaluation of Higher Education (33): 78–87.
[3]. Darnell, C., Gulliford, L., Kristjánsson, K., & Paris, P. (2019). Phronesis and the knowledge-action gap in moral psychology and moral education: A new synthesis. Education for Chemical Engineers 8(2), 213-235. doi:10.1108/09727981111175957
[4]. Zhu Zhiting, Wei Fei (2018). Education Informatization 2.0: Smart Education starts, Smart education takes the lead. Research on Audio-visual Education (9):5-16
[5]. Zhu Zhiting, He Bin (2012). Intelligent Education: A new realm of educational informatization. Research on Visual Education (12):5-13.

Paper Title :: The Implications of Blog Writing on Writing Enhancement in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) among Students in Buqata Junior High School, Golan Heights
Author Name :: Jamal Assadi || Murad Tareq || Shifaa Shams
Country :: Israel
Page Number :: 179-190
Weblogging, or blogging online, has always intrigued academicians because of its interest and excitement created on young students. Yet, only a few qualitative studies have been conducted on the effect of blogging onEnglish as a Foreign Language (EFL) students‟ English writing. This study is one of those that can provide some light on the impact of blogging on EFL students‟ English writing. This experiment used EFL students from Buqata Junior High School in Golan Heights. Based on the teacher's prompts, the participants were asked to write in English on a blogging website, The first prompt writing experience produced many grammar, vocabulary, spelling, and syntax mistakes. The teachers found improvement in the subsequent prompt writing experience. The teachers were interviewed at the end of the experiment, and they provided valuable insights into the effect of blogging on the EFL students‟ English writing. The students showed interest and excitement in blogging, which motivated them to write in English. This study found that blogging on a blogging website,, allowed and motivated EFL students to improve their English writing.
Keywords: Writing skills, Vocabulary knowledge, Technology integration, Web blog, English Language Institute
[1]. Akdağ, E., & Özkan, Y. (2017). Enhancing writing skills of EFL learners through blogging. The Reading Matrix: An International Online Journal, 17(2), 79-95.
[2]. Alsamadan, Hashem A. (2018). The Effectiveness of Using Online Blogging for Students‟ Individual and Group Writing. International Education Studies; Vol. 11, No. 1; 44-51. doi:10.5539/ies.v11n1p44 URL:
[3]. Bartlett-Bragg, A. (2003). Blogging to Learn, Knowledge Tree e-journal. In Blood, R. (2002). The weblog handbook: Practical advice on creating and maintaining your blog. Basic Books.
[4]. Carter, R., & Michael, N. (2003). Long, MN (1991), Teaching Literature. Harlow: Longman. Celce Murcia, M, 3-9.
[5]. Cequena, M., & Salle, D. (2013). Does blogging facilitate the development of students‟ writing skills. Philippine ESL Journal, 10 (2013), 126-147.

Paper Title :: Social protection of servicemen in Ukraine: issues of digitalization of funding
Author Name :: Brusakova О.V. || Hetmanets O.P.
Country :: Ukraine
Page Number :: 191-195
Based on the analysis of scientific views of scholars, the essence and peculiarities of social protection of servicemen in Ukraine are revealed in the article. The author emphasises that the implementation of social protection measures is virtually impossible without a properly structured financial mechanism for their realisation. The key problems of using digital technologies in financing the mechanisms of social protection of the military personnel are highlighted and the ways to overcome them are elaborated.
Keywords: digital technologies, financial mechanisms, social protection, military personnel.
[1]. Pidlypna R.P. System of social protection of the population in Ukraine in modern conditions: the essence and main components / R.P. Pidlypna // Scientific Bulletin of Poltava University of Economics and Trade. Series: Economic Sciences.2015. № 1(1). P. 16-22
[2]. Didkivska L.I., Holovko L.S. State regulation of the economy: a training manual. Kyiv: Znannya-Press, 2000. 209 p.
[3]. Lavrukhin V. V. Social protection of the population: conceptual and categorical analysis. Public Administration: Theory and Practice. 2014. № 1. P.61-70
[4]. On Social and Legal Protection of the Military and Members of their Families / Law of Ukraine dated 20.12.1991 №. 2011-XII
[5]. 5. Tsyukalo L.V. Social security of the military personnel of the Armed Forces of Ukraine and its essence. Effective Economy № 7, 2017. URL:

Paper Title :: Internal Audit, Control and Organization Culture and how it helps in fraud detection
Author Name :: Muhammad Ashraf Ali || Zhengmeng Chai
Country :: China
Page Number :: 196-206
The internal audit is a corporate control mechanism to address fraud risk (IIA, 2003). This study addresses the prevalent risk of fraud by inspecting individual internal auditor’s observations of the determinants of auditor expert performance in fraud detection. The anticipated premise of this study is that expert presentation in fraud detection is a function of the individual internal auditor’s fraud detection skills. Internal controls consist of interrelated components that are combined and should be managed daily. Maintaining and balancing effective internal controls is continuous and cyclical process. Internal audit objectives effect the control system and its monitoring. It also has its impact on the information to be communicated. apart from influencing the monitoring aspect it also has its influence on risk assessment procedure of internal control system.
[1]. Abdel – Khalid, A. R. & Ajinkya B. B. Empirical Research in Accounting: A Methodological viewpoint, Sarasota, Fla. USA, American Accounting Association, 1979
[2]. Abdolmohammadi M.J., Burnaby P., & Hass, S., “A review of prior common body of knowledge (CBOK) studies in internal auditing and an overview of the global CBOK 2006” Managerial Auditing Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 8, 2006.
[3]. Abernathy, M.A., & Stoelwinder, J.U., “The Role of Professional Control in the Management of Complex Organizations” Accounting Organizations and Society, Vol. 20 No. 1, January, 1995 pp 1-17.
[4]. Abernathy, M.A., & Brownell, P. “Management Control Systems in Research and Development Organizations: The role of Accounting, Behaviour, and Personnel Controls” Accounting, Organizations and Society, Vol 22 No. 3 to 4, April/May, 1997, pp 234 - 248.
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Paper Title :: The Effect of Sustainability Report Disclosure, Good Corporate Governance, and Profitability on Company Value in Manufacturing Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2017-2021
Author Name :: Indah Dwi Lestari, Fauzan
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 207-213
This study aims to empirically examine the effect of sustainability report disclosure, good corporate governance proxied by institutional ownership and managerial ownership, and profitability proxied by ROA (Return On Assets) on company value. The population in this study is manufacturing companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the period 2017-2021. The sample of this study was determined by purposive sampling method so that as many as 8 companies were obtained that met the research criteria with a total of 40 samples. This study used multiple linear regression analysis techniques with SPSS software version 26. The results of this study show that sustainability report and managerial ownership have no effect on company value, internal ownership and ROA (Return On Assets) have a positive effect on company value.
Keywords: Sustainability Report, Institutional Ownership, Managerial ownership, Profitability.
[1] Aldo dan Iskak, J. 2020. Pengaruh Ukuran Perusahaan, Likuiditas, dan Profitabilitas Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan. Jurnal Multiparadigma Akuntansi Tarumanegara. 2:1400-1406.
[2] Dewi, L.S., dan N, Abundanti. 2019. Pengaruh Profitabilitas, Likuiditas, Kepemilikan Institusional dan Kepemilikan Manajerial Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan. E-Jurnal Manajemen. 8(10):6099-6118.
[3] Deegan, C. 2004. Financial Accounting Theory. Sidney: McGraw.
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[5] Menge, M.S. C., dan K. Nuringsih. 2021. Pengaruh Good Corporate Governance dan Profitabilitas Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan. Jurnal Manajerial dan Kewirausahaan. 3(2):398-406.

Paper Title :: Rural Romanticism: The Aspirations and Experiences of the Migrants of young farm workers in Eastern Beni Amir
Author Name :: Abderrahim Anbi
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 214-222
The purpose of this paper is to delve into questions about the migrant aspirations and experiences of young farm workers in the Eastern Beni Amir. Through a case study of the newly arriving migrants from Europe to the eastern Beni Amir, this paper seeks to emphasize more on how these young farm workers are related to the eastern Beni Amir and its farming culture. Additionally, we aim to show how these changes affect their choice to migrate to Europe and later return. The significance of this study lies in the way that research begins with open interviews between young farmhands and experienced migrants regarding the issue of migration. This will undoubtedly help to better understand a few individuals' intentions while reflecting on current economic conditions and farm policy in Morocco.
[1]. ANBI, A. (2014). Rural Moroccan family from the unity of production to consumption, (2014) Agadir, Ibnou Zohr University (Arabic).
[2]. Balandier, Georges. (1971) Sens et puissance. Les dynamiques sociales, Paris, Puf Faysse, N., Errahj, M., Dumora, C., Kemmoun, H., Kuper, M. (2012). Linking research to public engagement: weaving an alternative narrative of Moroccan family farmers‘ collective action. Agric Hum Values, 29, 413-426.
[3]. Heering, L., van der Erf, R., van Wissen, L. (2004). The Role of Family Networks and Migration Culture in the Continuation of Moroccan Emigration: A Gender Perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30 (2), 323-337.
[4]. Mrabet, R., Moussadek, R., Fadlauoi, A., van Ranst, E. (2012). Conservation agriculture in dry areas of Morocco. Field Crops Research, 132, 84-94.
[5]. Roe, T., Dinar, A., Tsur, Y., Diao, X. (2005). Feedback links between economy-wide and farm level policies: With application to irrigation water management in Morocco. Journal of Policy Modeling, 27, 905-928.

Paper Title :: Use New Media to Improve University Students’ Cultural Identity
Author Name :: Tan Shuxin || Lee Keok Cheong
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 223-230
People especially the young people are faced with the exchange, collision, and integration of different cultures in the context of globalization. Cultural identity is crucial, not only for a country or a culture, but also for individuals‘ self-identification. This research answers the question regarding the impact new media content on university students‘ cultural identity in China. A questionnaire survey was carried out on a sample of 600 university students. Instruments used was ethnic identity scale (MEIM-R). Quantitative data collected was analyzed using Independent Samples T-Test, variance analysis, regression analysis and other analyzing methods. The finding has come out: the content that new media conveys has impact on university students‘ cultural identity in China. It is recommended that educators should help strengthen university students‘ cultural identity with the assistance of new media.
Keywords: globalization, new media, cultural identity, media content
[1]. Akfirat, S., Polat, F., & Yetim, U. (2016). How the Poor Deal with Their Own Poverty: A Social Psychological Analysis from the Social Identity Perspective. Social Indicators Research, 127(1), 413–433.
[2]. Carey, James, W. (2019). Transmission as Culture (pp.7-12). China Renmin University Press,
[3]. Cao, Qingao.(2020). Research on Strengthening College Students' Cultural Identity under the Background of Building Chinese Nation "Community". Journal of Hubei University of Economics. Humanities and Social Sciences, (4), 124-128.
[4]. Croteau, David., & Hoynes, William. (2003). Media/Society: Industries, Images, and Audiences (pp.311). Pine Forge Press.
[5]. Erikson, E.H. (1968). Identity, Youth and Crisis (pp.154-159). New York: W. W. Norton Company.

Paper Title :: The Effect of Profitability, Liquidity, Growth, Firm Size and Debt Policy on Dividend Policy
(Empirical Study of LQ 45 Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) In 2016-2022)
Author Name :: Yuyun Mei Rahmayanti || Wahyono
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 231-239
Investment is the association of resources in the long term to generate profits in the future. One alternative investment in the capital market is shares, which will benefit shareholders through dividend income. Companies often face several factors affecting dividend policy, such as profitability, liquidity, growth, firm size, and debt policy. This study aimed to determine the effect of profitability, liquidity, growth, firm size, and debt policy on the company's dividend policy. This research was conducted at LQ 45 companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) for 2016-2022. The number of samples used in this study was 12 companies with 84 observations, and used a purposive sampling method. The data in this study were tested using multiple regression analysis. The result of this study is that profitability and liquidity affect the company's dividend policy. Growth, firm size, and debt policy do not affect the company's dividend policy.
Keywords: Profitability, Liquidity, Growth, Firm Size, Debt Policy, Dividend Policy.
[1] Winarto, W. W. A., Nurhidayah, T., & Sukirno, S, “Pengaruh Green Banking Disclosure Terhadap Nilai Perusahaan Pada Bank Umum Syariah Di Indonesia,” Velocity: Journal of Sharia Finance and Banking, 1(2), 12-22. 2021.
[2] Mulyadi., “Sistem Perencanaandan Pengendalian Manajemen,” Jakarta: Salemba Empat. 2011.
[3] Sumariyah.,“Pengantar Pengetahuan Pasar Modal. Edisi Kenam,” Yogyakarta: UPP STIM YKPN. 2010.
[4] Fakhruddin, M., & M. S. Hadianto, “Perangkatdan Model Analisis Investasi di Pasar Modal,” Buku Satu. Jakarta: PT. Elekmedia Komputindo Kelompok Gramedia. 2001.
[5] Ginting, W. A., & Munawarah, “Analisis Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Kebijakan Dividen,” Jurnal Akuntansi Dan Bisnis, 4(1). 2018.

Paper Title :: Guidelines for Improving the Professional Quality of Fine Art Students at Guangxi Arts University
Author Name :: Ling Tong || Kanokkan Kanjanarat || Sarayut Khan
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 240-253
The purpose of this study is: 1) to understand the current situation and further needs of art majors for career training; 2) to investigate the problems and analyze the reasons from four aspects: professional skills, curriculum teaching, career development training and technological innovation. The object/sample of the study is 185 students majoring in fine arts in Guangxi Arts Institute. The research tools and programs are questionnaires and interviews. This study collects data through questionnaires and interviews. It was distributed and collected through "Questionnaire Star" and offline questionnaires. The data collected were processed and analyzed using SPSS statistical software with the aim of making a new guide and countermeasure study to further improve the career cultivation of art majors. Results Findings 1) Among the four dimensions of the career development guide, there is a discrete perception of different dimensions among art students. 2) Art students from different backgrounds have different views on the four dimensions of the career development guide, and their gender, reason for attending school, and grade level significantly affect the results. 3) The results of the survey are summarized in the following table.
Keywords: Career guide, Fine arts students' current situation, Career development advice
[1]. Liu Qiutao. Study on the influence of "Pre-formed Schema" on the thinking mode of Painting in Middle School Art Education [Master]: Chongqing Normal University; 2016.
[2]. Qiu Mingcheng, HUANG Guojun, Xia Lihua, XU Fengming. Ai-enabled Art Education: a deep learning-based system to promote art appreciation and drawing outcomes for college students. Interactive Learning environment 2022:1-19.
[3]. Xiao Jian. Analysis on the optimization and integration of basic courses of art design. Art Education Research 2016; (06): 150.
[4]. Career development and Creative arts students: A survey of the practical effects of vocational theory combined with work-study experience. Australian Journal of Professional Development 2010; 19(2): 14-22.
[5]. Xu Chenyao. Exploration on the teaching reform of Computer-Aided Design for Arts and crafts major in higher vocational colleges. Industrial Design 2020; Paragraphs 45-46 (04).

Paper Title :: The Impact of Implementing The Project-Work Learning Model on Improving The Quality of Learning Outcomes in The Machining Process
Author Name :: Dwi Rahdiyanta || Alifia Zahra Khoirunisa
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 254-264
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of project-work learning model on the development ofstudents‟ soft skills and hard skills in the Machining Process learning.The research was carried out in the equipment manufacturing industry in the Special Region of Yogyakarta, as well as in the machining workshop at the Faculty of Engineering, Yogyakarta State University (YSU).The research design used is research and development and is followed by experimental research.The research population was 108 students. The research sample was 41 students who were determined based on purposive sampling.The posttest-only control design was used, and the research instrument validation was measured by machining and education experts. Data collection was carried out by surveys, observations, and assessment sheets on the learning outcomes of the machining process.They were examined using descriptive statistics and a t-test with a significance threshold of 0.05. According to the research findings, pupils in the project-work learning class have better soft and hard skills than those in the non-model class. Finally, the project-work learning model is appropriate for machiningpProcess learning in vocational education since it has been shown to increase the acquisition of integrated soft and hard skills in machining process learning.
Keywords: Machining Process learning, project-work learning, softskills and hard skills
[1] Calhoun, C.C. and Finch, C.R.(1976).Vocationaleducational: Concepts and operation, Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
[2] Finch, C.R. and Crunkilton, J.R. (1979). Curriculum development in vocational education, Boston: Allyn and Bacon Inc.
[3] Prosser, C.A., & Allen, C.R. (1952). Vocational Education in a Democracy. New York: Century.
[4] Fortus, D., et al. (2015). Incorporating modeling practices into middle school project-based science. Research Report. Weizmann Institute of Science.
[5] Alamaki, A. (1999). Current Trends in Technology Education in Finland. The Journal of Technology Studies. Available on: Digital Library and Archives.

Paper Title :: The Incentive Mechanisms for Administrative Staff at NanNing University
Author Name :: Liu Zenghui || Sarayut Khan || Kanokkan Kanjanarat
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 265-272
The objectives of this research were 1) to study the current situation of incentive mechanisms at NanNing University, and 2) To suggest the guideline of incentive mechanisms for administrative staff at NanNing University in four aspects as follows: 1) compensation incentive, 2) growth incentive, 3) achievement incentive, and 4) environment incentive. The sample group of this research was 86 administrative staff at NanNing University and the interviewees were 5 administrative staff with experience and expertise in their fields. The research instruments were questionnaires and structured interviews. The data analysis statistic wasa percentage, mean, and standard deviation. The results of this research found that the current situation of the incentive mechanisms at NanNing University was satisfactory at a high level.When considering the research results in various fields, it was found that the highest level was environmental motivation, followed by achievement incentive, and growth incentive was the lowest level.Guideline for the development of incentive mechanisms should be considered in line with the findings and personal status as follows: 1) set up a salary payment system and promote clear and transparent career advancement, 2) foster a culture of continuous learning and development by providing training opportunities, 3) encourage employees to participate in the decision-making process regarding incentive programs and policies, and 4) promote a good waking environment in teamwork and mutual respect among colleagues.
Keywords: incentive mechanisms, administrative staff, NanNing University
[1]. Alderfer, C. P. (1969). An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 4(2), p.142-175.
[2]. Alqudsi, G. T., & Mansouri, H. (2010). Staff Motivation at Kuwait University Libraries. Journal of Information & Knowledge Management, 9(4), p.355-363.
[3]. Chen, Y., Zhang, S., & Yu, H. (2016). Research on the incentive mechanism of college teachers based on the principal-agent theory. Journal of Beijing Union University (Social Sciences), 30(2), p.1-8.
[4]. Frengki. (2017). the Influence of Incentives towards Motivation and Discipline (A Case Study at Rectorate of Andalas University, West Sumatera, Indonesia). Journal of Education and Learning Research, 4, p.122-128.
[5]. Geng, H. (2013). Construction of Selective Incentive Mechanisms in School Management. Teaching and Management, 2013(3), p.39-41.

Paper Title :: Smart Education in Nigeria: Meaning, Merits, Problems and Prospects
Author Name :: Nwankwo Victor Chibuzor || Prof. Mkpa Agu Mkpa
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 273-280
The increasing demand by countries to cope with the challenges of the 21st century digital process has led to the establishment of smart education and smart schools in various advanced and advancing countries. This paper took a look at the concept of smart education and smart schools, their meanings, importance and implementation in Nigeria educational system. In doing this, this paper, conceptualized smart education as a new trend of education backed up by the use of technological equipment for teaching and learning. The paper situated smart school as a component of smart education based on use of ICT for effective teaching and learning. The importance of smart schools include providing interactive learning experiences, enhancing learning experiences, easy access to online research, environmental friendliness, promotion of individual learning etc. the challenges of implementation in Nigeria include poor manpower and infrastructure, lack of funds, low level of ICT education, lack of electricity and internet connectivity etc. the paper also made suggestions.
Keywords: Smart school, smart education, and educational system.
[1]. Aboderin, O.S. (2015). Challenges and Prospects of e-learning at the National Open University of Nigeria. Journal of Education and Learning 9(3)207 -216.
[2]. Abubarka, M.S. and Akor, P.U. (2017). Availaibility and utilization of Electronic Information Databases for Research in Agric science, Federal universities Libraries. http/
[3]. Anene, J., Iman, H. & Oduma, T. (2014). Problems and Prospects of e-learning in Nigerian Universities. International Journal of Technology and Inclusive Education (IJTHE) 3(2) 320 -324.
[4]. Coopasmi, M. Knight, S. & Pete, M.(2017). E- Learning Readiness among Nursing Students at Durban University of Technology. Health SA. Gensodheid (22), 300 - 306.
[5]. Erkollar, A & Oberer, B. (2016). The Effects of the Flipped Classroom Approach. Online Journal of Quality in Higher Education. July, vil 3(3).34.

Paper Title :: Socialization and its effect on the behavior of juvenile delinquents
Author Name :: Ammar Sididris || Shraoui Amara || Badaoui Hafsia
Country :: Algeria
Page Number :: 281-291
The institutions of socialization in any of the societies play a pivotal role in building the personality of the juvenile and its growth in a way that makes him a normal person in his society, committed to the rules of social control and its requirements, through a set of value and moral systems that these institutions seek to integrate into the personality of the juvenile, which are patterns that the society adopts and accepts It is the basis of normal social relations, as well as the existing social system, all with the aim of protecting the juvenile and immunizing him from all social stimuli that may motivate him to enter the world of crime and delinquency.
Keywords: socialization, deviant behavior, juveniles.
[1]. Child, I. L. (1954). Socialization. In G. Lindzey (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology. I. Theory and method. II. Special fields and applications. (2 Vols.) (pp. II, 655–692). Addison Wesley Publishing Co.
[2]. McLoyd, V., 1989. Socialization and development in a changing economy: The effects of paternal job and income loss on children. American Psychologist, 44(2), pp.293-302.
[3]. Claud Dubar: La socialisation. Construction des identités sociales et professionnelles, deuxième édition, ARMAND. COLIN Paris, France, 1999 page 14.
[4]. A. Hersov, M. Berger, and D. Shaffer (1978)"Family, Area and School Influences in the Genesis of Conduct Disorders." In Aggression and Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence.
[5]. Patacchini, E. and Y. Zenou (2012), “Juvenile delinquency and conformism,” Journal of Law, Economic, and Organization 28, 1-31.

Paper Title :: Effect of Company Age, Firm Size, and Structure Ownership to Company Performance in sub Manufacturing Company sector goods and consumption listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange
Author Name :: Afriza Kusumaningrum || Lintang Kurniawati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 292-297
This study aims to analyze the effect of company age, Size Company, structure ownership to performance company. The independent variable in this study is company age, size company and structure ownership. Meanwhile, the company's performance as the dependent variable is measured by return on assets. Population in this research is a sub-sector manufacturing company goods and consumption listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in 2018-2020. The sampling technique used was purposive sampling method which resulted in a sample of 41 companies. The type of data collected is secondary data. This study uses multiple regression analysis, the results of which show that the variables are company age and size company effect on company performance (ROA), but on the variable structure ownership No influential to performance company (ROA).
Keywords: Company Age, Size Company, Structure Ownership, and Performance Company
[1] Agasva, BA, & Budiantoro , H. (2020). The Influence of Good Corporate Governance and Company Size on Performance Company Work. Journal of Economics and Business ASEA Nonomies, 33-53.
[2] Anjani, Ni Wayan Devi. 2019. Influence Board of Directors Size, Board of Commissioners Size, and Company Size Against Performance Finance of Banking Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2016-2018. Thesis. Faculty Economics and Business, University Mahasaraswati Denpasar.
[3] Aprilianti, R. (2020). Influence Company Size, Financial Distress, Reputation Hood To Going Concern Opinion on Manufacturing Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2016-2018. Journal Science Accounting and Technology, 1-13.
[4] Ardi , FG, Saputra , I., & Mulyani, SD (2019). Influence Financial Director, Company Size, Ausit Tenure and Reputation to Going Concern Modification Audit Opinion. Journal of Master of Accounting Trisakti , 225-246.
[5] Cahyarifida, Rahma Anzalia. 2017. "The Influence of Good Corporate Governance and Company Age on Company Financial Performance (Empirical Study of Manufacturing Companies Listed on the IDX 2014-2016)" Thesis, Indonesian Islamic University.

Paper Title :: Analysis of the Relationship between Exports, Imports, Inflation, and Rupiah Exchange Rate in Indonesia
Author Name :: Hani Hendrawan || Devi Valeriani || Edih Mulyadi
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 298-306
This study aims to analyze the relationship between Exports, Imports, Inflation and the Rupiah Exchange Rate in Indonesia. This type of research is a type of quantitative research. The data source in this study uses secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Trade and Indonesia Bank. The data used are Export, Import, Inflation, and Rupiah Exchange Rate Data for 2017-2022. Data analysis was performed using Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) analysis. The results showed that in the long term relationship there was a negative and significant relationship between exports and the rupiah exchange rate, a positive and insignificant relationship between imports and the rupiah exchange rate, a positive and insignificant relationship between inflation and the rupiah exchange rate. In the short term, there is a relationship between exports and imports, exports and inflation, and imports and inflation. The results of the Granger causality test show that there is a unidirectional relationship between exports and rupiah exchange, exports and imports, exports and inflation, and imports and inflation in Indonesia.
Keywords: Rupiah Exchange Rate, Export, Import, Inflation, Vector Error Correction Model (VECM).
[1] Aji. (2017). Analisis Komparatif Daya Saing Ekspor Biji Kakao antara Indonesia, Pantai Gading dan Ghana : Pendekatan RCA dan CMS. JEP, 15(2), 79–90. Retrieved from
[2] Arfiani. (2019). Analisis Empiris Hubungan Antara Ekspor, Impor, Nilai Tukar dan Pertumbuhan Ekonomi. JEP, 17(2), 81–89.
[3] dan Angelina, H. (2021). Analisis Pengaruh Ekspor dan Impor Terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi di Indonesia. MANKEU, 10(02), 53–62.
[4] dan bagiada parameswara, U. (2018). Pengaruh Inflasi dan BI Rate Terhadap Volume Simpanan Masyarakat Pada Bank Umum Pemerintah di Indonesia Periode 2013-2017. WEDJ, 1(2), 59–67. Retrieved from
[5] dan Kartikasari, S. (2018). Analisis Pengaruh Ekspor Impor Terhadap Nilai Tukar USD dan SGD. Jurnal Akuntasi, Ekonomi dan Manajemen Bisnis Polibatam. Jurnal Akuntasi, Ekonomi Dan Manajemen Bisnis Polibatam, 6(2), 135–141.

Paper Title :: Research on the Optimization Path of Rural Education Resource Allocation in G County, Guangdong Province
Author Name :: Qiu Yuting || Noraini Binti HJ. Zainal Abidin
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 307-314
The allocation of rural education resources is a key aspect of developing modern education in rural areas. This study focuses on the allocation of educational resources in G County, Guangdong Province, and conducts research through questionnaires, interviews, and on-site visits. The research results show that there are problems in the allocation of education resources in G County, such as insufficient investment in education funds, the need to improve teaching infrastructure, and weak rural teaching staff. Based on this, a series of optimization paths for the allocation of educational resources are proposed in combination with the actual situation in G County, including increasing investment in education funds and improving the system of using education funds; Optimize the layout of rural schools and improve their educational conditions; Strengthen the construction of teaching staff in rural schools and improve teaching quality.
Keywords: Educational resources; Educational equity; Educational resources allocation; Optimized path.
[1]. Borut D, Bryant A & Houston P. Conflict or consensus? Why collaboration between cities 57 and schools is the key to reform. Nation’s Cities Weekly, 2017(12): 35-37.
[2]. Diris R, Ooghe E. The economics of financing higher education. Economic Policy, 2018, 33(94): 265-314.
[3]. Dong Zixian. Exploration of the Relationship between Education Equity and Balanced Development of Education. Knowledge Economy, 2019 (21): 28+30
[4]. Kan Luting. The Current Situation, Reasons, and Countermeasures of Urban and Rural Education Resources from the Perspective of Education Equity. Journal of Yanbian Education College, 2018, 32 (01): 36-39
[5]. Li Ling, Zhou Wenlong, Zhong Binglin, et al Analysis of the demand for primary education resources in urban and rural areas of China from 2019 to 2035. Chinese Journal of Education, 2019 (09): 58-64

Paper Title :: Contingent Educational Management Response: The Construction and Validation of Leadership Scale in the Era of Change
Author Name :: Jerry A. Azucena Jr. || Ma. Janet S. Geroso || Guarin S. Maguate
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 315-327
This study aimed to develop and validate the Leadership in the Era of Change - Scale (LEC-Scale) specifically designed for school administrators of public secondary schools. The LEC-Scale demonstrated high acceptability, content validity, and excellent internal consistency, indicating its reliability and consistency in measuring various aspects of educational management response, including communication and interaction, human-centric educational management response, adaptability, planning and delivery, personal and professional growth, and decision-making. The study also conducted a contrast group analysis, which showed no significant difference between two groups of teachers regarding communication and interaction but significant differences in their response to adaptability, personal and professional growth, and decision-making, with one group scoring higher in these areas. These findings highlight the importance of considering different factors that may influence how teachers respond to changes and challenges in their profession. This study provides valuable contributions to the field of educational leadership, offering a reliable and valid instrument for measuring leadership capability in the current extraordinary situation. It is recommended that the LEC-Scale be used for measuring educational leadership capability, utilizing it as a tool for assessing leadership capability, assessing teachers' leadership capability, identifying areas for improvement, and exploring the relationship between leadership capability and other variables. Future studies can use the LEC-Scale to assess leadership capability in other educational settings and contexts.
Keywords: Leadership scale, contingent educational management response, educational leadership capability, scale construction, scale validation.
[1]. Adeel, M. M., Khan, H. G. A., Zafar, N., &Rizvi, S. T. (2018). Passive leadership and its relationship with organizational justice: Verifying mediating role of affect-based trust. Journal of Management Development.
[2]. Alarcon, M. B. (2021). Crisis Leadership during COVID-19 Pandemic of Public School Heads in Malasiqui District, Pangasinan. Pangasinan (August 1, 2021).
[3]. Alicamen, D. B. L., Alugar, R. B., Barreto, R., Daffon, C. C., Dayagbil, F. T., Maute, K. S. M., & Mobida, F. M. G. (2021). Rising from the Embers: Learning Continuity Experiences of School Leaders in the Throes of COVID-19 Pandemic. Turkish Online Journal of Qualitative Inquiry (TOJQI)
[4]. Ancho, I. (2020). Old Mind-set, Values and Ethics, and Stakeholder Partnership and Accountability: Inputs to School Leadership in the NewNormal.
[5]. Ancho, I. (2021). Education Policies and COVID-19 in the Philippines: Observations and Inputs. Interdisciplinary Research Review, 16(4), 1–8.

Paper Title :: E-Waste Management and the Right to a Healthy sustainable Environment in Nigeria
Author Name :: Okay Benedict Agu
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 328-336
The rise in the manufacture and usage of Information Communication Technology (ICT) has brought quantities of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE). This results into transboundary movement of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) popularly known as Electronic waste (e-waste) to developing countries such as Nigeria. E-Waste is dangerous to public health and the environment. The increase in e-waste in Nigeria has not corresponded to growth in the processes related to collection, re-use, recovery, and recycling of EEE. Proper e-waste collection and recycling are important to recovering valuable materials from e-waste and protects human health and the environment. The existence of healthy environment is a necessary condition for the well-being of everyone. Hence, the significance of the concept of right to a healthy environment. The institutional policy and legal framework in place in Nigeria for this is inadequate. The study discussed the law and the right to a heathy environment in Nigeria in relation to the management of e-waste It adopted doctrinal methodology and used primary, secondary, and documentary materials to examine the effect of crude management of e-waste on the right of Nigerians to a heathy and the sustainability of the Nigerian environment. The study found that no single e-waste management option will be satisfactory as the optimum e-waste management strategy in Nigeria; but the use of mix e-waste management approaches that include the enactment of a holistic e-waste legislation to promote and protect the right of citizens to live in a heathy environment. The study found that the adoption of a circular economy concerning sustainable e-waste management is an environmental and public health imperative. It recommended institutional policy reform of advocacy interventions and legal reforms that provides for Design for Environment (DfE) to protect the right to a healthy environment in Nigeria.
Keywords: Information Communication Technology, Electrical and Electronic Waste, Healthy Sustainable Environment, Nigeria.

Paper Title :: Regulatory Arrangements in Reducing Stunting in Indonesia
Author Name :: Dr. Ganda Surya Satya Johni Arifin Putra || Zarkasyi
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 337-339
The National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN) is a leader in reducing stunting, Wherethe prevalence of stunting in Indonesia fell from 24.4% in 2021 to 21.6% in 2022.Presiden RI JokoWidodo said that in the forum stunting was not only a matter of height but the most dangerous thing was the low ability of children to learn, mental retardation, and the third was the emergence of chronic diseases. Therefore, the target conveys is 14% in 2024. We must be able to achieve this, Iam sure that with our strength together, everything can move. That number is a difficult number to achieve as long as everyonbe works together.
Keywords: The National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN), Reduction in Stunting
[1]. Hasto Wardoyo, 2022, Cegah Stunting ItuMudah, Yogyakarta
[2]. Kemenkes, 2023, Program Pencegahan Stunting (, Jakarta
[3]. Nadia Tarmizi, Siti, 2023, Prevalensi Stunting di Indonesia Turunke 21,6% dari 24,%, Kemenkes, Jakarta
[4]. Y. B. Satya Sanannugraha, 2023, Arahan Presidendan Sambutan Reviv Peraturan Presiden Nomor 72 Tahun 2022 tentang Percepatan Penurunan Stunting, Jakarta.

Paper Title :: Toponyms Translation: The Case of Hue’s Citadel Place Names
Author Name :: Tăng Minh Châu
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 340-343
Translation and Interpretation are two complicated but interesting works in Linguistic research. Especially in the case of translating toponym (place names) from language to language. It requires an interdisciplinary theory of toponym, nomination and translation. This study aims to discuss and consider logical ways to translate place names of buildings and construction within Hue Imperial Citadel System from Vietnamese to English with highly equivalent in language meaning and sense. In this paper, the “Skopos” Theory is going to be looked intoto discuss our issue. Names of constructions belong to Hue citadel will be taken into consideration for this study. This paper will make a precise translation for those place names then make a basic contribution to nominate constructions inside Hue Citadel in English. As a result, foreign people will understand more precise about place names and their meaning during visiting Hue Citadel Complex.
[1]. Âu. N. V, Vietnamese Toponyms Issues, 3th reprinted, Hanoi National University Press, 2008
[2]. Giáp. N. T, Lexicon and Lexicology of Vietnamese, 10th reprinted,Hanoi National University Press, 2014
[3]. Hoa. L. T, Vietnam Toponymy, Social Science Press, 2018
[4]. Chi. A, Etymology, Synthesis Press, 2019
[5]. Tan. Q, Vietnam Central Toponyms, Youth Press, 2004

Paper Title :: The Conundrum of European Economic Diplomacy: Trade, Development Aid & Democracy
Author Name :: Andreas N. Papastamou
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 344-348
There is no effective economic diplomacy without democratic values, and this in the EU is at the core of european political and economic integration itself: political stability and trust, democratic governance, civil society engagement, accountability, and transparency, form the pillars of effective EU development aid. Even where the EU engages with non-democratic countries, this is to facilitate humanitarian assistance in times of crisis and to strengthen democratic reforms. The application of clear criteria for assessing human rights in the exercise of economic diplomacy, with the help of political experience and technology, is the great stake of EU integration. This paper aims to make a substantial contribution to the debate on the development of an appropriate framework for EU economic diplomacy, which will shape European democratic values and respect for human rights.
Keywords: Economic Diplomacy, democracy, EU development aid
[1]. Bergeijk, P.A.G., Okano-Heijmans, M. & Melissen, J. (2011). Economic Diplomacy: Economic and Political Perspectives. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
[2]. Bouyala Imbert, F. (2017). EU Economic Diplomacy Strategy. European Commission, Directorate General for External Policy Department, March,
[3]. Carleton University European Union Centre of Excellence & Canada-Europe Transatlantic Dialogue (CETD) (2015). Workshop: Strategic Partnership as an Instrument of EU Foreign Policy, 13 April.
[4]. EPRS (2019). Peace and Security Outlook, Peace and Security in 2019: Overview of EU action and outlook for the future, Elena Lazarou and others, May.
[5]. EPRS (2018). Democracy support in EU external policy, Ionel Zamfir, February.

Paper Title :: Physiological Co-Relation of Unani Concept of Temperament with Hyperacidity
Country :: India
Page Number :: 349-356
Background: The theory & practices of Unani system of Medicine are based on logic & philosophy that is why observation & reasoning have been used as important tools for its exposition. In present scientific era Unani fundamentals are also required to be comprehended in light of contemporary sciences. The present paper is an attempt towards the physiological co relation of unani concept of temperament with hyperacidity.
Objective: physiological co relation of Unani concept of temperament with hyperacidity.
Material & Method: The study was conducted on OPD of Deoband Unani medical college and research center inclusive criteria for pt selection was based on four different temperaments both sex age 20-60yrs patients fulfilling the inclusive criteria were enrolled in the present clinical trial then individuals assessing by their temperament all sign like color of urine ,pulse, sleeping pattern, behavior ,external appearance (color of skin, hair,built)been either sex having balghami (phalgamatic) choleric, sengeuine and melancholic temperaments with related for the studies first we diagnose the temperament by self designed Performa of ajnas- e- ashra and then followed and observed for sign and symptoms of hyperacidity. After the diagnosis of mizaj we followed and observed the patients. From this study we find out the symptoms of hyperacidity in deferent temperament. Divided group of four different temperament A, B, C, D, distribute the patient on symptoms of hyperacidity. There are so many symptoms of hyperacidity but some common mostly found symptoms selected e.g. regurgitation and heart burn. On the severity and frequency of symptoms grade have given then decide that person come in to which group of temperament.
Result: on the four different visit observation of the sign and symptoms of hyperacidity was sever in choleric temperament as compare to other temperament found.
Conclusion: All the point of studying reveals that a safravi mizaj (choleric temperament) patient more prone to hyperacidity. Safravi mizaj (choleric temperament) effect on built different age, diet and weight. Along with all these above points we studied symptoms of hyperacidity which are easy to point out and observed in patients in different visit for e.g. Heart burn and regurgitation.
Keywords: Hyperacidity, Safravi, Temperament, Bile, Gerd
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Paper Title :: The Influence of Liquidity, Profitability, Leverage, Institutional Ownership, and Sales Growth on Financial Distress
(Empirical Study on Property and Real Estate Companies Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2018-2022)
Author Name :: Ilham Akbar Kusuma || Rina Trisnawati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 357-364
Intense market competition and higher costs cause financial distress for companies. This study analyzes the impact of liquidity, profitability, leverage, institutional ownership, and sales growth on financial distress in property and real estate firms listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The findings aim to enhance financial performance and ensure sector sustainability, benefiting policymakers and companies. This quantitative research aims to analyze the influence of liquidity, profitability, leverage, institutional ownership, and sales growth on financial distress. The study focuses on property and real estate companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2018 to 2022. Secondary data is collected through documentation methods in the annual reports of the companies. A multiple linear regression analysis is employed to examine the hypotheses. The study shows that liquidity has no significant effect on financial distress, while profitability has a positive impact, consistent with other studies. Leverage and institutional ownership do not significantly affect financial distress, in line with prior research. Sales growth positively influences financial distress, consistent with Muzharoatiningsih''s research (2020).
Keywords: Financial Distress, Liquidity, Profitability, Leverage, Sales Growth, Property and Real Estate Firms, Multiple Linear Regression Analysis.
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Paper Title :: Africa in Disability Aesthetics: Engaging the Myth of Representation
Author Name :: Dr. Emmanuel E. Akanwa
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 365-373
Drawing largely from Tobin Siebers‟ Disability Aesthetics (2012) which is “a first attempt to theorize the representation of disability in modern art and visual culture,”this paper attempts to question some of the stereotypical representations of Africa in western literary texts. Using Clarice Lispector‟s short story, The Smallest Woman in the World and Joseph Conrad‟s Heart of Darkness, in which both texts presented unimaginable accounts of Africa, I argue that the negative representations of the Africans and the African continent is an ideological plot to constantly dehumanize the continent and its people, while projecting the West as the onlyideal place and people.
Keywords: Disability, aesthetics, representation, discrimination, myths, Western, disabled, civilization, ideology, hegemony.
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Paper Title :: Critical Examination of Setting and Racism in Toni Morrison’s The Bluest Eye
Author Name :: Innocent E. Akanwa
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 374-380
This paper explores issues of setting and racism in Toni Morrison‟s The Bluest Eye. The novelist used the medium of setting to unveil the underpinnings of racism and the devastating effects of the same on the psychology and being of African Americans in the years leading up to the Civil Rights era. While racism and racial relations are not new concepts, Toni Morrison used her characters to reveal the destructive effects of racism to draw society‟s attention to the plight of Pecola, who ultimately becomes a “loser of everything.”
Keywords: Racism, setting, discrimination, African Americans, dehumanization, social construction, consequences, segregation.
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Paper Title :: Analysis of the Influence Profitability, Accounting Conservatism, Sales Growth, Company Age and Company Size on Tax Avoidance
Author Name :: Elinda Oki Pratiwi || Rina Trisnawati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 381-390
This study analyses the influence of profitability, accounting conservatism, sales growth, age, and company size on tax avoidance. This research employs a quantitative method. The population in this study consists of manufacturing companies in the consumer goods sectors listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) from 2018-2021. The data analysis technique used in this study was multiple linear regression analysis with the assistance of SPSS version 26. Using the purposive sampling method, the sample consists of 30 companies, with 120 data points observed over four years. The research results indicate that profitability and accounting conservatism significantly impacttax avoidance. On the other hand, sales growth, company age, and company size do not significantly influencetax avoidance.
Keywords: Profitability, accounting conservatism, sales growth, company age, company size, tax avoidance.
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Paper Title :: The Effects of Time Management Strategies on Foreign Language Learning among College Students
Author Name :: Hsin-Yi Huang
Country :: Taiwan
Page Number :: 391-393
As identified by Misra & Mckean (2000), poor time management is the most significant stressor for college students. In this study, the researcher explored how time management strategies affect college students’ habits in learning English as a foreign language. A case study approach was employed, and in-depth interview data were analyzed to elucidate the effects of time management strategies on Taiwanese college students’ learning habits, as well as their opinions on these strategies. The results revealed that effective time management strategies contributed to good learning outcomes. Students who practiced time management had better time planning skills, which was useful for foreign language learning. The effects of different time management strategies on the students’ habits of learning English as a foreign language are as follows: the level of satisfaction toward their learning process and the intensity of continuous learning habits. Their learning habits could be strengthened by practicing effective time management and self-discipline. This study examined the effects of time management strategies adopted by Taiwanese college students during their English language learning process. The results can help students understand more about foreign language learning. The suggestions of time management strategies for foreign language learners are also provided.
Keywords: foreign language learning, higher education, time management
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