Volume 04 - Issue 02

Paper Title :: Wagner’s Hypothesis: An Empirical Verification for Nigeria
Author Name :: Ameji, Negedu Enemona
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 01-09
The study assessed the validity of Wagner’s hypothesis in Nigeria by evaluating the relationship between government expenditure and economic growth spanning the period of 1986 to 2019. To do this, the study used the Toda-Yamamoto (T-Y) procedure. Using gross national product as proxy for economic growth and total government expenditure, findings from the T-Y estimation revealed that there was no causal relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in Nigeria, invalidating Wagner’s law that states that public expenditure rises constantly as income growth expands. It concludes that despite the rising government expenditure in the country over the years, economic growth has not recorded corresponding growth. To reverse this, the study recommends that government expenditure should be strictly tied to projects that are growth enhancing. In addition, a top-down budgetary management should be applied, and the implementation of expenditure programs should be promoted through rigorous quality assurance to guarantee value for monies spent.
Keywords: Wagner’s hypothesis, Government expenditure, Economic growth, Toda-Yamamoto test.
[1]. A. Wagner, Finanzwissenchaft, Wintersche Publisher, Leipzig, 1890.
[2]. A. M. Barlas, “The Impact of Government Expenditure on Economic Growth in Afghanistan”, Journal of Economics and Business, III (2), pp. 729-733, 2020.
[3]. T. Gurdal, M. Aydin, V. Inal, “The Relationship between Tax Revenue, Government Expenditure, and Economic Growth in G7 Countries: New Evidence from Time and Frequency Domain Approaches”, Economic Change and Restructuring, I, pp. 1-33, 2020
[4]. M. D. Ahmad, Y. Y. Aku, W. M., Rantan, Y. T. Wuyah, “Effect of Government Expenditure on Economic Growth in Nigeria”, International Journal of Economics and Business Administration, VI (1), pp. 12-17, 2020.
[5]. S. T. Onifade, S. Çevik, S. Erdoğan, S. Asongu, F. V. Bekun, “An Empirical Retrospect of the Impact of Government Expenditures on Economic Growth: New Evidence from the Nigerian Economy”, Journal of Economic Structure, IX (6), pp. 1-13, 2020.

Paper Title :: Building knowledge from complexity
Author Name :: Torres-Soler Luis Carlos || Vargas-Sánchez Germán Gonzalo
Country :: Colombia
Page Number :: 10-17
It lives in the information society, arisen perhaps from the abundance of information that a person can acquire through different technological tools that provide information and communications technologies (ICTs); however, it is an increasingly complex society, perhaps due to the globalization of economies, the same information and different aspects, which has led to education being digital, otherwise virtual, so students must build their know from what they read, write, analyze, synthesize, observe and imagine, among others. Technological development encourages the use of the different devices that come onto the market, not only for communication and establishing social relationships but to realize meaningful learning.
Keywords: complexity, knowledge, construction, reality.
[1]. JUARROZ Roberto (1994). "Algunas ideas sobre el lenguaje de la transdisciplinariedad". Ponencia, En Memorias, 1er. Congreso Mundial de la Transdisciplinariedad. Convento de Arábida. Disponible en:, [15/02/20]
[2]. CIURANA Emilio (2010). Humanismo y responsabilidad. Disponible en:, [11/10/2019].
[3]. FOGELMAN-SOULIÉ Françoise, HAVELANGE Véronique y MILGRAM Maurice (1991). Les théories de la complexité: autour de l'oeuvred'HenriAtlan. Seuil, Paris.
[4]. GUTIÉRREZ Alfredo (1998). "Edgar Morin y las posibilidades del pensamiento complejo". En Revista Metapolítica, vol. 2, no. 8, octubre-diciembre.
[5]. MOLES Abraham (1995). Las ciencias de lo impreciso. UAM-A - Porrúa, México.

Paper Title :: Questions of the Methodology of Knowledge in Text books Physics of the New Generation
Author Name :: Какhor SH. Tursunov || Matluba A. Eshmirzayeva || Mustafo J. Korjovov
Country :: Uzbekistan
Page Number :: 18-22
The article is crucial for the development of physical education in the near future is the development and assignment in different forms of new standards of educational activity for schools and universities. But only in some topics more or less the distribution of content corresponds to the principle of cyclicality.
Keywords: interaction, electromagnetic waves, concepts, model, phenomena, textbook, knowledge, physical quantities, observation, methodology of cognition, hypothesis, thought experiments, material point, experience, modeling, facts.
[1]. Razumovsky V. G. Scientific method of cognition and personal orientation of education. //Pedagogy. -2004. - № 6. - P. 3-10.
[2]. Razumovsky V. G., Orlov V. A., Saurov Yu. a., Mayer V. V. Technology for developing the abilities of schoolchildren to learn independently, think and act creatively. // Physics at school. -2007. - № 6. - P. 50-55.
[3]. Shakhmaev N. M., Shodiev D. Sh. Physics: textbook for teachers of 10 classes of General types. institutions. - Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2005. -267 p.
[4]. Shakhmaev N. M., Turdiev N. Physics: textbook for teachers of 9 classes of General types. institutions. - Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 2009. -172 p.
[5]. Tursunov K.Sh., Eshmirzaeva M.A. The role of the Analogy Method in the formation of a personality-oriented approach in teaching physics in universities Moscow, 2020.-№4 (52) -85-88 pp.

Paper Title :: Ideological Discursive Representation of Femininity: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Nadia in the Novel (Exit West)
Author Name :: Muhammad Zawar Khan || Nazir Muhammad
Country :: Pakistan
Page Number :: 23-28
The present paper attempts to explore and analyze the discursive and ideological strategies used in representation of femininity in different female discourses especially (Nadia) feminine gender.The context of the novel is an unnamed country where refugees are facing the crisis in corporalsetup and relative associations. Nadia‟s character faces gender subjectivity in a patriarchal society where men‟s ideology is promoted through events in different contexts. the overpower ideology about feminine gender is fixed. The dominant gender (men) enforcestheirideology over the feminine gender to keep women subordinate. For the exploration of all these issues, the researcher takes Norman Fairclough‟s Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) as a research method (three-dimensional model). This researcher interprets a chosen discourse at different levels. The researcher analyses the current study on M. M. Lazar‟s (2005, 2007) feminist critical discourse analysis tool as theoretical and analytical framework which strengthens the analysisof femininity in different discourses.
Keywords: Gender Discrimination, Language and Ideology, Critical Discourse Analysis, Feminist critical Discourse analysis.
[1]. Amy S.Wharton. (2005). The Sociology Of Gender (1st ed.). USA, UK, Australia:Blackwell
[2]. Ali & Akhlaq Khan (2012). Language and Construction of Gender: A Feminist Critique of Sms Discourse. British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences. Vol.4 No.2 (2012)
[3]. Cambridge advance Learner‟s Dictionary. (2013). Retrieved from https:// dictionary.
[4]. Hamid, Mohsin. (2017). Exit West. (1sted.). India, Penguin Random House India
[5]. Hamid, Mohsin. (2017). Exit West (pp. 15-59). (1sted.). India, Penguin Random House India

Paper Title :: English lesson, an alternative to develop culture in Cuba Junior High School
Author Name :: MS.c. Yuri Atencio Guerra || Lic. Mailenis Peña Batista
Country :: Cuba
Page Number :: 29-36
This investigation focus attention over didactic activities applied to foster the development of a general culture in Junior High School students through English subject. It was supported by the theoretical reference from the historical cultural conception enriched by the researchers: Fernando Ortiz and Pablo Guadarrama. At the same time, this investigation answers the deficient treatment of this topic carried out by family, community and school. Therefore, the objective is to elaborate a set of exercices to develop a general culture through the English lesson in Junior High School. This research was carried out thanks to 120 students from ninth grader and two professors, which were considered the population of this work. This investigation is very important because the exercices allow to develop a general culture in Junior High School students and solve the problem detected. Also, this is the first time these activities are applied in Secondary School.
Keywords: culture; development.
[1]. ANTICH DE LEÓN, ROSA. Methodology of the Teaching of Foreign Languages. Ed. People and Education. Havana. 1986.
[2]. CASTELLANOS SIMONS, D. The understanding of learning processes: notes for a conceptual framework. Research: The educational change in Basic Secondary. CEE, Faculty of Education Sciences, ISPEJV, City of Havana, February 1999.
[3]. GARCIA ALONSO, M. and BAEZA C …… Theoretical model for cultural identity. Juan Marinello Center for Research and Development of Cuban Culture. Havana, 1996.
[4]. GUADARRAMA, PABLO: The universal and the specific in culture. Editorial Social Sciences. Havana. 1990.
[5]. HART DÁVALOS, ARMANDO: Culture for development. Editorial Social Sciences. Havana. 2001.

Paper Title :: Quest for Atonement: ‘Atonement’ as a Trauma Narrative
Author Name :: Sharfudden M
Country :: India
Page Number :: 37-41
'Atonement' is a brilliant trauma narrative written by British author Ian McEwan. The novel speaks of the impact of dysfunctional behavior on relationships leading to the trauma of the victim. The story is shown to be narrated from its main characters Briony, Cecilia, and Robbie until the end when the reader realizes that they are written by the victim who imagines the series of events from the other characters in the story. Briony accuses Robbie of a rape that he never committed. This destroys the love life of her sister Cecilia and Robbie as the later ends up in jail serving the sentence. This is followed by Robbie fighting with his troops in the world war where he dies. Cecilia also dies in the world war leaving Briony in trauma as she could not atone for her sins. Briony spends her life as a nurse serving the patients. She writes the novel as an attempt to redeem from her sins. However, her quest to atonement remains unquenched as both Robbie and Cecilia have died. This study sheds light on how an individual‟s personality can influence him in perceiving an event that leads to trauma. Right perception is a part of the healthy personality of an individual. Hence, it is important to understand the role of dysfunctional behavior to prevent trauma.
Keywords: Childhood Misunderstanding, Psychosexual Perception, Guilt, Trauma, Atonement
[1]. Caruth, Cathy. Unclaimed Experience. 1996.
[2]. Herman, Judith Lewis. Trauma and Recovery. 1992.
[3]. McEwan, Ian. Atonement. 2001.

Paper Title :: Responsibility as an Ethical Principle in the Context of College Education
Author Name :: Raquel M G Marques || Luiz Síveres
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 42-50
This paper is a clipped study caseconducted at a private university in Distrito Federal (DF), Brazil‟s capital, which was namedSophia Universityfor the presentation of the results. The study aimed to investigate the concept and practice of teachers on the ethical principle of personal, professional, and collective responsibility for the training of students in the postmodern context. The discussion took place based on a theoretical foundation on ethics, responsibility, college education and teaching practice and resulted from data collected in semi-structured interviews with six professors from the university studied, observations from their classes and documentary analysis of institutional documents. It was considered that college education that values the university's mission of human formation, as well as the place of ethics and responsibility as an ethical principle in professional performance and in collective life, is essential in contemporary times. It was also emphasized that the teaching subject has a fundamental role in this educational process, based on the example as a person, the engagement, the bonds created and the practices.
Keywords: Ethics, Responsibility, College Education, Teacher.
[1] H.Jonas, O princípio responsabilidade: ensaio de uma ética para a civilização tecnológica, Contraponto, Rio de Janeiro, 2007. (bookstyle)
[2] Z. Bauman,Vida em fragmentos: sobre a éticapós-moderna, Jorge Zahar Editor, Rio de Janeiro, 2011. (book style)
[3] H. Jonas, O princípio responsabilidade: ensaio de uma ética para a civilização tecnológica, Contraponto, Rio de Janeiro, p. 19, 2007. (book style)
[4] M. J. Sandel,Justiça: o que é fazer a coisa certa, 10th ed., Civilização Brasileira, Rio de Janeiro, 2011. (bookstyle)
[5] H. Jonas, O princípio responsabilidade: ensaio de uma ética para a civilização tecnológica, Contraponto, Rio de Janeiro, p. 44, 2007. (book style)

Paper Title :: Cognitive Behavioral Group Counseling to Reduce Public Speaking Anxiety in College Student
Author Name :: Siska Puspitasari || Faridah Ainur Rohmah
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 51-59
Students have demands to be able to complete academic assignment, one of which is public speaking because they are prepared to contribute in building community. The existence of public speaking anxiety often makes students inhibited in carrying out tasks and building social relationships. Intervention participants were 7 students in the moderate to severe anxiety category. Data collection techniques using the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, interviews, FGD, and observation. The source of students anxiety is when they are in a situation that requires them to speak in front of many people. Students think that they are they cannot provide explanations, afraid of making mistakes, worried of having difficult questions and unable to answer it, and considers themselves unattractive so they will not be listened to, appreciated, and watch out for by others. The results of the intervention showed that there was a significant difference between public speaking anxiety experienced by students before and after participating in the intervention, namely the value of Z = -2384, p = 0,017 ˂ 0,05. There is a decrease in anxiety levels, increased ability to form positive new thoughts, and find strategies to manage anxiety more adaptively.
Keywords: public speaking anxiety, group counseling, cognitive behavioral
[1] Adriansyah, M. A., Rahayu, D., & Prastika, N. D. (2015). Pengaruh terapi berpikir positif, cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), mengelola hidup dan merencanakan masa depan (MHMMD) terhadap penurunan kecemasan karir pada mahasiswa Universitas Mulawarman. Psikoislamika: Jurnal Psikologi dan Psikologi Islam, 12(2), 41-50.
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[5] Carney, C. E. (2003). The effects of an evening structured problem-solving procedure in undergraduate college students with insomnia. Lousiana State University: Lousiana.

Paper Title :: Mindfulness for Adolescents from Broken Home Family
Author Name :: Rifka Fatchurrahmi || Mutingatu Sholichahs
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 60-65
Adolescents who lack love and attention due to complete absence of parents tend to experience psychological problems. The results of previous studies found that adolescents with broken home conditions tend to experience unhappiness, low self-control, and low life satisfaction, so they often experience mental stress such as depression and have bad social behavior. However, research to solve this problem has not been done much. This study aims to reveal the effect of mindfulness in increasing subjective well being of adolescents from families experiencing broken homes. The subjects of this study were 6 MTs students in Yogyakarta. The instrument used was a subjective well-being scale which functions to measure the level of subjective well-being after and before being given mindfulness therapy intervention. The results showed that there were differences in pretest and poststest scores with sig. 0.027 (<0.05) which means that mindfulness therapy can significantly increase subjective well being in adolescents. Mindfulness therapy can be recommended as an alternative to increase subjective well being in adolescents from broken home families.
Keywords: broken home adolescents, subjective well-being, mindfulness therapy
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[2]. Astuti, Y., Rachmah, N., & Anganthi, N. (2016). Subjective well-being pada remaja keluarga broken home. Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora, 17(2), 161-175.
[3]. Berns, R. M. (2013). Child, family, school, community:9th edition. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
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Paper Title :: Effects of Pro-Woman Advertising (Femvertising) on Reducing Prejudice against Women Athletes
Author Name :: Madriz, Sanyeli || Mora, Carolina || Oropeza, Ana
Country :: Venezuela
Page Number :: 66-75
The present investigation uses a quasi-experimental design, in which the effect of Pro-Woman Advertising (Femvertising) on the implicit prejudice towards women practicing contact sports is evaluated through the Implicit Associations Test (IAT), in a sample of 30 male participants, students from the Central University of Venezuela (UCV) and aged between 25 and 30 years. Pro-woman advertising was manipulated by presence for the experimental group and absence for the control group. Despite the fact that no significant differences were found between both groups, it was possible to identify the variables that could influence these results, as well as social implications that are the origin of prejudice towards female athletes.
Keywords: Implied Bias, Female Athletes, Femvertising, Indirect Contact, IAT, Men
[1]. Abbassi, E. (2016). Prejuicio de los Hombres hacia las Mujeres que Practican Deportes de Contacto. Trabajo Final de Grado. Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de La Laguna, España. Recuperado de
[2]. Agut, S. & Martín, P. (2007). Factores que Dificultan el Acceso de las Mujeres a Puestos de Responsabilidad: una Revisión Teórica. Apuntes de Psicología. 25, (2). 201-214.
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[4]. Amaya, N., Borrero, J. & Bustamante, E. (2017). Influencia del Contacto Imaginado sobre el Prejuicio Implícito en Niños hacia Niños con Síndrome de Down [Versión electrónica], Revista Electrónica de Psicología Iztacala, 20 (1), 281-295.
[5]. Baron, R. & Byrne, D. (2005). Psicología Social. (10ma. Ed.) Madrid, España: Edit. Pearson Prentice Hall.

Paper Title :: Fundamental assumptions of noetic (spiritual) therapy for parents bringing up children with intellectual disabilities
Author Name :: Marcin Bialas
Country :: Poland
Page Number :: 76-85
The birth of a child with an intellectual disability appears to its parents to be a traumatic event in their lives, posing a real threat to their existence. The stress they experience due to the care and upbringing of their child is permanent and harmful to them. Therefore, there is no doubt that they need therapy. Its proposal is the described fundamental assumptions of noetic (spiritual) therapy. Its overriding objective, alongside stress reduction, is the need to “save” themselves as parents of children with intellectual disabilities.
Keywords: parents, children with intellectual disabilities, stress, therapy
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[2]. Białas, M. (2011). Niepełnosprawnośćosób w perspektywiemetafizycznej. W: M. Białas (red.), Specjalnepotrzebyniepełnosprawnych. Special Needs of the disabled people (s. 65-72). Kraków: Wyd. Arson.
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[4]. Białas, M. (2016). Prorozwojowawizjarehabilitacjidzieckaniepełnosprawnegoiwsparciajegorodziny. W: M. Białas (red.), Prorozwojowyprojektedukacji (s. 13-27). Poznań: WydawnictwoNaukowe Collegium Da Vinci.
[5]. Białas, M. (2017): Godnośćosóbniepełnosparwnychintelektualnie w aspekcieseksualnym.W: P. Dancák, P. Dancák, R. Ńoltés (red.), Disputationes Quodlibetales XX. Dôstojnosťčloveka a jehobudúcnosť. (s. 74-86). Preńov: PreńovskaUniverzita v Preńove, GreckokatolickaTeologickaFakulta.

Paper Title :: Fortalecer los valores sociales en los estudiantes
Author Name :: Karla Denisse Chica Arandi, Tnlga || Alexander Alberto Suárez Ayala, Ing. || Dr. C. Alejandro Nicolás Lema Cachinell, MsC.
Country :: Ecuador
Page Number :: 86-90
Despite the large amount of literature available on the subject of values, it is intended to express through this article how to reach students to guide and strengthen them with foundations in social values, attitudes and characteristics of good behavior and discipline, as in Society in general, with a vision for the present and future, projecting itself as human beings with conscience, tolerant people with capacities to assume challenges in the contemporary world, has been prepared precisely for this stage of adolescence, which is where the most Today's youth need to be aligned towards a correct aptitude in society, where things earned with effort and aptitude are valued, but more than anything, value yourself as your neighbor for any ideology that this has, practicing a whole tree of values in life daily, in this way it will be demonstrated before the educational community, the locality and society in general, entities are formed with physical, social and intellectual capacities for the development of the region and the country. To raise awareness of what is being lost, the lack of ethics, courtesy standards, the strengthening of comprehensive training, investigate how the lack of social values affects the performance impact on our students.
Keywords: values, social values, students.
[1]. Calkins, T. (2008)Breakthrough marketing plans: how to stop wasting time and start drivinggrowth / Tim Calkins. – New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. xi, 172 p.: il.; 24 cm. Incluye referencia bibliográfica (p. [163]-166) e índice. 1. Marketing--Planificación 658.802 C23
[2]. Martínez, Y. (2008). A partir de los 12 años se aprende de manera distinta. Tendencias 21, ed.
[3]. Bisquerra, R. (2000). La educación emocional en la formacióndel profesorado. Barcelona, España: Editorial Wolters Kluwer.
[4]. UNESCO (2006). Clasificación Internacional Normalizada de la Educación.ISBN 92-9189-037-5. Consultado el 19 de marzo de 2012.
[5]. Van Duijvenvoorde, A. (2008). Evaluating the Negative or Valuing the Positive? Neural Mechanisms Supporting Feedback-Based Learning across Development.The Journal of Neuroscience 28 (38): 9495–9503. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1485-08.2008.

Paper Title :: Estimation of biomass and carbon sequestered in the Plant stand with Dialiumenglerianum Henriques. in the Bombo-Lumene hunting grounds, Bateke plateau / Kinshasan
Author Name :: Kidikwadi Tango || BelesiKatula || LubiniAyingweu
Country :: Republic of Congo
Page Number :: 91-98
An inventory in the midst of herbaceous formation was carried out on one hectare in a plant stand with Dialiumenglerianum in the Reserve and Domaine de Chasse de Bombo-Lumene, 125 km east of Kinshasa. This research made it possible to study above-ground biomass and to deduce the amount of atmospheric carbon sequestered. Allometric measurements were performed on trees ≥ 10 cm in diameter at 1.3 m breast height. Analysis of the results obtained show an overall phytomass of 45.28 ± 8.40 t.ha-1, corresponding to 21.11 ± 3.92 t.ha-1 of stored carbon and 70.07 ± 13 , 21 t.ha-1 of carbon equivalent. The specific contribution review assigns a phytomass of 32.14 ± 6 t.ha-1; 15 ± 2 t.ha-1 of carbon stored and 50.51 ± 7 t.ha-1 in Dialiumenglerianum, the main species of this stand. These results demonstrate the interest to be given to herbaceous tree formations in aerial biomass assessments and atmospheric carbon sequestration estimates from different plant landscapes.
Keywords: biomass, carbon, stand, Dialiumenglerianum, Bombo-Lumene hunting area, DR-Congo
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[5]. CLEMENT J., (1982) Estimation of volumes and productivity of mixed forests and tropical grasses. Data concerning French-speaking African countries north of Ecuador and recommendations for the conduct of new studies. Reviews Wood and Forests of the Tropics n ° 198.4th quarter 24p.

Paper Title :: National Interest, Values of the United Nations and World Mangement of Covid-19: Confronting another Holocaust
Author Name :: Igonoh Joshua
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 99-108
The beastly consequences of man‟s inhumanity to man in the manner in which world powers prosecuted the Second World War, brought International Community to the reality of the fact that if the world must avoid a repeat of such senseless destruction, a United Nations with better ideology than the League of Nations was needed to enthrone oneness, to secure human rights and unity of Nations. Using doctrinal approach, this paper assessed and found that International Community has been driven far from the lofty philosophy of the Organization as endorsed in its Charter, through enthronement of individual national interest above collective interest of Nations. The significance of this paper is emphasized by the risk of devolving into another war, under a more technologically advanced dispensation as exist today, which apprehension has been heightened by poor management of Coivd-19 plague by International Community; including failure to launch a timeous inquest into the DNA of the virus and possibility that its outbreak could have been humanly orchestrated. The paper recommended need to redouble effort to investigate this virus to re-enact confidence of International Community in whatever the United Nations represent. The paper equally recommended that the Organization should do more, to prevail on Member States to re-orientate their citizenry on the centrality of humanity and humaneness as indispensable characters of an enduring United Nations for collective peace, progress and security of all human race.
Keywords: National Interest, Values, United Nations, Covid-19, and Holocaust.
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Paper Title :: The Relationship between the Protestant Sects and the Spirit of Capitalism
Author Name :: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mihai Handaric
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 109-115
Based on Max Weber's book, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism,1 the author of this article evaluates the relationship between the ethic of some of the protestant sects, that came out of the main protestant branches of the Christian Church. There will be analyzed to what extent, the assertion of Weber, that man's determination to make a special effort in his work has an ethical motivation, can be observed also for the protestant sects. The paper tries to show that the religious doctrine of sovereign election motivated Baptist sects, Quakers, and Methodists to a continuous effort to perform good deeds, which bedsides the assurance of salvation, had positive effects for the development of the Capitalist society. In the new protestant denominations, it is argued that through the personal effort to fulfill the law, the believer receives the witness of the Spirit in support for the divine election – emotionally communicated.
Keywords: Protestant Ethic, the Spirit of Capitalism, Puritans, Quakers, Pietists, Methodists
[1]. Bremer, Francis J., Puritanism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
[2]. Bremer, Francis J., Tom Webster, eds., Puritans and Puritanism in Europe and America: A Comprehensive Enciclopaedia, Volume 1, Santa Barbara, Oxford: ABC Clio, 2006.
[3]. Bucke, Emory Stevens, The History of American Methodism, Volume 2, Abingdon Press, 1964.
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Paper Title :: The Decalogue and the Spirit of Capitalism, from Max Weber's Perspective
Author Name :: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mihai Handaric
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 116-126
Max Weber argues in his book entitled The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, that man's disposition from the capitalist society, to make a special effort in his work, has an ethical motivation. He argues that at the basis for the emergence of capitalism, lays the so-called religious doctrine of Divine sovereign election, supported by Luther, Calvin and some other followers of the Reformation. In this paper the author tries to demonstrate that the argument of Weber can be maintained, even if, bedsides the ethical dimension, there can be other factors who have contributed to the emergence and development of capitalism. The author examines how, the Decalogue – as a summary of the divine law, which is considered a fundamental element of the Protestant ethic, was interpreted by Reformers. It will be shown, how the interpretation of the Decalogue by Protestants could lead to what Weber calls "the spirit of capitalism". There are several arguments in support of this thesis. The Divine law stirs up discontent about the actual state of the believer (Luther), motivating him to look forward for a better position. Then the divine law offers assurance - communicated rationally (Calvinism), through the hard work toward sanctification.
Keywords: Protestant Ethic, the Decalogue, the Spirit of Capitalism, Lutheranism, Calvinism, Protestantismss
[1]. Blum, Ulrich; Dudley, Leonard (February 2001), "Religion and Economic Growth: Was Weber Right?" (PDF), Journal of Evolutionary Economics, 11 (2): 207–230, archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-08-07
[2]. Cantoni, David, „The Economic Effects of the Protestant Reformation: Testing the Weber Hypothesis in the German Lands‖ from Journal of European Economic Association (24 November 2014), Accessed 11.14. 2019.
[3]. Calvin, Jean, Institutes of the Christian Religion, din
[4]. Dozeman, Thomas B., Exodus, din Erdmans Critical Commentary, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing co., 2009.
[5]. Luther, Martin, The Small Catechism, din Accessed 11.14. 2019.

Paper Title :: Intellectual Capital and Financial to Deposit Ratio on the Financial Performance
Author Name :: Muthia Roza Linda || Dina Patrisia || Sutiyem || Suhery || Dessy Trismiyanti
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 127-132
This research examines the influence of intellectual capital and the financial to deposit ratio (FDR) on the financial performance of Indonesian Sharia Banks from 2010 to 2015. This study employed three main components of Value Added Intellectual Capital (VAIC™), including Human Capital Efficiency (HCE), Structural Capital Efficiency (SCE) and Capital Employed Efficiency (CEE). Moreover, in measuring financial performance, this study used ROA as the proxy. This study used data from Sharia Banks’ financial report. The analysis technique in this study is multiple regression model with hypothesis testing by using t test. After the classical assumption tests, the empirical results reveal that all of the independent variables have significant impacts on RO. Surprisingly, the strongest influence factor in strengthening the financial performance is Human Capital Efficiency (HCE). This study has contributed to an expand understanding on the relationship between intellectual capital, FDR and financial performance. This study also contributes in giving a perspective in an emerging country. Some limitations and further studies are discussed.
Keywords: Human Capital Efficiency (HCE), Structural Capital Efficiency (SCE) and Capital Employed Efficiency (CEE), Financial to Deposit Ratio (FDR) and Financial Performance
[1]. Astuti Dwi Pratiwi. (2005). Hubungan Intellectual Capital dan Business Performence. Jurnal MAKSI. Vol. 5, No. 2: 34-58
[2]. Bambang Riyanto. (2001). Dasar-dasar Pembelanjaan Perusahaan Edisi Keempat. Yogyakarta: BPEE
[3]. Bambang Sudiyatno. (2010). Analisis Pengaruh Dana Pihak Ketiga, BOPO, CAR dan LDR terhadap Kinerja Keuangan Pada Sektor Perbankan yang Go Public di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI) Periode 2005-2008. Dinamika Keuangan dan Perbankan. Vol. 2, No. 2: 125-137
[4]. Bontis, et al. (2000). Intellectual Capital and Business Performance in Malaysian Industries. Journal of Intellectual Capital. Vol. 1, No. 1: 85-100
[5]. Ihyaul Ulul. (2008). Intellectual Capital Performance Sektor Perbankan di Indonesia. Jurnal Akuntansi dan Keuangan. Vol. 10, No. 2: 77-84

Paper Title :: The Effect of Job Stress and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) on Employee Turnover Intention with the Mediation of Employee Engagement
Author Name :: Raden Mohammad Ikmal Fakhri || Achmad Sudiro || Nanang Suryadi
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 133-137
This study aims to analyze the effect of work stress and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) on employee turnover intention with employee engagement as a mediating variable. This research is a quantitative study and uses a questionnaire in data collection. The population in this study was 85 millennial generation employees. This study uses probability sampling with purposive sampling. The data analysis technique used is PLS-SEM. The results showed that job stress and OCB had a significant effect on employee turnover intention. However, employee engagement has no significant effect on employee turnover intention. Based on the results of mediation testing, the employee engagement variable is unable to mediate the effect of work stress and OCB on employee turnover intention. The implication of this research is expected to be a consideration in managing millennial generation employees.
Keywords: Job Stress, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Employee Engagement, Employee Turnover Intention.
[1]. Abid, G., & Butt, T. (2017). Expressed Turnover Intention: Alternate Method for Knowing Turnover Intention and Eradicating Common Method Bias. International Letters of Social and Humanistic Sciences.
[2]. Agung, I. G., Prabasari, M., Kadek, L., Martini, B., & Suardika, N. (2018). The Effect of Communication and Employee Engagement on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Employee Performance in Employees PT. PLN (Persero) Distribution of Bali. International Journal of Contemporary Research and Review, Vol. 9(8), pp. 21014-21025.
[3]. Bagyo, Prof. Dr. Yupono. (2018). The Effect of Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) on Employee Performance with Employee Engagement as Intervening Variable. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSRJBM), Vol. 20.2, pp. 83-89.
[4]. Basariya, S. R., & Ramyarrzgarahmed. (2019). A study on Attrition – Turnover Intentions of Employees. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, Vol.10, No. (1), pp. 2594–2601.
[5]. Cinar, O. (2015). The Relationships Between Mobbing, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Turnover Intention: A Survey Study in Erzurum/Turkey. Journal of Global Strategic Management, Vol 1(9), pp. 84–84.

Paper Title :: Information Technology and its influence on the income statements of the PYMES
Author Name :: Zoila Rosa Lira-Camargo || Edward Ivan, Terrones Gálvez || José Alexander Marcelo Milla || Jorge Lira Camargo
Country :: Peru
Page Number :: 138-141
The objective of this research was to know if information technology influences the results of PYMES, this research was surveyed 120 business, using the chi-square test, where it concludes that the use of information technology has a positive influence, In the income statement, the degree of moderate relationship is related to the economic performance of PYMES, according to Cramer's V statistic. The influence on the economic result of SMEs is 70.8%, improves the management of the company by 81.7%, and helps to improve the income of companies in the marketing area by 58.3%.
Keywords: Information technology, Management, PYMES modules, income statement.
[1]. Arbulú, J. The SME in Peru. PAD School of Management. University of, Piura. pp. 32-37. 2006.
[2]. Puentes, G. ICTs applied to education. Mexico: Durango Network of, Educational Researchers, AC ISBN: 978-607-9063-25-2. 2014.
[3]. Salinas J. Educational Innovation and use of ICT. Seville: University, Andalusia International, ISBN: 978-84-7993-055-4 Márquez of the ICT”. In P..2000." Big contributions,,htm
[4]. Viega, M. & Baladán, F. Protection of personal data in Latin America. Expanding Horizons. At 34th International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Authorities. Privacy and Technology in Balance (pp. 172-180). Uruguay. 2014
[5]. Carranco R. The Contribution of Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the Ecuadorian Economy. International University of Ecuador. pp. 146-157.2017

Paper Title :: Academic Procrastination in University and Covid-19
Author Name :: Gildardo Oswaldo García-Montalvo
Country :: México
Page Number :: 142-143
Dear editor, it is important to consider the issue of procrastination present in young university students in times of presence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. With the development of this letter, it is intended to contribute to the contribution of scientific knowledge that is in continuous change and development, allowing to rethink scientific concepts and generate new research questions regarding this topic. Procrastination is a complex phenomenon that is sometimes understood as a personality trait, but that must also be understood contextually, in a kind of vicious circle, procrastination not only has an impact on the execution of tasks, it also has an impact on a person's level of self-efficacy, which can lead to further procrastination. The general ability to manage time better is correlated with the consciousness scale of the five-factor personality model; this dimension related to self-control, organization, and planning, in addition to behaviors associated with work and compulsiveness that are mostly affected in this time of pandemic due to aggravated social isolation.
Keywords: Academic procrastination; COVID-19; University students; Pandemic
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[2]. Rosario P, Costa M, Nuñez JC, González-Pienda J, Solano P, Valle A. Academic procrastination: Associations with personal, school, and family variables. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 2009; 12(1): 118-27.
[3]. Kim KR, Seo EH. The relationship between procrastination and academic performance: A meta-analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 2015; 82: 26-33.
[4]. Lin L, Xin-wen B. A study of academic procrastination based on the theory of planned behavior. Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2014; 22(5): 855-59.
[5]. Rabin LA, Fogel J, Nutter-Upham KE. Academic procrastination in college students: The role of self-reported executive function. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 2011; 33(3): 344-57.