Volume 04 - Issue 10

Paper Title :: Problems Faced by Families of Children with Autism – Implications for Social work Services
Author Name :: Nguyen Trung Hai || Nguyen Phuong Anh
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 01-08
In Vietnam, autism has only been known for more than 10 years, but has quickly become a problem of social concern. Although there are no officially published data but from 2000 to now, the number of children diagnosed and treated with autism in care facilities is increasing, each year is higher than the previous year. Research results alsoshow that families with children with autism are facing many problems such as financial difficulties, lack of care knowledge, stress, fatigue and discord in the family.
Models of care, intervention, and support for children with autism and their families around the world are moving towards a holistic approach and emphasize on the providing of social work services because these services range from Prevention, Intervention, Restoration and Development content for children with autism and their families.
In Vietnam, social work as a profession is still quite young when it was officially recognized as a profession through Decision No. 32/2010/QD-TTg “Development of the social work profession in the period 2010 – 2020” and recently continued to be developed in Decision 112/2021/QD/TTg “Social work development program for the period 2021-2030”. In this article, through a situational assessment of the problems facing families of children with autism, the study will discuss and recommend effective social work services to support families of children with autism in this context.
Keywords: Autism, Families of children with autism, Social work, Social work services
[1]. Dau Tuan Nam & Vu Hai Van (2015). Research on children with autism in Hanoi in the context of social family awareness and response. National publishing house
[2]. Emilie Cappe (2018). Quality of life: a key variable to consider in the evaluation of adjustment in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders and in the development of relevant support and assistance programmes.2011 Oct;20(8):1279-94.doi: 10.1007/s11136-011-9861-3.Epub 2011 Feb 12.
[3]. Ewa Piula (2020). Parents of children with autism: Recent research findings. Psychiatr Pol. 2002;36(1):95-108.
[4]. Hoang Duong (2017). Community understanding of autism spectrum disorder. Labor and Social Publishing House
[5]. Le Minh Cong and Ngo Xuan Diep (2020). Testing a model of assessment and early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in Bien Hoa. Dong Nai. Educational Psychological Science Association

Paper Title :: The importance of Philosophy in Language
Author Name :: Al Hassane Faty
Country :: Senegal
Page Number :: 09-13
A language is a system of signs endowed with meaning (if they did not have meaning, they would not be signs). But what is meaning? This is the question that occupies the philosophers of language, whose research has inspired contemporary linguistics.
The word language first designates the human faculty to express his thought by means of a code or any communication system (for example, a language). Language is also a way of expressing oneself specific to a social group, a professional group or the members of a discipline (administrative, legal language).
[1]. AMILTON, Allison and all. 2012. „„Management of Speech, Language and Communication Diffuculties in Huntington‟s Disease‟‟. Future science group (fsg
[2]. DOCKRELL, Julie and all. 2014. „„Supporting Children with Speech, Language and Communication needs : an overview of the results of the better Communication Research Programm‟‟. International Journall of Language and Communication Diisorders.
[3]. FIGUEORA, Maria. E. and all. 2002. „„Communication for Social Change : An Integrated Model for Measuring the Proceess and its Outcomes‟‟. Rockefeller Foundation.
[4]. ASOULIN, Eran. 2016. „„Language as an Instrument of Thought‟‟. Glossa : A Journal of General Linguistics.
[5]. SHAHEEN, Jonhattan. 2017. „„Explanatory Plurarism and Philosophy of Laanguage : Explications and Concepts‟‟.

Paper Title :: Implementation of Sanctions by Bank Indonesia on Banking Crimes
(Case Study of Pt. Bpr Nusantara Abadi Mulia Kupang)
Author Name :: Arnold Johni Felipus Sjah, SH., M.Hum || Alexander Frengklin Tungga, S.H., M. Hum || Windasari Sudiarta, S.H., M.Hum
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 14-23
This writing is to find out the application of witnesses by Bank Indonesia against perpetrators of banking crimes at Rural Banks as regulated in the provisions of Law Number 10 of 1998 concerning Banking, in the interest of providing financial services for the lower middle class. The application of sanctions given to one of the Rural Banks in Kupang City is PT. BPR Nusantara Abadi Mulia (NAM) Kupang, because in carrying out its functions it is not in accordance with the provisions stipulated by the Banking Law. Where is PT. BPR NAM without or without conducting in-depth research or surveys on the validity of the debtor in pledging 3 (three) original Land certificates used as collateral for the loan application, has approved as collateral for a loan of Rp. 250,000,000.- without making a Mortgage Deed Bond at a Notary signed by the party or person as the original valid Land Certificate Guarantee Owner. The research method used is empirical normative, so the author can find and know that the application of banking crime sanctions can be seen from thirteen kinds of criminal acts regulated starting from Article 46 to Article 50A, namely: Criminal Acts Related to Licensing, Criminal Acts Relating to Bank Secrecy, Crime Relating to Bank Supervision and Guidance, and Crime Relating to Bank Business. As the data management in the field based on direct interviews regarding the authority of Bank Indonesia is to supervise banking, so that banking crimes do not occur, in addition to having supervisory authority regarding the imposition of administrative sanctions (administrative processes), while criminal sanctions are the authority of the state apparatus in the criminal justice system (police, Prosecutors, judiciary and correctional institutions) as regulated in the Criminal Procedure Code. Thus the application of witnesses to PT. BPR NAM Kupang which has been proven to have committed banking crimes, namely administrative sanctions and criminal sanctions, for having guaranteed credit without going through the procedures regulated by the Banking Law and the Liability Rights Act.
KeywordsApplication of Sanctions, Criminals, Banking.
[1]. Dale, Timpe. Resource Management Series. Yogyakarta: Gramedia, 1999
[2]. AA. Anwar Prabu Mangkunegara, Company Human Resource Management, Remaja Rosdakarya, Bandung, 2013.
[3]. Buletin Bank Indonesia, Hukum Banking and Central Bank, ISSN, Jakarta, 2012
[4]. Chainur Arrasjid, Banking Criminal Law,Sinar Grafika, Jakarta, 2011.
[5]. Indryanto Senoadji, Money Laundering in the Perspective of Criminal Law, CV Rizkita, Jakarta, 2001

Paper Title :: Societal Apology (vs. Official Apology) in the Context of Collective Political Violence
Author Name :: Dr. Rafi Nets-Zehngut
Country :: Israel
Page Number :: 24-26
How can we address the destructive psychological repertoire formed in the wake of dictatorships, colonialism, genocide and conflicts? To that end, societal apology (SA) is suggested, meaning, an apology offered by society members of the involved parties, in contrast to an official apology (OA), one that is offered by the formal leaders of the parties (leaders, many of whom are still reluctant to apologize). SA could have many important positive impacts, such as transmitting a peace oriented message to the recipient-SA-party; among the apologizing party members, the SA campaign could lead to a more critical examination of the past; expressing SA could ameliorate the image of the apologizing-party internationally; and promote the expression of OA by the initially SA apologizing-party. These positive impacts could partially heal the above repertoire and consequently promote peace, reconciliation and wellbeing.
Keywords:Apology, peace, reconciliation, transitional justice, sustainable peace, building peace, conflicts.
[1]. D. Bar-Tal, Intractable Conflict: Socio-Psychological Foundations and Dynamics (Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, 2013).
[2]. J. P. Lederach, Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies(United States Institute of Peace Press, Washington, D.C., 1998).
[3]. I. Borinca, M. Falomir-Pichastor, L. Andrighetto, S. Halabi, Overcoming negative reactions to prosocial intergroup behaviors in post-conflict societies: The power of intergroup apology. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 95, 104-140 (2021).
[4]. M. Gibney, R. Howard-Hassmann , J. M. Coicaud, N. Steine,The Age of Apology: Facing Up to the Past(University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, PA, 2009).
[5]. R. J. Lewicki, B. Polin, R. B. Lount, An exploration of the structure of effective apologies. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 9, 2, 177-196 (2016).

Paper Title :: The Explanations written by students in their exercise books regarding diagrams of the relationships of weight and volume of bodies immersed in water
Author Name :: Andreas Marinos
Country :: Cyprus
Page Number :: 27-37
Discussion of the pupils‟ way of thinking and their mistakes in concepts related to the maintenance of or change in volume “discontinuous quantities (of liquids)” takes place with the written explanations given by the pupils considering that they have a container which contains water up to a certain height. It is observed that the pupils are confused and think that we have a change in volume if we use different materials even when we tell them that we have the same volume. They also find it difficult to recognize that two materials of the same weight but of different substance will occupy the same volume. The students carried out the experiment and wrote it up on worksheets, considering that the bodies are immersed in containers of water.
Keywords: Jean Piaget, developmental stages, volume, representations
[1]. Piaget, J. & Inhelder, B. (1974) The child‟s construction of quantities (London, Routledge &Kegan Paul).
[2]. Piaget, J. (1971). The theory of stages in cognitive development. In D. R. Green, M. P. Ford, & G. B. Flamer, Measurement and Piaget. McGraw-Hill.
[3]. Boston, Deliege (1998), Pre-mathematical Processes and Concepts Introduction -Study-Tranference. Troulis G. Gutenberg Publications, Athens.
[4]. Campione, J. C., Brown, A. L., Ferrara, R. A., & Bryant, N. R. (1984). The zone f proximal development: Implications for individual differences and learning. New Directions for Child Development, 23, 77–91.
[5]. Kaput,J. (1987). Representations systems and Mathematics. Problems of representation in the teaching and learning of Mathematics. Janvier, C. (ed). Hillsdale:LEA.

Paper Title :: Models of Employment for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities in India
Author Name :: Srinivasan Venkatesan
Country :: India
Page Number :: 38-45
Employment is both a need as well as the right to work for an individual. Persons with intellectual disabilities experience many barriers or challenges to secure and retain a stable remunerative job. The field of disability rehabilitation has minimally attempted to showcase or record appropriate models of employment and their ability to perform when given an opportunity. This theoretical article attempts to outlines the relative merits, demerits, problems, issues, challenges, and limitations involved in the various attempts to their employment in India. If there are sentiment-loaded opinions that such persons are incapable and, therefore, not to be burdened with work, others describe them as unexploited human capital with the right to work rthat has to be identified and respected. Each approach is defined, explained, illustrated, and discussed by focusing on the targeted persons with intellectual disabilities.
Keywords: Sheltered, Competitive and Open Employment - Work Behavior - Corporate Social Responsibility
[1]. R. L. Schalock, R. Luckasson &M. J. Tassé. Defining, diagnosing, classifying, and planning supports for people with intellectual disability: an emerging consensus. Siglo Cero Revista Española sobre Discapacidad Intelectual, 52(3), 29-36. 2021.
[2]. S. Bhaumik, &R. Alexander. (Eds.). Oxford textbook of the psychiatry of intellectual disability. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. 2020.
[3]. K. L. Bush &M. J. Tassé. Employment and choice-making for adults with intellectual disability, autism, and down syndrome. Res. Dev. Disabil. 65, 23-34. 2017.
[4]. R. E. Cimera, S. Burgess&P. L. Bedesem. Does providing transition services by age 14 produce better vocational outcomes for students with intellectualdisabilities?. ResPract Persons Severe Disabl. 39, 47-54. 2014.
[5]. A. T. Thressiakutty &L. Govindarao. The transition of persons with mental retardation from school to work: a guide. Secunderabad: National Institute for the Mentally Handicapped. 2001.

Paper Title :: Leadership Competency and Employee Performance: Empirical Evidence
Author Name :: Rose Jeruto Bor || Dr Rosemarie Wanyoike
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 46-48
Employee performance is crucial in an organization. Demotivation and dissatisfaction of employee have affected the performance of employees. Motivation of the employee are associated with leadership competencies. The paper examined compensation strategies, leadership competencies and employee performance. Transformational leadership theory was used to explain these variable. Desk review was used to examine empirical review associated with compensation strategies, leadership competencies and employee performance. The study found that leadership competencies were measure by social, functional, personal and cognitive competencies that are necessary skills of a leader to improve performance of employee. However, there are varying relationship between leadership competencies variable with performance of employee.
Keywords: Leadership Competency, Employee Performance.
[1]. Arasa, R., Ngui, K., & Kimani, J. (2017). Effect of Compensation Strategies on Employee Performance: A Case Study of Mombasa Cement Limited. International Journal of Innovative Social Science & Humanities Research, 5(3), 25-42.
[2]. Bass, B. (1985). Leadershhip and Performance. N.Y.: Free Press.
[3]. Burns, S. (1995). Rapid changes require enhancement of adult learning. HR Monthly, 16-17.
[4]. Kabiru, C. (2018). Compensation Systems and Employee Performance in Microfinance Institutions in Nyeri County, Kenya. Nairobi: Kenyatta University, unpublished report.
[5]. Noor, S., & Che, Z. (2017). Leadership Competencies and Organizational Performance: Review and Proposal Framework. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 7(8), 824-831.

Paper Title :: Trisomy 21: Contributions of the EKUI Methodology in the Literacy Process
Author Name :: GonçalvesS. || Casal J. || PicadoL.
Country :: Portugal
Page Number :: 49-53
With this study, we try to understand the impact of using the EKUI methodology on the literacy of a child with Trisomy 21. We carried out a case study, applied to a child attending the 1st year of schooling, supported by an action research methodology. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with the head teacher, the speech therapist and the parents, to collect information on the literacy methods used with the child. These helped us to plan the various intervention sessions that we later carried out with the child using the EKUI methodology. The results obtained show that this methodology has contributed to progress in terms of literacy, communication and inclusion, as well as reasoning and visual perception.
Keywords: Trisomy 21, EKUI Methodology, Communication and Literacy/Reading and Writing.
[1]. Berninger, V., & Joshi, M. (2016). New directions in preservice and inservice professional development for teaching students with and without specific learning disabilities in middle childhood and early adolescence.In R. Schiff & M. Joshi (Eds). Handbook of Interventions in Learning Disabilities, in Literacy Studies13. Switzerland: Springer
[2]. Freitas, M. J.; Alves, D. & Costa, T. (2007). O conhecimento da língua: desenvolver a consciência fonológica. Editor: Ministério da Educação: Direcção-Geral de Inovação e de Desenvolvimento Curricular.
[3]. Gonçalves, I. (1996). O Desenvolvimento Social como pré-requisito da aprendizagem da leitura e da escrita. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro.
[4]. Lerner, D. (2002). Ler e escrever na escola. O real, o possível e o necessário. Porto Alegre. Artmed.
[5]. Lemons, C.; King, S.; Davidson, K.; Puranik, C. & Al Otaiba, S.; &Fidler, d. (2018). Personalized reading intervention for children with Down syndrome. Journal of School Psychology, 66, 67-84.

Paper Title :: Thinking Skills in Education: What Is the Alternative Approach to Educate Good Decision Makers?
Author Name :: Christina Andin@ Nur Qistina Abdullah || Rohana Hamzah || Mohd Shafiq Bin Abd Jabar || Jabil Mapjabil || MuhamadSuhaimi Taat
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 54-60
The development of thinking skills is recognized all over the world as one of the most important educational objective in the 21st century. In the Western world, the rationales that underlie in the need for developing students‟ thinking skills are always discuss from economic perspectives. However, concerns that are relating to the importance of thinking skill from those perspectives are limited to only the concept of solving problems related only to the worldly matter. Thus, this paper seeks to extend the discussion on the importance of thinking skills based on similar needs from Western and Islamic perspective which is to enhance thinking ability and also creates good judgement in decision making. Therefore, the focus is to analyse the gap exist in the current teaching of thinking skill approaches in the education field and invites us to reflect on the direction of our education for our current and next generation, especially within the context of choosing a suitable framework for cultivating students‟ thinking skills ability. Finally, this article proposes alternative approach in teaching thinking skill and how the approach will give impact in decision making with the value of justice.
Keywords: Islamic, Thinking skills, Education, Teaching, Decision Making
[1] Al-Quran Darul Iman. 2007. Terjemahan Al-Quran – ResmUthmani. Kuala Lumpur: Pustaka Darul Iman Sdn. Bhd.
[2] Adnan Abd Rashid. 2016. Integrated Knowledge and Its Significance of Muslim Character Development; Dilemma and Possibility. E- Proceeding of the 3rd World Conference on Integration of Knowledge 2016: 39-49
[3] Craft, A. 2007. Possibility thinking in the early years and primary classroom. In A. G. Tan (Ed.), Creativity: A Handbook for Teachers. Singapore: World Scientific.
[4] Glevey, K.E. 2006. Thinking and Education. Leicester: Troubador.
[5] Griffiths, M. 1987. The teaching of skills and the skills of teaching: A reply to Robin Barrow, Journal of Philosophy of Education. 21(2): 203–214.

Paper Title :: Identifying the Gap between Available and Required OpenSpace for Potential Emergency Assembly Points (EAP) in Dhaka City: A Case Study of Mirpur Area
Author Name :: Kazi Taiba Bari Nowsheen || Tahura Khatun Takiya || Fatema Tuz Zohora || Musarrat Zaman
Country :: Bangladesh
Page Number :: 61-67
In Bangladesh, multi-hazard risks in urban areas are being exacerbated by rapid urbanization and unregulated population growth day by day. In Dhaka city, the lack of open spaces increases the magnitude of the vulnerability of urban hazards and natural disasters due to excessive population density and infrastructural development. Mirpur, one of the densely populated areas in Dhaka, has a narrow road, meager space between the buildings with no dedicated open spaces for the residents. These factors put a threat to the inhabitants during rapid onset urban hazards. This study investigates the condition of the existing open spaces and the requirement for potential emergency assembly points in the Mirpur area. An inventory of existing open spaces in the study location is prepared using Google Earth image and Geographical Information System (GIS) in this study. According to the findings, there are insufficient open spaces for the current inhabitantsfor any type of urban hazard. Only sixdesignated open spaces are found available in the study area of Pallabi and Mirpur 12 (Wards 2, 7, and 15) which are approximately 90 acres. They can accommodatearound 43,390 residents, which is only 19.7% of the total occupants, the rest 80.3% of the occupants will be left unserved during an emergency. An additional 24.33 acres of land are required for the accommodation of the current population of the study area. This study also provides some guidelines for utilizing open spaces as emergency assembly points. It suggests developing further mechanisms to provide sufficient open spaces and regulatory framework.
Keywords: Urbanization, Open Space, Emergency Assembly Point (EAP), Discarded Population
[1] Shaw, R., Mallick, F., & Islam, A. (Eds.). (2013). Disaster risk reduction approaches in Bangladesh (Vol. 103). New York, NY: Springer.
[2] Kabir, M.H., Sato, M., Habbiba, U. and Yousuf, T.B., “Assessment of urban disaster resilience in Dhaka North City Corporation (DNCC), Bangladesh,” Procedia engineering, 212, pp.1107-1114, 2018.
[3] Kar, B. and Hodgson, M.E., “A GIS‐based model to determine site suitability of emergency evacuation shelters,” Transactions in GIS, 12(2), pp.227-248, 2008.
[4] Francis, M., “Urban open spaces. Advances in environment, behavior, and design,” 1(7), 1987.
[5] Hossain, N., “Street’as Accessible Open Space Network in Earthquake Recovery Planning in Unplanned Urban Areas,” Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences (AJHSS), 2(4), pp.103-115, 2014.

Paper Title :: Farmers’ Notion towards Creation of Casteless Society – A Comparative Analysis among Organic and Inorganic Farmers
Author Name :: Dr. V. Gurumoorthy
Country :: India
Page Number :: 68-79
Caste system is considered to have a social impact of all the people in the society. Caste is an integral part of Indian Society. It is said to have originated during ancient times as mentioned in certain ancient texts. Caste system which is deep rooted in India is found in all the states of India. Even today, in this era of digitalization caste system is widely practiced all over India. Caste or varna has also deeply impacted the lives of farming community. A majority of farmers belong to socially marginalized society in India. Such farmers often face discrimination and exploitation at every levels of farming. Inspite of strict enactment of laws, discrimination of marginalized farmers continue till date. Discrimination in the access to training, latest information and exploitation in terms of land and yield exist in all parts of the country. Caste based discrimination is a social evil which should be removed from all sects of the society by implementing far reaching policies. Farming community all over India has been facing this social evil since time immemorial. An urgent sense of responsibility on the part of officials concerned is the need of the hour. Against this backdrop, the present study explores in detail the opinion of both organic and inorganic farmers on the casteism by analyzing their support towards caste system, attitudinal change, etc.
Keywords: Caste, Casteism, Farming Community, organic farming, inorganic farming.
[1]. Mosse, D. (2020). The ideology and politics of community participation: Tank irrigation development in colonial and contemporary Tamil Nadu. In Discourses of development (pp. 255-291).
[2]. Routledge. Guerin, I., Venkatasubramanian, G., & Michiels, S. (2014). Labour in contemporary south India. In Indian capitalism in development (pp. 118-135). Routledge.
[3]. Waring, T. M. (2012). Cooperation dynamics in a multiethnic society: A case study from Tamil Nadu. Current Anthropology, 53(5), 642-649.
[4]. Djurfeldt, G., Athreya, V., Jayakumar, N., Lindberg, S., Rajagopal, A., & Vidyasagar, R. (2008). Agrarian change and social mobility in Tamil Nadu. Economic and political weekly, 50-61.

Paper Title :: Influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on Financial Performance, Financial Inclusion, and Financial Stability Banking In Indonesia
Author Name :: Ambawani Restu Widi || Dwi Mimpi Rizkiawati || Farah Margaretha Leon
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 80-88
This study aims to examine the impact of corporate social responsibility on financial performance, financial inclusion, and financial stability of the banking sector in Indonesia. Observation period during the period 2015–2019 on 31 banks registered with IDX with purposive sampling method. The results showed that corporate social responsibility has a significant and positive effect on financial performance and financial inclusion. The level of leverage affects financial performance but has a significant and negative effect on financial stability. The level of tangibility does not affect financial performance and financial stability but has a partial effect on financial inclusion. This can be a reference for the manager, the investors, and the government to improve the bank's financial performance as well as financial inclusion to maintain the bank's financial stability and consideration in investment decision making.
Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Financial Inclusion, Financial Performance, Financial Stability
[1]. Belasri, S., Gomes, M., & Pijourlet, G. (2020). Corporate social responsibility and bank efficiency. Journal of Multinational Financial Management, 54, 100612.
[2]. Chollet, P., & Sandwidi, B. W. (2018). CSR engagement and financial risk: A virtuous circle? International evidence. Global Finance Journal, 38(September 2017), 65–81.
[3]. Das, S. K. (2019). CSR Practises in Banking Sector : An Analysis. A JOURNAL OF COMPOSITION THEORY, XII(X), 659–668.
[4]. Flammer, C. (2013). Corporate social responsibility and shareholder reaction: The environmental awareness of investors. Academy of Management Journal, 56(3), 758–781.
[5]. Gangi, F., Mustilli, M., & Varrone, N. (2019). The impact of corporate social responsibility (CSR) knowledge on corporate financial performance: evidence from the European banking industry. Journal of Knowledge Management, 23(1), 110–134.

Paper Title :: The Implementation of Substantive Justice in the Imposition of Criminal Fine against Children for Criminal Acts (Criminal Case Study in Child Courts in Klas Ia Kupang State Court)
Author Name :: Windasari Sudiarta, SH., M.Hum || Alexander Frengklin Tungga, SH., M.Hum || Arnold Johni Felipus Sjah, SH., M.Hum
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 89-95
The application of fines for children is made with the aim of having a deterrent effect on children and for parents who pay fines to pay more attention to children's behavior in society. The question is what if they (children who commit crimes) have capable parents and are sentenced to a fine, because every time they violate the law, their parents are able to pay the fine for their actions. This is very contrary to the purpose of giving criminal penalties to children because there will be no deterrent effect on their actions. In the case mentioned above, the author wants to examine and discuss the problems to be studied, namely identifying what factors are the basis for judges' considerations in determining criminal penalties for children and whether substantive justice can be used as the basis for judges' considerations in imposing criminal fines for crimes committed by children. minors. With the formulation of the problem that was built by the researcher using the juridical-normative research method as an approach in analyzing the data obtained and discussing it according to the results of the study. Related to the results of the study, it was found that the factors that became the basis for the considerations of the Juvenile Court judges at the Kupang District Court were: juridical factors, philosophical factors, sociological factors, psychological factors. The imposition of fines other than based on the considerations above, is related to several cases that are subject to fines because these children have committed a crime for the first time, so that the application of fines is appropriate to be given to those who are truly seen from a psychological and sociological perspective. Juridical and non-juridical factors deserve a fine. The consideration of being sentenced to imprisonment or confinement by the Kupang District Court judge is in the hope that while in the Child Correctional Institution, the child will receive guidance and education from the correctional supervisor. The child was sentenced to imprisonment also with the consideration to keep the child away from the environment that has the potential to make the child repeat his actions because the pattern of personality development of a person who is still said to be a child is from the family and the environment. It was also found that substantive justice can also be applied to criminal fines for minors who commit crimes so that it reflects the principle of justice.
Keywords: Criminal Imposition, Fines, Child Crime, Substantive Justice
[1]. Achmad Ali, Menguak Tabir Hukum Suatu Kajian Filosofis dan Sosiologis, PT.Toko Gunung Agung, Jakarta: 2002
[2]. Andi Hamzah, Sistem Pidana dan Pemidanaan di Indonesia, Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta, 1993
[3]. ________Perbandingan Hukum Pidana Beberapa Negara,Sinar Grafika, Jakarta, 1995.
[4]. ________Sistem Pidana dan Pemidanaan Indonesia, PT. Pradnya Paramita, Jakarta, 1993
[5]. ________Asas-Asas Hukum Pidana, Rineka Cipta, Jakarta, 1994

Paper Title :: An Assessment of Strategic Corporate Communication Practice on the Service Delivery of Police in Kirinyaga County
Author Name :: Mutuma, Charles Baikanatha || Dr. Lazarus. K. Ngari
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 96-103
The purpose of this study was to assess internal accountability strategies of the National Police Service and their impact on service delivery in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. Specific objective of this study was to establish how strategic Corporate Communication Practices contribute towards service delivery in Kirinyaga County. The study was guided by the theory of functionalism championed by Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, Talcott Parsons, and Robert K. Merton. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The sample population consisted of 220 consisting of two National Police Services (130 Administrative Police, 80 Kenya Police, and 10 Members of Police disciplinary team. These combined forces included 13 Senior Officers from the rank of Inspector and above and 207 other Ranks. Out of the target population, stratified and random sampling techniques were employed. Data collection was by Interview Guide and a questionnaire. Thematic approach was used to analyze data after sorting and coding. Presentation of findings was by narration. The findings revealed that accountability strategic management practices especially corporate communication had a significant positive impact on service delivery at National Police Service in Kirinyaga County. Despite this, a number of challenges still exist. The study is relevant to departmental needs especially equipping the Police Service as means of enhancing service delivery.
Keywords: Accountability: The fact or condition of being responsibility. It means an obligation or willingness to accept responsibility for one's actions.
Communication: means sending or receiving information
Strategies: Plans of action designed to achieve long-term aims
[1]. Aepli, P. (Ed.). (2012). Toolkit on Police Integrity.Geneva: Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces
[2]. Abhijit Banerjee Raghabendra Chattopadhyay, Esther Duflo^, Daniel Keniston†, Nina Singh Can Institutions be reformed from within? Evidence from a Randomized Experiment with the Rajasthan Police ‡ Undated paper
[3]. Arthur Coterell (1980).The Encyclopedia of Ancient Civilisations.Rainbird Publishers. pp. 176–178. ISBN 0-7112-0036-X.
[4]. Ball, N. and Walker, C. (2015) DFID Security and Justice Assistance: What Works? Stabilisation Unit.
[5]. Bayley, D. (1997). “The Contemporary Practices of Policing: A Comparative View.” A Role for Democratic Policing, Civilian Police and Multinational Peacekeeping – A Workshop Series. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from https: // September 12, 2016).

Paper Title :: The Impact of Micro-Financing among Rice Farmers
Author Name :: Judith C. Nolon || Rael Christopher O. Plaza
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 104-109
This study intends to investigate the socio-economic effects of micro-financing as viewed by the rural rice farmers in the town of San Francisco, Agusandel Sur. The researchers used a quantitative and qualitative research design in the study. It was conducted among the three (3) largest rice producer barangays in the Municipality of San Francisco, which has a total of 313 local farmers and participated as well by three (3) micro-financing loan officers as respondents of the study.
The findings revealed that micro-financing services has a significant contribution among the rice farmers in San Francisco, Agusandel Sur. These institutions had helped the farmers uplift their socio-economic condition. The farmers were able to yield capital in their livelihood and produced a good harvest out from this availed financial loans which provided them to afford education and healthcare to their children. However, the local farmers also asserted that there were still various problems encountered particularly on the land preparation and production which needs to be addressed.
Keywords: Farmers, Micro-financing, Socio-economic effects
[1]. Agbola, F. W., Acupan, A., &Mahmood, A. (2017). Does microfinance reduce poverty? New evidence from Northeastern Mindanao, the Philippines. Journal of Rural Studies, 50, 159-171.
[2]. Canon, S., Halid, A., &Daud, F. (2018). The influence of labor and land use management on rice farming production in Pohuwato District. JurnalPerspektifPembiayaan Dan Pembangunan Daerah, 5(4), 337-347.
[3]. Chapagain, T., &Raizada, M. N. (2017). Agronomic challenges and opportunities for smallholder terrace agriculture in developing countries. Frontiers in plant science, 8,331.
[4]. Cox, R. (2012). Environmental communication and public sphere. Sage.
[5]. Derigay, Romnick E. (2018). Influence of Parenting Styles to the Academic Performance of Manobo School Children, Chapter 3 p. 40.