Volume 07 - Issue 06

Paper Title :: The Structural Specificity of the Scientific Discourse in Socials Sciences
Author Name :: D. Hakem Malika
Country :: Algeria
Page Number :: 01-05
In the process of conducting scientific research, and with scientific impetus momentum; about Western thinking, what the researcher faces and objects to the: obstacle/handicap of language, especially in the Arabic language, where is the field of writing the majority of researchers in the Algerian university, where affects the evaluation of scientific production (article, essay, doctorate, book...). The language of the scientific language, which is measures by the quality of the scientific construction and its specialization; And not just exchange and grammar…For all these reasons, the importance of presenting this article, can be limited to clarifying the basic differences between scientific discourse and literary discourse. In which he was separated, along with the Western epistemologists, thus benefiting from the richness, which enable us to evaluate the research works and benefit them distinctly, the development of the Arabic language and developed from a literary language into a science-producing language under its epistemological conditions.
Keywords: 1- Scienctific discourse. 2- Literary discourse. 3- Epistemology. 4- Language obstacle. 5- Quality of scientific research
[1]. A. Comte: Discours sur l’esprit positif –suivi de cinq documents annexes; par: Jean-Marie Tremblay Février 2002; Les classiques sociales ; Paul-Emil-Boulet de l’Université du Québec à Chicoutimi.
[2]. Auguste Comte: Mai 2002, Cours de philosophie positive; 1ere et 2eme Leçon; Collection: Les classiques des sciences sociales; Pau-Emile-Boulet ; université du Québec à Chicoutimi (version électronique).
[3]. A. Smith: 1776, La main invisible- la richesse des nations, IV, ch2, édition Flammarion en 1991; Tome II.
[4]. Charles de Secondat de Montesquieu: 1995, De l’esprit des lois, édition électronique par: Laurent Versini, Paris, édition Gallimard.
[5]. Djamel Guerid 2013: l’entrée en sociologie: les limites de l’universel européen, implications concrètes dans le monde d’aujourd’hui, Paris, édition Publisud, DL.

Paper Title :: Using Slang Language in Orhan Kemal’s “The First Bread”
Author Name :: Mohammed Kadhim Ahmed
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 06-12
The important Turkish writer Orhan Kemal was born in 15September 1914 in Jihan city in Adana Province. He is considered one of the important and famous writers who have great and valuable contributions in different fields of literature like novel, short story, poetry, and drama. Orhan Kemal, who was a prominent figure in writing novel and had unique contributions in Turkishliterature, died while he was 55 years old after having a brain bleeding while he was in a visit to Bulgaria on 2 June 1970. He was buried in a cemetery in Istanbul.
The collection entitled “The First Bread” for Orhan Kemal was published for the first time in 1968 and received a great acceptance by readers either among the Turkish literary elite or among public. In this book, Orhan Kemal, who was one of the famous writers in the movement of social realism, bring together stories of people who migrated to the cities who tried to adjust themselves to the life of the city and enjoy their living in it. “The First Bread” contains a variety of stories among them several stories about the struggle to survive in Anadoul Area.
Slang language is a structure that cannot be understood only by a special age group or in professional field or in a certain job. Although it does not comply with literary language because it is a slang language that spread among all people, it exists in the memory of the society and is used repeatedly in literary works. The purpose of using slang words is to strengthen the expression in authentic tone and friendly style. It helps to explain the situations that are not dangerous like abuse. It can lead to insults or to exaggeration which can be an independent and irresponsible speech. It is a product of the enrichment of the language and popular memory. Slang language is one of hidden aspects of Turkish language. It exists in all languages, but the field of its usage are different. Sometimes we find it in literary styles or writing like novels and short stories specially in the novels that revolve on life of the countryside and villages. This style appears in the style of writing repeatedly in the works of Orhan Kemal who was the main writer of the stories in Anadolu and other villages.
After giving a short summary of the subject of the research paper, I give a section about Orhan Kemal‟s life, one of the important writers in Turkish literature in the twentieth century, and to talk about his literary directions as well as his writings and literary works. The paper studies then the use of slang language in the novel “The First Bread” by Orhan Kemal, which is the subject of the research paper.
Keywords: Orhan Kemal, Bread first, the story, literature, slang, word, rules, expressions, types of words, popular language, exaggeration.
[1]. ALTINKAYNAK Hikmet, (1983). Hikâye Yazarı Orhan Kemal, Ġstanbul.
[2]. BEZĠRCĠ Asım, (1984). Orhan Kemal, Ġstanbul.
[3]. BUYRUKÇU Muzaffer, (1984). ArkadaĢ Anılarında Orhan Kemal, Ġstanbul.
[4]. HASAN, Alaa Falah (2018). „‟Emine Işınsu‟nun Ak Topraklar Başlıklı Romanında Fiillerden Oluşan Deyimler‟‟, AL-USTATH, No 226 Volume 1, College Of Education For Human Scinces-Ibn Rushed University Of Baghdad, s.111-120
[5]. KARACALAR Yusuf Kenan, (1974). Orhan Kemal, Ġstanbul.

Paper Title :: Management of the Arfak Mountains Nature Reserve Based on Local Wisdom of the Arfak Tribe for Sustainable Development
Author Name :: Yoel Dowansiba || Charlie D. Heatubun || Agus I. Sumule || Jonni Marwa
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 13-18
The people of the Arfak Mountains since the time of their ancestors have depended heavily on nature/forests for their livelihoods. On the other hand, the Government feels the need to take preventive action to prevent uncontrolled exploitation which causes natural damage, including clearing land for infrastructure development and also building access roads. connecting Manokwari district, South Manokwari district. Therefore, communities around the Arfak Mountains Nature Reserve area are adapting to the new 'reality' they face, through social and ecological construction. The aim of this research is: To determine the socio-ecological construction of the Arfak Mountains community as a social adaptation and ecological adaptation to the existence of the Arfak Mountains Nature Reserve. The research was conducted from November-December 2023. The research method was carried out by interviewing traditional tribal heads, people who hunt, and village heads.As a result of the searches carried out, all respondents in this study clearly expressed the benefits of the existence of a forest environment (including areas designated as Nature Reserve areas). The main benefits obtained from the environment are: as a source of food (especially game animals), a source of traditional medicinal ingredients, rope, and construction materials. The existence of these beneficial values makes the Arfak Mountains environment an integral part of the life system of the Arfak tribe in general, including the Hatam sub-tribe. Traditional knowledge about environmental management, including local wisdom, and local genius in society can certainly be revealed and useful if studied scientifically to become a scientific product which can then be integrated into a better and measurable conservation area management system. Universities and Research Institutes here play a significant role as independent institutions capable of producing new knowledge for society, including in regional management systems.
Keywords: Arfak Mountains, Local Wisdom, Management, Sustainable Development
[1]. Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS). 2021. “Kabupaten Pegunungan Arfak Dalam Angka”. Papua Barat.
[2]. Dowansiba S. “Personal communication in Mokwam” 2023.
[3]. Laksono P.M, Almira R, Aprilia B.H, Gunawan, A. Mandacan, N. Mansoara. 2001. “Iya Ser Hanjob Masyarakat Arfak dan Konsep Konservasi”. KEHATI, PSAP-UGM, YBLBC. Yogyakarta.
[4]. Mulyadi, dan D. Iyai. 2016. “Pengaruh Nilai Budaya Lokal Terhadap Motivasi Bertani Suku Arfak di Papua Barat”. Jurnal Peternakan Sriwijaya, 5 (1) : 18-29.
[5]. Mulyadi, B. G. Sugihen, P. S.Asngari, dan D. Susanto. 2007. “Proses Adopsi Inovasi Pertanian Suku Pedalaman Arfak di Kabupaten Manokwari-Papua Barat”. Jurnal Penyuluhn, 3(2) :110-118.

Paper Title :: Analysis on Income Distribution Inequality: A Case Study of Regencies and Cities in West Java, Indonesia
Author Name :: Anggie Alnurin Prasetya || Anindya Nitisari || Restu Arisanti
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 19-39
Income inequality stems from differences in the allocation of production components, resulting in regional imbalances. This imbalance can lead to social inequities, restricted access to high-quality education and healthcare, a diminished quality of life due to unfulfilled fundamental requirements, and economic instability. The objective of this study is to analyzed the impact of various factors on income distribution disparity, as assessed by the Gini Ratio, in order to provide valuable insights for more effective policy formulation towards the country's future progress. The study employs secondary data, specifically social and population data from the Central Statistics Agency of West Java Province and analyzed it using panel data regression modeling. Using the Random Effects Model (REM), the analysis shows that the education index and regional minimum wage (RMW) have a noteworthy and detrimental impact on income inequality in West Java. In contrast, the labor force participation rate (LFPR) has a notable and meaningful impact on income inequality throughout the same time frame. During the study period, population density had a negative effect on income inequality, although this effect was not statistically significant. The unique aspect of this study is its thorough analysis of many socio-economic elements within a recent time period, specifically focusing on West Java, an area characterized by a wide range of economic situations. The findings enhance the existing body of knowledge by emphasizing particular factors that policymakers should take into account when dealing with income distribution inequality. This will assist in developing economic policies that are more efficient and focused.
Keywords: Education index, Regional Minimum Wage, Labor Force Participation Rate, Population density,Income inequality, Panel data regression.
[1] Dihni, V. A. (2022). Ini provinsi Dengan Ketimpangan tertinggi Pada Maret 2022: Databoks. Pusat Data Ekonomi dan Bisnis Indonesia. dengan-ketimpangan-tertinggi-pada-maret-2022.
[2] Dwiningsih, N. (2020). Analisa Penggunaan Metode Penelitian Regresi Data Panel Pada Studi Kasus Skripsi Mahasiswa Bimbingan Prodi Manajemen Universitas Trilogi. Laporan Penelitian, 18-19.
[3] Gini Index - Indonesia. World Bank Open Data. (n.d.). map
[4] Hernaningsih, F. (2018). Pengaruh Kestabilan Inflasi Dan Ketimpangan Pendapatan Terhadap Daya Beli Masyarkat. Jurnal Ilmiah M-Progress, 8(2).
[5] Humairo, M. (2021). Analisis Faktor Sosial Ekonomi yang Mempengaruhi Ketimpangan Pendapatan Dalam Mewujudkan Pengentasan Kemiskinan di Indonesia. ab-2-Tinjauan-Pustaka.pdf.

Paper Title :: Social Security Benefits for People Working on Technology Platforms
Author Name :: Dao Xuan Hoi
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 40-45
The article talks about social security benefits for people working on technology platforms, emphasizing the role of social security in ensuring income and life for workers, especially those who work on technology platforms. people working on technology platforms. The article also points out that social security not only ensures minimum income benefits, but also improves risk management capacity, income distribution, promotes sustainable employment and develops the labour market. movement, and improve the efficiency of social management. This highlights the role of social security in an increasingly changing working environment that depends heavily on technology and especially those working for technology platforms.
Keywords: Social Security, platform workers, employment, Labour relations, Labour laws; Trade Union; Vietnam.
[1]. Daniel, K. T. (2009). From Cyberspace to Cyberpower: Defining the Problem.
[2]. Hoang Dinh Phi. (nd). Technology Management Curriculum. Hanoi: Hanoi National University Publishing House.
[3]. Hoang Phe. (2003). Vietnamese Dictionary. Danang: Danang Publishing House.
[4]. Ministry of Labour, I. a. (2017, 09 18). 7 types of social assistance are encouraged by the state to be established . Retrieved from
[5]. Nguyen Quang Thuan. (2023). Doctoral thesis Application of information technology in teaching Citizenship Education subject in the direction of developing student capacity in high schools today.

Paper Title :: Employing Speech Acts to Extrapolating Epic Adventure in Dolittle Movie (2020)
Author Name :: Agung Tri Wahyuningsih || Hadi Sampurna || Adelia Oktaviani
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 46-58
Despite its dull reviews and sluggish failure, Dolittle movie begot mirth of the newness of wise cracking animals which led to a laugh-provoking remark. Some critics cited that the gags were not facile to attain usual quick-witted since its script was supposed lifeless, inert, and less coherence. Howbeit, this fantasy adventure film presented affluently potential benefits for scholars to investigate exhaustively the linguistic discourse to decipher the story line. This study is purposefully devised to uncover Dr. Dolitte’s utterances that are indirectly emitted. Operating Speech Acts notions proposed by Austin [1] and Searle [2] and employing theorem of context of situation proffered by Halliday and Hassan [3], this study intentionally investigates implied meanings which are asserted in illocutionary forces. The result evinces that among 5 sorts of effects, the movie accommodates 4 illocutionary acts, covering Assertive, Directive, Commisive, and Expressive Illocutionary Forces. The meanings impliedly adjoin others that requests and orders are mostly uttered.
Keywords: Context of Situation, Epic Adventure, Speech Acts
[1]. Austin, J. L. (1962). How to Do Things with Words, ed. J. O. Urmson. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
[2]. Searle, J.R. (1979). Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[3]. Halliday, M.A.K. & Hasan, R. (1985). Language, context, andtext: Aspects of language in a social-semioticperspective. Victoria:Deakin University Press.
[4]. "The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA): Pragmatics and Speech Acts". Retrieved 20 February 2019.
[5]. Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Paper Title :: Operational Strategies and Performance of Non Governmental Organizations in Nakuru County, Kenya
Author Name :: Lulu Akiru Chochoi || Justus Tari
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 59-68
Performance is the collective end results of the processes carried out to achieve organizational goals. There are diverse ways of assessing organizational performance; however, in the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) performance is measured using both financial and non-financial parameters. In order to enhance performance most NGOs have adopted different operational strategies. These include quality priority and flexibility. This paper examined the effect of quality priority and flexibilityon the performance of NGOs in Nakuru County. The analysis was based on causal/explanatory research design and targeted targeting chief officers in 59 NGOs in Nakuru County. Data was collected using questionnaires and analyzed using frequencies, means and standard deviations and the hypotheses tested by the use of simple regression analyses. It is evident that quality priority affected the performance of NGOs in Nakuru County. Hence, a change in quality priority would result into enhanced performance of NGOs. It was also evident thatflexibility affected the performance of NGOs. This suggested that the NGOs would register improved performance by being flexible in their operations. The paper concluded that there the relationship between quality priority and flexibility and performance of NGOs in Nakuru County was positive and significant. The study recommends that the management of the NGOs in Nakuru County should incorporate quality priority and flexibilityas predictors of performance of the NGOs.
Keywords: Quality Priority, flexibility, Impact, NGOs, Operations Strategies, Performance, Relevance, Sustainability, Timeliness
[1]. Alavi, T., & Yolowe, D. (2015).The Role of Financial Analysis Ratio in Evaluating Performance of NGOs, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Business Research, 1(2) 21-28.
[2]. Bagherzadeh, S., & Trezemon, P. (2015). Operational strategies responsible for the performance of NGOs: A Practitioner’s View, Journal of Human Resource Management, 5(1): 22-35.
[3]. Barnett, T. (2017). The role of product flexibility and services diversification on corporate success of public limited companies: An Integrative Framework, Journal of Computer Information Systems, 44(3) 81-90.
[4]. Barney, J. (1991). Firm Resources and Sustained Competitive Advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
[5]. Becchetti, D. (2020). The influence of resource management on organizational the performance of institutions of higher learning in Brazil: the place of the resource management practices, International Journal of Management, 13(3), 263-85.

Paper Title :: On Reference Values and the View of Life Derived from It
Author Name :: Zhu Hongzhen
Country :: China
Page Number :: 69-69
This article introduces a measurement method for reference values and the cosmology and outlook on life generated by this measurement method.
[1]. Pease, R. S. Controlled nuclear fusion reactions. Nature182, 1051–1053 (1958).
[2]. Banerji, A. C. Nuclear structure, α-ray fission, and the expanding universe. Nature133, 984 (1934).(This article explains the principle of nuclear fission)

Paper Title :: A Study on Integrating Virtual Reality into Japanese Vocabulary and Kana Syllabary Learning
Author Name :: Ching-Jung Liao || Zhi-Jie Yang
Country :: Taiwan
Page Number :: 70-88
Japan is the most popular travel destination for Taiwanese people, which has led to an increasing prevalence of Japanese language learning. This study aims to provide learners with an immersive learning experience through VR, utilizing speech and object interaction to enhance the understanding and memory of Japanese vocabulary and kana syllabary. This method aims to help learners better grasp foreign vocabulary and improve learning outcomes. Initially, a VR system called JLMVR, set in a museum scenario, was constructed for learning Japanese vocabulary and kana syllabary. The experiment involved five Taiwanese university students with no prior Japanese learning experience using JLMVR, with their learning process recorded. The research method employed lag sequential analysis to encode and analyze the video footage of the learning process, identifying each learner's learning patterns. Japanese proficiency tests were also conducted to examine the impact of JLMVR on beginners' learning of Japanese vocabulary and kana syllabary. The research findings are as follows:
1. The scores of three participants significantly improved after learning through VR, while the other two participants showed no obvious improvement, indicating the influence of individual differences on learning outcomes.
2. VR provides a highly immersive learning experience and has a significant effect on enhancing learners' motivation and memory depth.
3. The study found that an appropriate level of challenge is key to maintaining a state of flow, and the difficulty of the materials should be adjusted according to individual abilities.
In conclusion, the study's results demonstrate that VR technology exhibits unique advantages in language learning and has the potential to become an important tool in this field. Future research could further explore the adaptability of learners from different backgrounds and optimize interaction design in VR to enhance its effectiveness in language learning.
Keywords: Virtual Reality, Japanese vocabulary, Japanese kana syllabary, Hiragana, Lag sequential analysis.
[1]. Abich IV, J., Parker, J., Murphy, J. S., & Eudy, M. (2021). A review of the evidence for training effectiveness with virtual reality technology. Virtual Reality, 25(4), 919-933.
[2]. Ader, L. G. M., Crowley, K., Kuhn, S., Caraffini, F., Altındağ, T., & Colreavy-Donnelly, S. (2023). Extended Reality, Augmented Users, and Design Implications for Virtual Learning Environments. 2023 IEEE International Symposium on Technology and Society (ISTAS).
[3]. Al Farsi, G., Yusof, A. b. M., Romli, A., Tawafak, R. M., Malik, S. I., Jabbar, J., & Bin Rsuli, M. E. (2021). A Review of Virtual Reality Applications in an Educational Domain. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(22).
[4]. Alfadil, M. (2020). Effectiveness of virtual reality game in foreign language vocabulary acquisition. Computers & Education, 153, 103893. compedu.2020.103893
[5]. Azuma, R. T. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence: teleoperators & virtual environments, 6(4), 355-385.

Paper Title :: Motivation in Small Businesses
Author Name :: Moyosoreoluwa Ogundipe
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 89-92
This article explores the motivations behind small businesses and challenges the traditional focus on financial gain.It acknowledges the high failure rate of small businesses and questions the assumption that all aim for significant growth.The author argues that non-financial motivations, such as flexibility and independence, are equally important for many small business owners.The article critiques the current economic structures that prioritize financial growth for small businesses, suggesting a need to consider alternative goals and success metrics.It proposes a reevaluation of expectations for small businesses and suggests educational programs to equip owners with skills to achieve diverse goals.Overall, the article advocates for a more nuanced understanding of small businesses, recognizing the variety of motivations that drive their creation and operation.

Paper Title :: Modeling the Position of Women on the Labor market in Tunisia 2020
Modélisation de la Position de la Femme sur le Marché du Travail en Tunisie 2020
Author Name :: Jelassi Maissa
Country :: Tunisie
Page Number :: 93-103
Our aim in this study is to explore the socio-economic factors that contribute to the multifaceted nature of male domination of women's employment in Tunisia, while comparing it with the situation of men in the workforce in 2020. To achieve this, we have gathered data from various sources, including the INS and Tunisian organisations such as the UGTT. With this data, we aim to create a model that captures the complexities of male dominance in the labour market. Our results reveal that women and men in Tunisia do not face the same socioeconomic conditions in the same way. The over-representation of men in the workplace reinforces and perpetuates the notion of domination in various ways. For example, the role of head of household can hinder a woman's ability to work, as the male head of household seeks to assert his authority in this position. Another scenario involves a working woman who has not moved in with her husband for personal reasons. In this case, she will manage the household alone without even holding the position of head of the family; this increases the tasks to be carried out (delegated by a spouse in his absence) without any authority. This can have a negative impact on her professional performance: not only are these additional tasks unjustified, but they also bring no direct benefit or support to her role at work.
Keywords: Male domination - gender - feminism - labour market.
[1]. Anderson, P. M., & Levine, P. B. (1999) Child care and mothers’ employment decisions (No. w7058). National bureau of economic research.
[2]. Becker, G.S. (1976) The economic approach to human behavior, Chicago, IL, University of Chicago Press.
[3]. Bourdieu, P., & Fougeyrollas-Schwebel, D. (1994). Nouvelles réflexions sur la domination masculine. Les Cahiers du Genre, 11(1), 85-104.
[4]. Figart, D. M. (1997) Gender as more than a dummy variable: Feminist approaches to discrimination. Review of Social Economy, 55(1), 1-32.
[5]. Haslam, S. A., & Platow, M. J. (2001). The link between leadership and followership: How affirming social identity translates vision into action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(11), 1469-1479.

Paper Title :: Discrimination in Peter Abrahams’ Mine Boy
Author Name :: William Nzitubundi Sendihe
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 104-117
The present article deals with Discrimination in Peter Abrahams' "Mine Boy". It gives different definitions of discrimination, and explores a number of types of discrimination, such as racial discrimination, physical discrimination, emotional discrimination, cultural discrimination, psychological discrimination, ethnical discrimination, etc.
The article has also pointed out different aspects that characterize discrimination through the novel under study. These are violence, hopelessness, cruelty, guilt. All these social issues concern not only the characters’ life in the novel, but also our today’s communities and real life situations.
Keywords: Discrimination, mine boy, society, community, colour.
[1]. Elizabeth Walter (2008). Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary. London, Cambridge University Press.
[2]. HORNBY (2010). Oxford University Learner's Dictionary. New Edition Oxford Advanced Press.
[3]. MCKENDRICK, M (1990). People and Violence in South Africa. Cape Town: Oxford Advanced Press.
[4]. Ordu Stanley. (2022). Racism and gender disparity in Peter Abrahams' “Mine Boy”.
[5]. Peter Abrahams (1945). Tell Freedom. Faber & Faber.

Paper Title :: Student’s Perspective toward the Activities Learning Process at Senior High School in West Sumatera
Author Name :: Erman Har || M. Amri || Yurma Metri
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 118-124
This study aimed to determine the differences of science learning activities based on demographic factors of socioeconomic status and the location of the school. Research methodology, a number of respondents have responded to a given instrument, the sample is taken proportional. The data analysis is using one way ANOVA test. The results showed that there are significant differences, especially science learning activities in the classroom based on socioeconomic status (high, medium and low). When there are significant differences of activity the learning process of science, especially science literacy, support and guidance of teachers, academic motivation, based on the location of the school (in the city, suburbs and out of town). Learning science in the classroom based on socioeconomic status better students who come from lower economic status of the students and overall there are significant differences science learning activities based on the location of the school in the city with students outside of the city. Detailed the differences in science learning activities based on the location of the school is science literacy, support and guidance of teachers and academic motivation, those who attend school outside the city showed a good learning science compared with students outside of the city and suburban students. The implications of this research, learning science in the city, outside the city and suburbs is expected to be implemented using the facilities evenly. Besides, the quality of teachers is also given attention especially educational equity, and training courses so that teachers have the same ability.
Keywords: Student Perspectives, Science, Learning Activities, Senior high school
[1]. Bawden, D. (2001, Mac).Information and Digital Literacies: A Review of Concepts. Journal of Documentation, No. 57, m.s. 218-259.
[2]. Baker, D., & Taylor, P. C.,1995. The effect of culture on the learning of science in non-western countries: the result of an integrated research review. International Journal of Science Education, 17(6), 695-704.
[3]. Bransford, J,. Brown, A,. & Cocking, R.2000. How People Lear: Brain, Mind, and Experience & School. Washington, DC: National Academy Press
[4]. Blank, E. & Harwell, S., H. 2001. Promising Practices. Waco, Texas: CCI Publising.
[5]. Chang, K., Sung,Y. & Chen, I. 2002 The effect of concept mapping to enhance text comprehension and summarization. The Journal of Experimental Education 71(1):5-23

Paper Title :: Identification of Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) in Oil Palm Plantations in Sumuri District, Teluk Bintuni
Author Name :: Widi Susiamti || Rawati Panjaitan || Robi Binur
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 125-128
Most of the people of Sumuri District, Teluk Bintunimake their living as farmers and oil palm plantation workers. However, the plants in their garden were attacked by fruit fly pests, reducing fruit production and resulting in reduced income. Fruit flies are an important pest both on fruit crops and horticultural crops. The aim of this research was to identify fruit fly species in oil palm plantations in Sumuri, Teluk Bintuni. The research was carried out in November - December 2023. The research method was carried out by field observation using a Steiner type trap which had been modified and added with the attractant methyl eugenol. The research results show that there are six species of fruit flies from the genus Bactrocera, including Bactrocera umbrosa Fabricius, Bactrocera curvifera Walker, Bactrocera cucurbitae Coquillete, Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel, Bactrocera trivialis Drew, and Bactrocera carambolae Drew & Hancock. The fruit fly species with the fewest number of individuals was Bactrocera trivialis Drew (2 individuals) and the most numerous was Bactrocera umbrosa Fabricius (991 individuals). Of the six species found, there are two species that are very rarely found, namely Bactrocera curvifera Walker and Bactrocera trivialis Drew. The suggestion for this research is to expand the sampling locations so that it is possible to find new fruit fly species in oil palm plantations in Sumuri District, Teluk Bintuni.
Keywords: Identification, Fruit Flies, Palm Oil Plantations, Bintuni Teluk, West Papua
[1]. Asaad M, Warda, Aidar G. (2007). Kajian pengendalian terpadu lalat buah, Bactrocera dorsalis, pada tanaman mangga: studi kasus di Kabupaten Takalar, Sulawesi Selatan. J Pengkaj Pengemb Teknol Pertan. 10(1):1–10.
[2]. Astriyani, N. K. (2014). Keragaman dan Dinamika Populasi Lalat Buah (Diptera: Tephritidae) yang Menyerang Tanaman Buah-buahan di Bali. Tesis Unud Bali, 120
[3]. Badan Pusat Depkes RI. (1991). Petunjuk teknis tentang pemberantasan lalat. Jakarta: ditjen PPM dan PLP
[4]. Ismaini, L., Masfiro, L., Rustandi., & Dadang, S. (2015). Analisis komposisi dan keanekaragaman tumbuhan di Gunung Dempo, Sumatera Selatan. Paper presented at the Seminar Nasional Masyarakat Biodiversitas Indonesia, Indonesia. Retrieved from /300559086_Analisis_komposisi_dan_keanekaragaman_tumbuhan_di_Gunung_Dempo_Sumatera_Selatan.
[5]. Magurran AE. (1988). Ecologycal Diversity and Its Measurement. New Jersey: Pricenton University Press.

Paper Title :: Evaluation of Professional Burnout in Teleworking: Pandemic Period
Author Name :: Sanaa Malki || Omar El Amili || Saloua Lgachgach
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 129-133
The Covid 19 crisis has forced all organizations to adopt new management and working methods, the most widespread being teleworking. The objective of this research is to assess the state of professional burnout of teleworkers during a pandemic. It therefore seems wise to define the two key concepts of our study: professional burnout and teleworking. The literature allowed us to define professional burnout and determine its factors according to reference theoretical models. These mainly include organizational factors like job demands, emotional demands, lack of autonomy and socio-economic insecurity. We then presented teleworking and its multiple forms. During the pandemic, the latter was permanent and imposed, generating negative effects which were none other than the factors leading to professional burnout.
Keywords: Professional burnout, teleworking, pandemic, issues.
[1] EDELWICH J., BRODSKY A. (1980). Burn-out: Stages of Disillusionment in the Helping Profession, New York, Human Sciences Press, 255p.
[2] Freudenberger, H. J. (1974). Staff burnout. Journal of Social Issues, 30(1), 159-165.
[3] Freudenberger, H. J., & Richelson, G. (1980). Burnout: The High Cost of High Achievement. New York: Double Day Garden City.
[4] Freudenberger, H. J. (1987). Professional burnout: the internal burn. Boucherville : Gaétan Morin.
[5] Gajendran RS, Harrison DA (2007), The good, the bad, and the unknown about telecommuting: Meta-analysis of psychological mediators and individual consequences, Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 92.

Paper Title :: Educational Processes and Etnhicity among Women Hindu Migrants in Portugal
Author Name :: Helena Sant’ana
Country :: Portugal
Page Number :: 134-143
This chapter focuses primarily on Hindu migrant women residing in the metropolitan area of Lisbon.
The Hindu population are mostly settled in the municipal areas of Lisbon and Loures (Santo Antonio dos Cavaleiros, Chelas, Portela de Sacavém, Quinta da Vitória), and a small number in the Porto region.
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Paper Title :: Moral Education in the View of Syekh Nawawi Al-Bantani
Author Name :: Suadi Sa'ad
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 144-151
Modern life and the future globalization that is characterized by a highly technical and professional life, without being accompanied by strong morals and religious dimensions of individual and social life, will be able to tear down civilization and humanity.
As seen today, moral values such as love and mutual respect, tolerance and friendship, responsibility, hard work, and social concern have been increasingly eroding in various parts of the world. Therefore, efforts are needed to re-install it in the souls of the younger generation who will continue the civilization.
To broaden our insights into the efforts to cultivate these morals, we also need to explore the old treasures of the works of previous scholars, including the books of Syekh Nawawi al-Bantani, a very prolific Sufi scholar.
This article, a summary of literature research, examines his views on moral education using a historical-philosophical approach. Then, with the descriptive-analytical method, the article attempts to determine whether religious moral foundations can solve various human problems today.
Keywords: al-Bantani, ethics, spirituality, tolerance, respect, responsibility
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