Volume 07 - Issue 03

Paper Title :: La communication interculturelle sous l’effet de la binarité langagière en littérature maghrébine de langue française― Cas des deux premiers romans de Driss Chraïbi, Le Passé Simple et Les Boucs―
Author Name :: BADAD Taoufiq || LHAMRI Hasnae
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 01-16
This paper examines the effects of the binary system of languages on the Intercultural Communication. In this sense, it aims to reflect on the role of intercultural mediation of languages, which helps to establish connections of sociability between people from different cultures. Interculturality will also be discussed, as a direct result of binary language contact, given the fact that the individual is continuously imprisoned between various networks that surround it: linguistic, cultural, ideological, etc., and that this form of communication refers to all aspects of the life of individuals. This seems to exclude any act of acculturation dictated and inflicted, and reveals the extreme importance, even the immense need to establish exchanges between languages and cultures, and useful, guaranteed and tolerated. From this point of view, the language thus becomes as a repository of historical and cultural heritage, transformed into a sign system, and whose vehicle function translates its ability to install a climate of reconciliation and symbiosis between civilizations.
Keywords: binary system Ŕ intercultural communication Ŕ binary contact ŔSymbiosis.
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[2]. BAREIRO, SAGUIER, (1999), Anthologie de la poèsieguarani du Paraguay (éd.), en Rubén, collab. Avec Carlos Villagra Marsal, Genève: Editions Patiňo.
[3]. BONN, Charles, (1993), «Acculturation, différence et écart: trois lectures du roman maghrébin», in Carrefour de cultures. Mélanges offerts à Jacqueline Leiner, (éd.), ANTOINE, Régis, Tübingen: Gunter Narra Verlag.
[4]. BOURDIEU, Pierre, (2001), Langage et pouvoir symbolique, Paris: Seuil.
[5]. CALVET, Louis-Jean, (1993), la sociolinguistique, Paris : PUF

Paper Title :: Strategic Quality Improvement Management in Islamic Educational Institutions
Author Name :: Fathul Maujud || Holis Fanani Rahman || Akmaluddin
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 17-22
This article aims to analyze the implementation of strategic management in improving the quality of education at the Darul Hikmah Islamic Boarding School Foundation in Mataram and the strategic management steps to enhance the quality of education in the Darul Hikmah Mataram Islamic Boarding School Foundation High School. The research conducted in this study is of a qualitative-descriptive approach. The research was carried out to obtain real information regarding phenomena and events related to the topic. It described the activities conducted as study materials and then analyzed and compiled the research data related to strategic management for improving the quality of education in the high school of the Darul Hikmah Mataram Islamic Boarding School Foundation. The results of the research indicate that the efforts made by the school in strategic management to enhance the quality of education in the high school of the Darul Hikmah Mataram Islamic Boarding School Foundation involve several aspects, including analyzing the implementation of strategic management, improving the quality of teachers, promoting the Darul Hikmah Mataram Islamic Boarding School Foundation, special programs, and infrastructure enhancement.
Keywords: Islamic educational institution, strategic management, quality improvement in education.
[1]. Machali, Imam dan Ara Hidayat, The Handbook of Management, (Jakarta: Prenadamedia Group, 2016)
[2]. Sulistyorini, Manajemen Pendidikan Islam, Cet. 1, (Yogyakarta: SUKSES Offset, 2009),
[3]. Riyuzen, “StrategiPengelolaan Lembaga Pendidikan Islan”, dalam Al-Tadzkiyh: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam, Dispora Lampung Selatan, Vol. 8, Edisi II, 2017.
[4]. Fathurrohman, Muhammad &Sulistyoriini, ImplementasiManajemenPeningkatanMutu Pendidikan Islam, (Yogyakarta: Teras, 2012)
[5]. Suryadi, Ace, Pendidikan Indonesia Menuju 2025, (Bandung: Rosdakarya, 2014)

Paper Title :: Ancestral Roots for Cultural Education: Unpopular Musical Types in the Ashanti Community of Ghana for Musical Instruction
Author Name :: Augusta Arko-Mensah || Veronica Agyeiwaah
Country :: Ghana
Page Number :: 23-32
Music serves as a vital reflection of cultural identity, allowing people to express themselves, celebrate, and narrate stories. In the rich tapestry of African traditions, the Ashanti people of Ghana regard music as an indispensable element. For them, music is not just an accompaniment but a cornerstone enhancing their way of life, deeply woven into various celebrations. Many communities possess their distinct musical customs, some not formally taught in Ghanaian schools, forming an essential part of their local heritage. The study therefore sought to uncover and catalogue the previously unacknowledged origins of existing musical genres within the Ashanti community of Ghana. Using qualitative research paradigm and case study design, data were collected among six purposively selected musical ensembles in Kumasi Township and their leaders interviewed to unearth and illuminate the roots of these musical genres and highlight their substantial impact on the social tapestry of Ashanti community as well as in the teaching of music and dance in schools. It was seen that the Ashanti have some unpopular ensembles such as sanga, Akosua tumtum, dansuom, alateawe as well as bɔsoeɛ which have rich origin and source materials for music learning. It is envisaged that, these diverse musical genres that exist within the Ashanti community are utilised in the education sector. This inclusion aligns with the essence of cultural education, not only in Ghana but throughout Africa, recognizing the significance of every culture's impact.
Keywords: Sanga, Akosuatumtum, dansuom, alateawe, cultural education, ancestral roots.
[1]. Ajayi, O. S. (1989). Aesthetics of Yoruba recreational dances as exemplified in the Oge dance. Dance Research Journal, 21(2), 1-8.
[2]. Akomeah, R., Asante, E. A., & Arthur, N. A. P. (2019). A descriptive and historical analysis of sanga traditional dance of the Asantes. English Language, Literature & Culture. 14(1), 8-16.
[3]. Amuah, J. A. (2013). The study and practice of theory and composition among women in Ghana. Journal of Literature and Art Studies, 3(11), 718-728.
[4]. Angelica, G. M. M., Cristina, L. C. C., & de Jesus, A. M. D. (2021). Museum, school and augmented reality, a way to preserve the ethnic identity of an ancestral culture. Perspectives and Trends in Education and Technology: Selected Papers from ICITED.
[5]. Anning, B.A. (1973). Varieties of African Music and Musical Types. In Professor J. Southern (Ed.). The Black Perspective in Music(pp.16-23). Managing Editor-Publisher.

Paper Title :: E Mail Marketing Platforms and Performance of Tour Operating Companies
Author Name :: Mercy Kaari Bii, Dr. Alfred Bett, Dr. Janet Kimetto, Dr. Lydia Langat
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 33-40
E-mail marketing is a component of the worldwide digital trend that presents tour operating companies with new opportunities due to its ease of use, capacity to reach a wider audience, and capacity for customer involvement. The main objective of the study was to establish the effect of email marketing and performance of tour operating companies in Kenya. The study was anchored on use and gratification theory.Cross-sectional and correlational research design were utilized. The study used a target population of 212 general managers of tour operating companies. The study adopted census approach. Online questionnaire was used to collect primary data. The supervisors and expertswere used to examine validity of the instrument while Cronbach Alpha were adopted to test reliability where a threshold of 0.7 and above was deemed reliable. Descriptive statistics consisting of mean and standard deviationswere used to summarize data while inferential statistics was used to examined the relationship between email marketing platforms and performance of tour operating firms. The study found out that, email marketing platform was adopted mainly in sharing information andacquisition of new customers through referrals. However, there was low adoption of email in sending promotions messages and advertising the organization. Therefore, e-mail marketing platform had statistically significant effect on the performance of tour operating companies (β=0.345, P=0.000<0.05). The study concluded that e-mail marketing had a positive significant effect on performance of tour operating companies. The study recommended tour operatingcompaniesshould involve content development for email in promotions.
Keywords: Correlation Design, Cross-sectional Design, E-mail marketing platform, Tour Operating Companies, Kenya.
[1]. Ainin, S., Parveen, F., Moghavvemi, S., Jaafar, N., & Shuib, N. (2015). Factors influencing the use of social media by SMEs and its performance outcomes. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 1-21.
[2]. Bawm, Z., & Nath, R. (2014). A conceptual model for effective email marketing. 17th International Conference on Computer and Information Technology (ICCIT) (pp. Pp 250-256). Chittagong, Bangladesh: University of Chittagong.
[3]. Bawm, Z., & Nath, R. (2014). A Conceptual Model for Effective Email Marketing. Research Gate, 250-256.
[4]. Chang, W., & Lin, H. (2010). The impact of color traits on corporate branding. Africa Journal of Business Management, 4(15), 3344-3355.
[5]. Fariborzi, E., & Zahedifard, M. (2012). E-mail Marketing: Advantages, Disadvantages and Improving Techniques. International Journal of e-Education, E-Business, e-Management and e-Learning, 2(3), 232-236.

Paper Title :: Injuries in Basketball
Author Name :: Stella Agrotou || Mexis Dimitrios || Dorokofikis Periklis || Armenis Elias
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 41-48
Understanding the epidemiology of basketball injuries is crucial for developing interventions and education aimed at reducing injuries. The purpose of this literature review focuses on the epidemiology of musculoskeletal injuries in basketball players. This review examined data from studies in basketball high school and professional level. The results revealed that most of the injuries were in the lower extremities, with the ankle and knee being the most common sites. Ankle injuries often resulted from floor impact during jumping, while knee injuries were influenced by the maximum ground reaction force. Other injury areas included the wrist/fist, head and neck, and shoulder/arm. Risk factors encompassed abrupt player movements, jumps, landings, precision, and training errors, along with a lack of physical abilities. In conclusion, the endogenous and exogenous nature of risk factors underscores the need for proper training of coaches and fitness professionals. Injury reduction requires effective management of training loads, efficient rehabilitation, and prevention of risk factors during both practice and matches.
Keywords: basketball injuries, epidemiology, musculoskeletal injuries, risk factors, injury prevention, rehabilitation.
[1] Agel J, Olson DE, Dick R, Arendt EA, Marshall SW, Sikka RS. Descriptive epidemiology of collegiate women’s basketball injuries: NCAA Injury Surveillance System, 1988-1989 through 2003–2004. J Athl Train. 2007; 42:202–10.
[2] Borowoski LA, Yard EE, Fields SK, Comstock RD. The epidemiology of US high school basketball injuries, 2005–2007. Am J Sports Med. 2008; 36(12):2328–35.
[3] Clifton DR, Hertel J, Onate JA, Currie DW, Pierpoint LA, Wasserman EB, et al. The first decade of webbased sports injury surveillance: Descriptive epidemiology of injuries in US high school girls’ basketball (2005–2006 through 2013–2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association women’s basketball (2004–2005 through 2013–2014). J Athl Train. 2018; 53(11):1037–48.
[4] Clifton DR, Onate JA, Hertel J, Pierpoint LA, Currie DW, Wasserman EB, et al. The first decade of web-based sports injury surveillance: descriptive epidemiology of injuries in US high school boys’ basketball (2005–2006 through 2013–2014) and National Collegiate Athletic Association men’s basketball (2004–2005 through 2013–2014). J Athl Train. 2018; 53(11):1037–48.
[5] Cumps E. Prospective epidemiologic study of basketball injuries during one competitive season: ankle sprains and overuse knee injuries. J Sports Sci Med. 2007; 6(2):204–8.

Paper Title :: A Study of Post-translation Editing Strategies for Machine Translation under Hermeneutic Theory
Author Name :: Huifang Zhao || Xian Zhou || Qi Sun
Country :: China
Page Number :: 49-55
Due to the continuous updating of natural language processing and computer performance and the development of artificial intelligence technology, the speed and efficiency of machine translation have been substantially improved. However, under today's technical conditions, machine translation suffers from structural ambiguity and semantic ambiguity, and cannot accurately express the meaning and emotion of the text, which makes post-translation editing necessary. This paper analyzes the importance of machine translation and post-translation editing and the application of post-translation editing from the hermeneutic theory and studies the post-translation editing strategy. With the addition of post-translation editing, the translation results further highlight the linguistic rules and historical and cultural backgrounds embedded in the target language, which to some extent reduces the ambiguities caused by machine translation. Post-translation editing can incorporate the color of human thinking from the perspectives of text comprehension, proofreading and correction, contextual construction, and linguistics to edit machine translation translations and further improve the accuracy, fluency, and readability of machine translations.
Keywords: hermeneutics; machine translation; post-translation editing strategies
[1]. WANG Junsong, XIAO Weiqing, CUI Qiliang. Technology-driven translation model in the era of artificial intelligence: transmutation, motivation and revelation [J]. Shanghai Translation, 2023, (04):14-19.
[2]. Yang Wendi, Fan Zirui. Example analysis of post-translation editing for machine translation of scientific and technical discourse [J]. Shanghai Translation, 2021, (06):54-59.
[3]. Steiner, G. After Babel: Aspects of Language and Translation [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2001.
[4]. Zhou Qichao. Intercultural Interpretation: Paths and Mechanisms--From "Interpretation as Dialogue" and "Interpretation as Translation"[J]. Social Science Front, 2024, (01):172-178.
[5]. Li Hongyan. Explanation-Interpretation-Interpretation-Interpretation [J]. Zhejiang Journal, 2023, (06):17-25.

Paper Title :: Moderating effect of Knowledge Sharing on the Relationship between Electronic Training and Performance of Employees
Author Name :: Obuya Wilfred || Dr. Joseph Kirui || Dr. Pius Chumba
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 56-66
The county governances’ success dependent on the performance of employees for better service delivery to the public. However, performance of employee in Nyanza region has been declining despite high investment in electronic training programs. Hence, there is need to examine whether knowledge sharing plays a moderating role on relationship between electronic training and employee performance. The study was grounded in skill acquisition theory. A correlation research design was adopted in the study. Asample of 199 respondents from a target population of 389 employees. Stratified sampling method was used to select the sample from the target population. A semi-structured questionnaires was used to collect primary data. The face, content and criterion validity of the data collection instrument was established by discussing it with experts and supervisors. An overall Cronbach Alpha coefficient of 0.784 was obtained which was above 0.7 threshold for reliability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in analysis of data. Hierarchical multiple linear regression was used to test moderating effect of knowledge sharing on the relationship between electronic training and employee performance of county governments.The findings revealed that electronic training was practiced in County Government through sponsoring employees by offering paid study leave and provided career enriching course, however, there were limited sabbatical leaves. Electronic training had no significant effect on the employee performance; however, knowledge sharing had moderating effect on the relationship between electronic training and employee performance. The study concluded that knowledge sharing moderated the relationship between electronic training and employee performance. The study recommended enhancing training programs for employee development, optimizing professional development, develop comprehensive employee orientation and strengthen personal development through investing on knowledge sharing resources.
Keywords: Training, Employee Performance, Correlational Design, County Governments, Nyanza Region, Kenya.
[1]. Ahmad, F., & Karim, M. (2019). Impacts of knowledge sharing: A review and direction for future research. Journal of Workplace Learning, 31(3), 207-230.
[2]. Ahmed, F., Shahzad, K., Aslam, H., Bajwa, S. U., & Bahoo, R. (2016). The role of collaborative culture in knowledge sharing and creativity among employees. Pakistan Journal of Commerce and Social Sciences (PJCSS), 10(2), 335-358.
[3]. Al-Ghezawi, Y., & Megdadi, Y. (2021). The Impact of E-learning in Developing Employee Performance at Jordanian Commercial Banks. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Managment, 8(7), 349-367.
[4]. Alyoubi, B., Hoque, R., Alharbi, I., Alyoubi, A., & Almazmomi, N. (2018). Impact of Knowledge Management on Employee Work Performance: Evidence from Saudi Arabia. The International Technology Management Review, 7(1), 13-24.
[5]. Areiqat, A., & Al-Doori, J. (2018). The Role of Electronic Training in Employee Performance Development. International Journal of Advances in Management and Economics, 8(7), 10-15.

Paper Title :: Building Community Resilience Capacity beyond Humanitarian Response of Flood Victims in IDP Camps in Gatumba Zone, Burundi
Author Name :: Richard Nzambimana || Nestor Nkengurutse || Karin Michotte
Country :: Spain
Page Number :: 67-72
The study set out to examine the contribution of Humanitarian response of flood victims to building community resilience capacity. Descriptive and correlational research designs were used and a mixed method was opted for. The sample size of 105 subjects was employed and both primary and secondary sources were used. The results indicate that the overall level of Humanitarian nature of response is moderate (Mean= 2.72); and the overall level of Resilience capacity is low (Mean= 2.48). The coefficient of determination (R2=0.018) shows that education, food and shelter, and wash and health explain 1.8% of the variability of resilience capacity.
Keywords: Resilience, Community resilience, Community building, Humanitarian Response.
[1]. Aldrich, D. P., & Meyer, M. A. (2015). Social capital and community resilience. American behavioural scientist, 59(2), 254-269.
[2]. Aldrich, P. D. (2021). The Benefits of Japan’s Social Infrastructure and Civic Ties in Uncertain Times. East Asia Forum Quarterly 13.3 (2021): 26-27, https://www. benefits-of-social infrastructure- and-civic-ties-in-uncertain-times.
[3]. Bayat-Renoux, F., & Glemarec, Y. (2014). Financing recovery for resilience. United Nations Development Programme, New York.
[4]. Berkes, F., & Ross, H. (2013). Community resilience: toward an integrated approach. Society & natural resources, 26(1), 5-20.
[5]. Birkmann, J. (2006). Measuring vulnerability to natural hazards: towards disaster resilient societies (No. Sirsi) i9789280811353).

Paper Title :: The Origin of Indians
Author Name :: Prashobh Karunakaran
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 73-76
The latest DNA findings published point to endogamy of Indians.This paper gathers data from discoveries ranging from DNA analysis, archaeology, and the writings in the ancient scriptures to form a hypothesis on how Indians, who originated in Africa have been endogamous to India for millions of years. On many occasions due to defeats in battles or the drying out of river basins, Indians have migrated out. As they moved north and west, they eventually became Europeans and as they moved east, they became the Chinese. Basically, DNA analysis has proved that all non-Africans can trace their ancestry to India.
Keywords: India, Indians, DNA analysis, archeology, linguistics, Africa
[1]. Kerdoncuff, E., Skov, L., Patterson, N., Zhao, W., Lueng, Y. Y., Schellenberg, G. D., ... & Moorjani, P. (2024). 50,000 years of Evolutionary History of India: Insights from∼ 2,700 Whole Genome Sequences. bioRxiv, 2024-02.
[2]. Karunakaran Prashobh. The History of Earth; The Indian Version. (2020/4/30). Amazon ASIN: B087YW34RS. ISBN: 978-1-5462-6246-6 (sc), 978-1-5462-6247-3(e). 169 pages.
[3]. Sankaran, A. V. (1999). New explanation of the geological evolution of the Indian subcontinent. CURRENT SCIENCE-BANGALORE-, 77, 331-333.
[4]. Heezen, B. C., & Tharp, M. (1966). A discussion concerning the floor of the northwest Indian Ocean-Physciography of the Indian Ocean. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 259(1099), 137-149.
[5]. Jablonski, N. G., & Chaplin, G. (2010). Human skin pigmentation as an adaptation to UV radiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(supplement_2), 8962-8968.

Paper Title :: The Rise of Political Islam in Afghanistan: A Historical Perspective
Author Name :: Aabid Hussain Mir
Country :: India
Page Number :: 77-81
This paper delves into the historical development of political Islam in Afghanistan, tracing its origins to the Wahhabi movement of the eighteenth century and its subsequent evolution through various reformist and modernist currents. It elucidates the guiding principles, objectives, and influential personalities that have shaped the trajectory of political Islam, emphasising its intricate relationship with traditional Islamic scholarship and Western influences. Through a meticulous analysis of historical developments and ideological frameworks, this paper aims to offer nuanced insights into the challenges and opportunities posed by political Islam in Afghanistan's socio-political landscape.
Keywords: Political Islam, Afghanistan, Wahabi Movement, Islamic Reformism, Syed Qutb, Maulana Abu Ala Maududi, Khomeini, Sharia Law, Islamic Governance
[1]. Roy, Olivier. The Failure of Political Islam. Harvard University Press, 1994.
[2]. Ayoob, Mohammed. The Many Faces of Political Islam: Religion and Politics in the Muslim World. University of Michigan Press, 2008.
[3]. Mawdudi, Sayyid Abul Ala. (1963). Jihad in Islam. Islamic Publications.
[4]. Rashid, Ahmed. Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. Yale University Press, 2001.
[5]. Barfield, Thomas J. Afghanistan: A Cultural and Political History. Princeton University Press, 2012.

Paper Title :: University Education in Ukraine: The Test of the Russian Ukrainian War (February 2022 – January 2024)
Author Name :: Anatoliy Filinyuk
Country :: Ukraine
Page Number :: 82-89
The article characterizes the state and peculiarities of the functioning of university education in Ukraine in the context of the great Russian-Ukrainian war in late February 2022 – January 2024. The measures to preserve the potential of domestic universities under martial law, the essence and specifics of their transformations and activities caused by the occupation of a large part of Ukrainian territory, the loss of significant scientific human resources, a significant reduction in funding, systemic destruction and permanent essential damage to the infrastructure, and moreover, significant displacement of Ukrainian students and a massive outflow of foreign students. The article focuses on changing the conceptual model of the educational process, the admission campaign, the implementation of research, and ensuring academic integrity in the face of growing challenges caused by large-scale hostilities to protect and liberate the occupied part of Ukraine.
Keywords: university education in Ukraine, Russian-Ukrainian war, potential of universities, challenges, losses, functioning, changes, transformations, prospects.
[1]. Applicant – 2023. (2023). Holos Ukrainy, 125 (8142), June 23, 6 [in Ukrainian].
[2]. Anisimova O. Y. (2022). International experience in financing education under martial law. Osvitnia analityka Ukrainy, 3 (19), 104–118 [in Ukrainian].
[3]. Budziak O. S., Budziak V. M. (2022). Modern Higher Education in times of war. The educational process under martial law in Ukraine: materials of the all-Ukrainian scientific and pedagogical advanced training, May 3 – June 13, 2022. Odesa: VD «Helvetyka», 45–49 [in Ukrainian].
[4]. Higher Education in Ukraine (2023): changes due to the war: analytical report /[ Y. Nikolaiev, H. Rii, I. Shemelynets]. Kyiv: Kyiv university by B. Hrinchenka, 94 p. [in Ukrainian].
[5]. Report on the quality of higher education in Ukraine, its compliance with the tasks of sustainable innovative development of society in 2022 (2023) /[edited byA. Butenka, O. Yeremenko, N. Stukalo]. Kyiv: Natsionalneahentstvoizzabezpechenniayakostivyshchoiosvity, 59 p. [in Ukrainian].

Paper Title :: Hazi in the Context of Socio-Cultural Perspectives of the Nagas: A Sociological Discourse
Author Name :: Lhipe Naro || Dr. Yelhi Vero
Country :: India
Page Number :: 90-93
Substance abuse is one of the major threats to the global peaceful community. The phenomenal rise of substance abuse amongst the younger generation has become an alarming factor in the families and societies. Of late, this issue has been more systematically addressed by international agencies under the United Nations. Consequently, many governments, particularly those of the developed countries, have undertaken many political, military or economic interventions in the recent past beyond their sovereign boundaries for curbing the emerging threats posed by substance abuse in terms like; firstly politico-ideological position vis-à-vis security threats, the danger posed by the play of market forces, the movement and nature of the substance addiction and abuse across borders of different states. Secondly, there is also the need to study on sociological dimensions and implications related to it. The present paper is thus an attempt to study the indigenous beverage of Chakhesang Naga community which is popularly known as Hazi (rice beer). Hazi was part and parcel of the traditional food item. However, with transformation of the socio-cultural aspects of the society, it has now being treated as unethical particularly due to excessive use and consequences of abusing it. The food system of Hazi rice beer in Chakhesang Naga has been interconnected much with social-cultural aspect in the society and thus requires a sociological discourse.
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[2]. Elwin, V. (1969), The Nagas in the Nineteenth Century, Bombay, Oxford University Press.
[3]. Furer-Haimendorf, C. V. (1939), Return to the Naked Nagas: an Anthropologist‟s view of Nagaland, 1936-1970, London.
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Paper Title :: The Influence of Machine Translation on English Majors’ Employment and Countermeasures
Author Name :: Yuan Ying || Shen Huijia || Zhu Yaoyao || Gao Chenhao
Country :: China
Page Number :: 94-101
This paper discusses the increasing internationalization of English due to globalization and the resulting employment opportunities for English majors. It also explores the advancements in machine translation technology and their impact on language accuracy and efficiency. Many people are concerned about the impact that machine translation technology will have on the traditional translation industry and the employment prospects of English majors. This paper analyses the development of machine translation technology, discusses its influence on the employment of English majors, and proposes strategies for English majors to adapt to these changes. These strategies include enhancing technical abilities, broadening employment prospects, and deepening professional field studies. The development of machine translation technology is expected to create new employment opportunities for English majors.
Keywords: machine translation technology, English majors, job market
[1]. Cha Na. Influence and application of machine translation technology based on large language model in book translation industry [J]. Inner Mongolia Science and Technology and Economy, 2023 (24):138-141.
[2]. Dai Guangrong, Wang Chenyu. Development and Prospect of Applied Translation Research in China: Based on Analysis of Previous National Seminars [J]. Shanghai Translation, 2024 (01):7-13+95.
[3]. Du An. Value Space of Manual Translation and Transformation of Translation Education in ChatGPT Era [J]. Foreign Languages and Cultures, 2023, 7 (04):90-103.DOI:10.19967/j.cnki.flc.2023.04.009.
[4]. Hu Xiaopeng, Geng Xinhui, Yuan Qi. Design of high quality English-Chinese machine translation engine based on hybrid strategy [J]. Industrial Technology Innovation, 2014, 01 (02):161-167.DOI:10.14103/j.issn.2095-8412.2014.02.022.
[5]. Li Yegang, Huang Heyan, Shi Shumin et al. Review of multi-strategy machine translation [J]. Journal of Chinese Information Science, 2015, 29 (02):1-9+23.

Paper Title :: Education and Learning: Functions and Representations
Author Name :: Maria Anna Formisano
Country :: Italia
Page Number :: 102-113
Education is a process that involves the life of every citizen and lasts throughout life (lifelong learning) in any context of life (life wide learning).
The continuous cultural and work changes that characterize the post-modern society require both new educational processes and a continuous learning retraining in an increasingly diverse and multiform space-time dimension.
The sense of educating includes a pulling out, that is, an educator or a trainer brings out the potentialities that are within each learner, who through thoughts, strategies and intentional actions tends to form himself as a complex and polysemic individual, even in a perspective of transdisciplinarity. Education entrusts its scientific nature on the one hand to the psychological knowledge to which it refers, and on the other hand to the methodologies of design and control that it experiments over time (Petruccelli, 2005). It allows the individual to become a "person" to an extent appropriate to the capacities he has, in the form of "innate unconscious".
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[2]. Agostinetto L., Educare: epistemologia pedagogica, logica formativa e pratica educativa, Lecce: Pensa MultiMedia, 2013.
[3]. Albarea R., La nostalgia del futuro: lungo un sentiero (formativo) più o meno tracciato, Pisa: ETS, 2012.
[4]. Alberici A., Educazione in età adulta: percorsi biografici nella ricerca e nella formazione, Roma: Armando, 2000.
[5]. Alberici A., Le nuove figure professionali della formazione in età adulta: profili e formazione universitaria, Milano: Angeli, 2006

Paper Title :: Assessing the Benefits and Challenges of Guidance and Counselling Services in Senior High Schools in the Upper East Region
Author Name :: Valerius Azuure Sandow || Alfred Alunga Anovunga
Country :: Ghana
Page Number :: 114-127
Guidance and counselling have been interwoven with efforts aimed at advancing the educational discourse of students in all disciplines and levels. This is because of the wide recognition that students’ academic performance is greatly influenced by the guidance provided to them. This study examined the benefits and challenges of guidance and counselling services in some Senior high schools in Upper East Region and it was aimed at achieving three objectives: to find out the roles of guidance and counselling coordinators in Senior High schools, find out the benefits as well as the challenges encountered in providing guidance and counselling services in Senior High schools. Employing the quantitative method and a descriptive research design, 16 counsellors, 14 head teachers, and 325 students were sampled while structured questionnaires were used to collect data from the participants. The study found that organising orientation programmes for fresh students was the predominant role that guidance and counselling coordinators played in the senior high schools. The study also found that students, counsellors and head teachers reported similar benefits of guidance and counselling services. The most predominant benefits reported by all three groups of respondents included improving academic performance, improving students’ behaviour and discipline in the schools, as well as improving school attendance and reducing truancy, thus increasing graduation rate. Schools faced challenges, such as a lack of professionally trained counsellors, a lack of offices with resources and materials as well as a lack of cooperation from the students and staff. Among other matters, the study recommends that the Ghana Education Service, which supervises guidance and counselling, should charge all school counsellors with ensuring that all services, especially career and vocation counselling services, are provided in every school.
Keywords: Guidance, Counselling, Benefits, Challenges, Head teachers, Counsellors
[1]. Adu-Gyamfi, S., Donkoh, W. J., & Addo, A. A. (2016). Educational reforms in Ghana: Past and present. Journal of Education and Human Development, 5(3), 158-172.
[2]. Aidoo, J. (2011). Administration of guidance and counselling in the Colleges of Education in Ghana [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cape Coast].
[3]. Appiah, J. K. (2013). The prospects and challenges of guidance services in senior high schools–Kwabre East District as a case study [Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology].
[4]. Burkard, A. W., Gillen, M., Martinez, M. J., & Skytte, S. (2012). Implementationchallenges and training needs for comprehensive school counselling programs in Wisconsin high schools. Professional School Counselling, 16(2), 2156759X0001600201.
[5]. Carey, J., Harrington, K., Martin, I., & Hoffman, D. (2018). A statewideevaluation of the outcomes of the implementation of ASCA national model school counselling programs in rural and suburban Nebraska high schools. Professional School Counselling, 16(2), 2156759X0001600202.

Paper Title :: Optimization strategies of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education of Hezhou University in Guangxi province
Author Name :: Li Simin
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 128-134
Colleges and universities can cultivate innovative spirit, entrepreneurial consciousness, the innovation of entrepreneurship education plays an important role, university innovation entrepreneurship education can promote the construction of an innovative country, promote local development, so has a far-reaching significance, In this study, Hezhou University in Guangxi was chosen as the research object. An analysis and investigation were conducted on the actual situation of innovation and entrepreneurship at the university, providing a research on the current state and proposing optimization strategies.
First, the article provides a literature review analysis method, Summarize the research on innovation and entrepreneurship education in China and countries outside China, It clearly defines the core concepts of "Guangxi University", "innovation and entrepreneurship education", "optimization strategy", "students' innovation and entrepreneurship intention", "school innovation and entrepreneurship environment", "innovation and entrepreneurship external support" and so on, And innovative economic theory as the research basis in this study, Secondly, questionnaire and data analysis were used to carry out relevant investigation and research on the status quo of innovation and entrepreneurship education in Guangxi Hezhou University, This paper deeply analyzes the existing problems of innovation and entrepreneurship education in Guangxi Hezhou University and analyzes the causes of the problems; Then use the form of expert interviews to discuss the current situation, And proposed optimization strategies for the existing problems, Finally, by evaluating the optimization strategy, Confirm the feasibility of the optimization strategy.
Keywords: Innovation and entrepreneurship education, optimizing strategy, Guangxi universities
[1]. Burton Clark (2007), establishing an entrepreneurial university: the way of organizational transformation [M]. Shanghai: The People's Education Press
[2]. Duan Limin (2012), the impact of entrepreneurial environment on college students' willingness to start: and the retest of the GEM model. Technical and economic (10), 64-70 + 97. doi: CNKI:SUN:JSJI.0.2012-10-010.
[3]. Fan Peng, Li Zhongyun (2014), the dilemma and countermeasures of entrepreneurship policy for college students in China. Higher agricultural education (06), 74-77. doi: 10.13839/j.cnki.hae. 2014.06.054
[4]. Guo Dexia and Chu Jiangting (2013), evaluation on entrepreneurship policy of College Students in China. Research on Educational Development (07), 65-69. doi: 10.14121/j.cnki.1008-3855.2013.07.012
[5]. Jeffrey Timmons and Stephen Spinelli Jr (2005), Entrepreneurship Case (6th edition) [M]. Beijing: People's Posts and Telecommunications Press

Paper Title :: The Gaze Reframed: Feminist Film Theory and Jane Austen’s Pride and Prejudice
Author Name :: Ahmed Karyosh Jubair
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 135-139
One of the most highly acclaimed developments and classics in modern literature is “Pride and Prejudice” by Jane Austen, which still leaves a lot of readers spellbound by this intelligent book. Although the novel touches upon such themes as love, class, and mobility, feminist interpreters find gender dynamics of much more interest, especially in its film adaptations (Salem Mirete et al., 2022). Feminist film theory, particularly Laura Mulvey‟s gaze theory, allows us to see these adaptations differently. These gender performances can be regarded as modern reinterpretations of “Pride and Prejudice” that not only go counter with traditional gender norms but, above all, allow female characters to develop their agency and emancipate themselves in terms of equality. The traditional gaze is of the man who dictates what he sees in the portrayal of the female characters in this story.
[1]. Ashby, J., Dolan, J., Glancy, M., Harper, S., Landy, M., McFarlane, B., Monk, C., Morris, N., Moseley, R., Street, S. and Whelehan, I. (Year not specified) British Women‟s Cinema.
[2]. Biesen, S.C. (2017) Gendered Cinematic Landscapes and Production History of Andrew Davies‟s Jane Austen from Pride and Prejudice to Sense and Sensibility. Cinematic Codes Review, 2(3), pp.59-84.
[3]. Coons, J. (2022) Mortifying the Master‟s Eye: Intersubjective Vision in Pride and Prejudice. Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies, 18(3).
[4]. Gilbert, A. (2023) (Re) Imagining the Nineteenth Century: Issues of Power and Process in Period Adaptation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington).
[5]. Justin, J. and Menon, N. (2021) Digital Cartography and Feminist Geocriticism in Literary Studies.

Paper Title :: The Effect of Destination Image Factors on Foreign Tourists' Revisit Intention: The Example of Istanbul
Author Name :: Dr. Mehmet Ömer ÖZÜÇAĞLIYAN
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 140-152
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of destination image perceptions of tourists visiting Istanbul in terms of entertainment venues, travel environment, cultural experience, city life and free life on their intention to revisit Istanbul. The data were collected by questionnaires from 448 foreign tourists. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to test the validity, and multiple linear regression was used for impact analysis. Findings showed that destination image factors, open-air entertainment venues, sea-related entertainment venues, macro-scale travel environment, micro-scale travel environment, visual cultural experience, culture learning experience, city life, adult-oriented free life and LGBT and drug-oriented free life, explained a 13% variance on revisiting Istanbul. Among these nine factors, sea-related entertainment venues, macro-scale travel environment and visual cultural experience had a positive significant effect, and the culture learning experience had a negative significant effect on the intention to revisit.
Keywords: Tourism, Tourist, Destination Image, Intention to Visit, Istanbul.
[1]. Açıkgöz, F. (2018). Destinasyon İmajı, Alışveriş Değeri ve Yerel Halk Özelliklerinin Yabancı Turistlerin Tutum ve Davranışları Üzerindeki Etkileri. Yüksek Lisans Tezi, İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi, Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü.
[2]. Afshardoost, M., & Eshaghi, M. S. (2020). Destination image and tourist behavioral intentions: A meta-analysis. Tourism Management, 81, doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2020.104154.
[3]. Ahmad, A., Jamaludin, A., Zuraimi, N. S. M., & Valeri, M. (2020). Visit intention and destination image in post-Covid-19 crisis recovery, Current Issues in Tourism, 1–6, 2020, doi:10.1080/13683500.2020.1842342.
[4]. Albayrak, A. & Özkul, E. (2013). Y Kuşağı Turistlerin Destinasyon İmaj Algıları Üzerine Bir Araştırma. Electronic Turkish Studies, 8(6), 15-31.
[5]. Altınbasak, I. & Yalçın, E. (2010). City Image and Museums: The Case Of Istanbul. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 4(3), 241-251.

Paper Title :: Career Management and Employees’ Commitment of Insurance Companies
Author Name :: Olorunfemi, Ifedayo Ade || Solola, Lawal. Solanke || Ogunro, Victor Olukayode
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 153-162
Most employees recognize that if they are to be pleased in any business, they must have possibilities for growth and progress. Therefore, this study empirically examined the influence of career management on employees’ commitment with a focus on Insurance companies in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State. Survey design was used in carrying out this study. The stratified probability random sampling techniques were used in selecting the sampled insurance companies. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical method. The hypotheses were tested using the multiple linear regression method. Result of statistical analysis showed that there was a positive insignificant relationship between employee training and development and employee commitment; there was a negative insignificant relationship between career counselling and employee commitment; there was a positive significant relationship between employee mentorship and employee commitment; positive insignificant relationship between career advancement and employee commitment in insurance companies in Akure Metropolis. However, from the regression test, the overall model is significant. It was concluded that career management has strong influence on employees’ commitment of insurance companies registered in Akure Metropolis, Ondo State. This study recommended that employees should be involved in making job-related choices because it helps them feel like they're a part of the company and offers them the opportunity to set realistic goals that they'll work hard to achieve.
Keyword: Career Management, Employees’ Commitment, Insurance Companies and Employees’ Commitment
[1]. Adebowale, S., & Adefulu, A. (2019). Training and employee productivity of selected insurance companies: Perspectives for the board of directors. Corporate Board: Role, Duties & Composition, 15 (3), 17-26.
[2]. Adewoye, J.O., Abioro, M. A., & Adele, H., A. (2017). Functionality of career advancement and organizational effectiveness: Nigeria Deposit Money Banks Perspective. Saudi Journal of Business and Management Studies, 2 (3), 297-305.
[3]. AL-Qudah, M. K. M., Osman, A., Ab-Halim, M. S., & Al-Shatanawi, H. A. (2014). The effect of human resources planning and training and development on organisational performance in the government sector in Jordan. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 4(4), 79-85.
[4]. Anekwe, R.I., Ndubuisi, O.P.U., & Chizoba, P.N., (2020). Career development and employee performance of Banks in Anambra State, Nigeria. International Journal of Academic Accounting, Finance and Management Research, 4 (3), 1-9.
[5]. Aryee, S., Buhwar, P. S., & Chen, Z. X. (2002). Trust as a mediator of the relationship between organizational justice and work outcomes: Test of a social exchange model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 23, 267-285.

Paper Title :: From Atma Nirbhar Bharat to Vikasit Bharat 2047 [Transitioning From the Concept of Self-Reliant India to the Vision of a Developed India by the Year 2047]
Author Name :: Dr. V. Basil Hans || Dr. Prashanth || Usha Nayak
Country :: India
Page Number :: 163-172
The transition of India from Atma Nirbhar Bharat (Self-Reliant India) to Vikasit Bharat 2047 (Developed India 2047) signifies a profound transformation in the country's economic, social, and technological terrain. This abstract presents a summary of the extensive vision and strategic efforts that influence India's path towards achieving developed nation status by the year 2047.
[1]. The name of the university is Central University of Tamil Nadu. The year mentioned is 2023. The event is called Viksit Bharat@2047: Voice of Youth.
[2]. Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister, inaugurated the 'Viksit Bharat @2047: Voice of Youth' initiative.
[3]. Jain Raj, on September 10, 2023, posted on Quora.
[4]. Telangana Today (Friday February 2, 2024). Elucidated: What is the significance of 'Viksit Bharat' frequently referenced by Prime Minister Modi and other cabinet Ministers?
[5]. World Economic Forum (January 7, 2019). INDIA identifying the three most significant obstacles for India's growth.

Paper Title :: Comparison of Two Intervention Programs through PE Lessons in the Development of Social and Cognitive Skills of 5th-6th Graders
Author Name :: Magkou, A. || Zetou, E. || Fillipou, F. || Vernadakis, N.
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 173-181
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two educational intervention programs in the development of social and cognitiveof the Volleyballskillof PE students. Participants were elementary school children from 5th and 6th grade (N=323, 160 boys and 163 girls), aged 10, 11, 12. The students were randomly divided into two groups, the first group followed the Freinet pedagogy program (n=147), while the second group followed a literature program (n=176) using the literary book "The Knight in Rusty Armor" by Robert Fisher. The two intervention programs had a duration of 4 months. The teaching of social skills was combined with a program of learning the cognitive of the Volleyball passtechnique. Social skills were assessed with the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters (MESSY-II), I of Matson, Neal, Worley, Kozlowski and Fodstad (2012), as reported in the research of Masadis Fillipou, Derri and Papaionnou (2016), while the cognitive evaluation of the service was carried out with criteria sheet 4 (p. 148) of the 5th-6th grade teacher's Physical Education book. To find the effect of the intervention programs, the non-parametric Friedman test – K related Samples was used as well as the non-parametric analysis Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results showed that the intervention program with Freinet pedagogy was effective with students showing significant improvement in all factors of social skills: "hostile social skills" (P=.000, Df(1), τ2: 81.938), "appropriate skills" (P=.000, Df(1), τ2: 59.559), and "inappropriate assertive behaviors skills' (P=.000, Df(1), τ2: 47.891). On the contrary, the students of the literature group did not show a significant improvement in social skills. Regarding the knowledge of the pass skill, the students of the Freinet pedagogy group showed a significant improvement in thefinal and retention measurement. Therefore, the findings support the positive contribution of Freinet pedagogy to the improvement of social skills and also the cognitive of pass skill, through the practice of the intervention program.
Keywords: social, cognitive skills, volleyball, literature, Freinet pedagogy
[1]. Αποζηοιοπούιοσ, Β. (2017). Η Παιδαγωγική ηος Célestin Freinet ζηην Ελλάδα ~μέζα από ηα μάηια εκπαιδεςηικών και γονέων. Μεηαπηστηαθή δηαηρηβή Aρηζηοηειείοσ Παλεπηζηήκηο Θεζζαιολίθες.
[2]. Bean, C., Kramers, S., Forneris, T., & Camiré, M. (2018). The implicit/explicit continuum of life skills development and transfer. Quest. Advance online publication. doi:10.1080/00336297.2018.1451348.
[3]. Biddle, S., Wang, C.J., Kavussanu, M., & Spray, C. (2003). Correlates of achievement goal orientations in physical activity: A systematic review of research. European Journal of Sport Science, 3(5), 1-20.
[4]. Bloodworth, M.R., Weissberg, R,P., Zins, J.E. & Walberg, H.J. (2001). Implications of Social and Emotional Research for Education: Evidence Linking Social Skills and Academic Outcomes. The CE1C Review, 10(6), 4-6.
[5]. CASEL Guide, (2013). Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning. Effective Social and Emotional Learning Programs: Preschool and Elementary School. Chicago.

Paper Title :: Towards an Exposition of the CEDAW
Author Name :: Dr. Nishtiman Othman Mohammed
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 182-200
It was a long journey for women across the globe to establish mechanisms and international consensus to create the tools necessary for protecting and promoting women‟s rights worldwide. Women have been struggling for their rights for centuries in the male-dominated societies. When females are involved in the political, economic and social aspects of their lives, it helps improve their families, communities and countries‟ health, welfare, prosperity and security. To make a full contribution to the development of a better world, they must guarantee their freedoms, free their lives from discrimination and violence, have access to schooling, work, healthcare and involvement in the government. This paper aims to examine the multiple clauses of the global agreements that sought to safeguard women‟s rights before CEDAW and those international agreements that established the ground for CEDAW‟s existence.
Keywords: Political Rights, UDHR, ICCPR, ICESCR, Non-Discrimination.
[1]. Auth J, To Beijing and Beyond: Pittsburgh and the United Nations FourthWorld Conference on Women (University of Pittsburgh Press1997).
[2]. Arnold R and Quénivet N, International Humanitarian Law and Human RightsLaw: Towards a New Merger in International Law (Brill - Nijhoff 2008).
[3]. Aggarwal J C and Agrawal S P, Documentation Encyclopaedia of UNESCOand Education (Concept Publishing Company 1991).
[4]. Beyani Ch, „Towards a More Effective Guarantee of Women's Rights in theAfrican Human Rights System‟ in Rebecca 1. Cook. (ed.), Human Rights ofWomen: National and International Perspectives (University of PennsylvaniaPress 1994).
[5]. Byrnes A and others (eds), Advancing The Human Rights of Women: Using International Human Rights Standards in Domestic Litigation (London,Commonwealth Secretariat1997).

Paper Title :: Public Health Expenditure and Human Capital Development: Implication on Economic Growth in Nigeria
Author Name :: OGUNJOBI Joseph Olufemi || OLALERE Sunday Shina
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 201-210
The objective of the study is to examine the effects of public health expenditure and human capital development on economic growth in Nigeria between 1981 and 2021. The study employs non-linear equation (VAR). The study incorporates the following variables: Economic growth (proxied by GDP growth rate), growth rate of capital formation, Human capital (proxied by secondary school enrolment), labor force, public health expenditure, life expectancy rate and infant mortality rate. The result of the findings shows that public health spending and secondary school enrolment exhibit both positive and negative impact on economic growth in the short- run, but their impact are said to be insignificant. This might be attributed to inappropriate funding of both health and education sector, misplacement of priority, corruption, money policy formation and some other human factors. The study therefore recommended that governments at all levels should ensure proper funding of both health and education sectors in Nigeria as well as formulating appropriate policies to improve high standard of education and health care services and facilities in Nigeria.
Keywords: Human capital, economic growth, health expenditure, capital formation.
[1]. Abdul Wahab A.O, Kefeli Zurina and Hashim Nurhazirah (2018) Investigating the dynamic effect of health care expenditure and education expenditure on economic growth in Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) MPRA Paper No 90338.
[2]. Adelowokan O.A (2012). Growth effect of education and health expenditure in Nigeria. Africa Journal of Scientific Research Vol. 10, No1
[3]. Aderemi T.A (2014). Does human capital investment matter in economic development? Evidence from a Nigeria Micro-Data. International Journal of Economics Practice and Theories. Vol.4 No 1, pp 58-66
[4]. Akinola G. W and Bokama R. G (2017) Human capital, higher education enrolment and economic growth in the Sub-Sahara Africa countries. Journal of Economics and Behaviourah Studies. Vol.9, No. 6 pp 215-226
[5]. Castro-Leaf D.J, Demery I. and Mehra K. (2010). Public spending on healthcare in Africa: Do the poor benefit? Bulletin of the World Health Organization. No 78 pp 66-74.

Paper Title :: The Future of the Biomass Energy in Turkiye and in the World
Author Name :: Ayse Hilal Ulukardesler
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 211-216
Energy is a phenomenon that is of great importance for the sustainability of life and shows its effects in all areas of life. People use energy for each of their activities. The concept of energy has an increasingly important position in the globalizing world order and affects the course of country economies. Additionally, when energy is considered in detail with its various aspects, it attracts attention with its many elements.Energy is a factor that is related to many sciences and disciplines and is analyzed from different perspectives.Developing alternative energy sources in the world to meet the need for energy has become a necessity. The search for energy sources that can be alternatives to fossil fuels is already in progress. As an alternative energy source, biomass energy is one of the renewable energy sources in Turkiye and in the world. Developing policies and strategies that can provide simple, acceptable, applicable and effective solutions must utilize biomass energy more efficiently and effectively. For example, it is extremely important to convert biomass into fuel form and use it. In this study, the future of biomass energy in Turkiye and in the world was examined.
Keywords: Biomass, biogas, biodiesel, bioethanol, renewable energy
[1]. Atilgan, A., Krakowiak-Bal, A., Ertop, H., Saltuk, B., Malinowski, M. “The Energy potential of waste from banana production: A Case Study of the Mediterranean Region”, Energies, 2023, 16, 5244.
[2]. Uçar, İ.R., Özer, Z., Sarıbıyık, O.Y. “Biyogaz Üretiminde Atıkların Verim Üzerine Etkilerinin Araştırılması”, Çukurova University Journal of the Faculty of Engineering, 2021, 36(3), 581-589.
[3]. Awasthi, M.K., Sarsaiya, S., Wainaina, S., Rajendran, K., Kumar, S., Quan, W., Duan, Y., Awasthi, S.K., Chen, H., Pandey, A., Zhang, Z., Jain, A., Taherzadeh, M.J. “A critical review of organic manure biorefinery models toward sustainable circular bioeconomy: Technological challenges, advancements, innovations, and future perspectives”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 2019, 111, 115-131.
[4]. Berglund, M., Borjesson, P. “ Assessment of energy performance in the life-cycle of biogas production”, Biomass and Bioenergy, 2006, 30, 254-266.
[5]. Vasco-Correa, J., Khanal, S., Manandhar, A., Shah, A. “Anaerobic digestion for bioenergy production: Global status, environmental and techno-economic implications, and government policies”, Bioresource Technology, 2018, 247, 1015-1026.

Paper Title :: Assessing the Effects of Reading and Preparation Habits on Oral Presentation Skills
Author Name :: Nima Wangchuk || Padma Zimba
Country :: Bhutan
Page Number :: 217-225
Oral presentations are a fundamental component of education and learning, allowing students to share our knowledge and insights with others. From classrooms to conference halls, students are entrusted with the responsibility of disseminating information that can shape minds, influence opinions, and drive innovation. Oral presentations are more than just a means of communication; they are an essential element of human connection, persuasion, and progress. The main aim of the study is to find therelationship and impact of students’ reading and preparation habits on their oral and presentation skills. The study was based on primary data. The questionnairewas used to analyze independentvariables such as reading habits, preparation time and practice. The study concludes that the correlations analysis is tested between the four variables such as oral presentation, reading habit, time spent and practices before presentation shows a strong relationship.The study also shows that there are significant influences of readinghabits and preparation habits on oral presentation skills.
Keywords: Reading habits, Oral presentation, Preparation habits, Communication skills.
[1]. Acheaw, M. O. (2014). Reading babits among students and its effect on academic performance . journal of intrenational education research, 1130.
[2]. ACHOUR, P. B. (n.d.). Professeur d'Hydraulique.
[3]. Adewole-Odeshi, E. (2014). Attitude of Students Towards E-learning in South-West Nigerian Universities. (Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal) ) Retrieved April 30, 2020, from An Application of Technology Acceptance Model:
[4]. Amer Al- Adwan, A. A.-A. (2013). Exploring students acceptance of e-learning using Technology Acceptance. International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology, 45.
[5]. Awamrah, F. E. (2017, december 29). The Extent to Which Students Have Sufficient Awareness of E-Learning and its Relation to Self-Studying and Academic acheiement. Retrieved april 30, 2020, from