Volume 06 - Issue 10

Paper Title :: Inclusion of students from EWS category: A study of a private school in Delhi
Author Name :: Tanisha Poddar || Ankit Agarwal || Kyna jagota || Jiya Sobti
Country :: India
Page Number :: 01-07
The journey to implement Right to Education (RTE) in India has been a challenging policy implementation task. And within the framework of RTE, the section 12 (1) (c) provision of giving 25% reservation to students from Economically Weaker Sections (EWS) in private school in India has been a monumental task. This paper attempts to generate evidence from a private school in Delhi regarding the nuances of inclusion of students from economically weakers section (EWS). The study records experiences of students from EWS category, non-EWS students and teachers and does an analysis of their responses to understand the experiences and challenges for inclusivity of students from different backgrounds.This study would give enough evidence to researchers and policymakers to do deeper research in this area and take informed steps for the realization of the policy.
Keywords: RTE, private school, education, reservation, policy
[1]. Alston, P., & Bhuta, N. (2005). The United Nations and Human Rights: A Critical Appraisal. Clarendon Press.
[2]. Chatterji, M. (2011). Implementing Right to Education: Moving towards the Quality Debate. Economic and Political Weekly, 46(21), 34-40.
[3]. Davies, L. (2005). From social justice to the justice of individuals: shifting the parameters of justice in education. Journal of Education Policy, 20(3), 359-380.
[4]. Dreze, J., & Sen, A. (1995). India: Economic Development and Social Opportunity. Oxford University Press
[5]. Kumar, P., & Gupta, R. (2018). Challenges and Opportunities of EWS Reservation: A Study of Rajasthan. International Journal of Management and Social Sciences Research, 7(6), 14-22.

Paper Title :: Teaching Efficacy of College Faculty: Addressing Inequitable Learning Experiences of Students from Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Backgrounds
Author Name :: Emmanuel Oghenerukevwe Ikpuri
Country :: United Stat
Page Number :: 08-16
This study explores culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) students' learning experiences vis-à-vis faculty members' teaching efficacy in a community college in South Florida. As community colleges become increasingly diverse, ensuring that all students, regardless of their cultural and linguistic backgrounds, have equal opportunities to succeed academically is crucial. Drawing upon relevant literature, the researcher investigates the challenges CLD students face and the role of college faculty in promoting equitable learning experiences. The study also highlights the importance of cultural responsiveness, inclusive pedagogies, and continuous professional development for faculty in promoting equitable learning environments for CLD students.The study utilized a sequential explanatory mixed methods design consisting of two distinct phases. The first phase involves a survey on factors that contribute to inequitable learning experiences of CLD students, while the second phase involves interviews with faculty members.The results showed that many students from CLD backgrounds are not college prepared and lack vital academic skills. This unpreparedness makes it challenging for them to adapt to college teaching style, finding it difficult to express their ideas or complete assignments due to language barriers. Therefore, if faculty receive the necessary training to keep up with changing student demographics, CLD students' learning experiences might improve.
Keywords: Teaching efficacy, Equitable learning Cultural responsiveness pedagogies.
[1]. Agbonifoh, B. A., Isibor, O. F., & Okere, O. O. (2016). Viewers' perception of the services of television stations. UNIBEN Journal of the Humanities, 4(1), 1-19.
[2]. Akanwa, E. E. (2015). International students in western developed countries: History, challenges, and prospects. Journal of International Students, 5(3), 271-284.
[3]. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191-215.
[4]. Bandura, A. (2000). Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Current directions in psychological science, 9(3), 75-78.
[5]. Banks, J., Dunston, Y. L. & Foley, T. E. (2013). Teacher efficacy as a conduit for enhancing attitudes toward teaching reading to African American students. Multicultural Perspectives, 15(1), 19-26.

Paper Title :: An Investigation of Factors Responsible for the Poor Quality of Public Senior Secondary School Education in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria
Author Name :: Ezekiel Chidinma Ahika
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 17-25
This study explores various factors responsible for the perceived poor quality of public senior secondary school education in the Egor Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Drawing on empirical evidence, this article analyses socioeconomic factors, infrastructural deficits, teacher quality, and policy challenges as critical dimensions influencing the education quality in the region. Research shows that there is mass failure of public senior secondary school students, whichreflects the poor quality of education. The study was designed to cover all thirteen public senior secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area (LGA) of Edo state, but due to time and financial constraints, it was limited to some randomly selected secondary schools in local government. The study population comprised all 274 public senior secondary school teachers in the 13 public senior secondary schools in Egor LGA of Edo state. The study sample was made of 43 (15.6%) teachers drawn from six randomly selected secondary schools in the local government. The respondents were selected through the purposive sampling technique. The factors identified in this study indicate a multifaceted problem affecting the quality of education in Egor. Addressing these issues requires concerted efforts from government agencies, community organizations, and other stakeholders. Potential strategies could include infrastructural development, teacher training programs, curriculum reforms, and socioeconomic interventions to uplift the community.
Keywords: Quality Education, Teacher Professional Development, Policy Reform, Egor Local Government.
[1]. Adamu, A. I. (2015). Socioeconomic Factors Affecting the Quality of Education in Nigeria: A Case Study. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(34), 23-29.
[2]. Agbonifoh, B. A., Isibor, O. F., & Okere, O. O. (2016). Viewers' perception of the services of television stations. UNIBEN Journal of the Humanities, 4(1), 1-19.
[3]. Eriyo, M. (2016). Inadequate Teaching Materials in Secondary Schools of Egor L.G.A Edo state
[4]. Eya, P. (2006). Role of instructional materials in improving qualitative Education in Nigeria. Ebonyi State University J. Educ. 4(1):77-92.
[5]. Francis, D. I. (2015). Solving the Problem of Poor Quality of University Graduates in Nigeria- A proposed Holistic Approach. British Journal of Education. Vol.3, No.7, pp.52-70

Paper Title :: Incorporating Peace Education and Accelerated Learning in Tertiary Institutions, for Quality Education in Armed Conflict Regions
Author Name :: Solomon Ewot || Prof Marcella Momanyi || Dr Peter Koros
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 26-37
This research was meant to determine how armed conflicts in Central Equatoria State, South Sudan, have affected quality education of tertiary institutions. Also, it was to examined the extent to which security precautions have been put to protect scholars, students, and non-teaching staff members towards provision of quality education. The key research questions is What steps have been taken to incorporate peace education and accelerated learning in curriculum development of tertiary institutions in Central Equatoria State South Sudan? Whether peace education has been incorporated in the college curriculum. The Social Stability and Social Destabilization theories guided the study. A mixed-methods and particularly, convergent-parallel approach, cross-sectional surveying and phenomenology guided the research methodology. The research subjects included the: Vice Chancellors, administrators, HODs, students, lecturers, of three educational institutions; two public and one private learning institutions, NGOs, legislative assembly, and opinion leaders. The study's target population totaled 1727 participants. They were selected via stratified random sampling, as well as purposeful sampling. Instruments for data collection included interviews, surveys, guided questions, observations, and Focus group discussions. Experts in the relevant fields were used to invalidate the research instruments for their content, criteria, prediction, and concurrent validities. Quantitative items on Likert scales were evaluated using the Cronbach alpha technique, while the trustworthiness and dependability of qualitative items was verified. One university conducted pilot studies and they were disregarded in the final analysis. Quantitative items were analyzed using descriptive statistics, which involved summarizing data using frequencies, percentages, standard deviation, and means. Narratives and direct quotes were used to present the findings from the qualitative data analysis. About 433 out of 548 (84%) shows the overall return rate. The results show that More than 30 percent of college and university students are forced to relocate because of civil strife. As a result of the devastation caused by war, many professors 34/79 (43%) have avoided teaching. 162/242 students do not realise availability of academic materials (Library services, suggested textbooks). 173 out of 242 (71.1%) students view professors' resignations as a common occurrence. 24/79 (30%) armed engagements can be traced back to organized groups. The perception of South Sudan as violet conflict prone nation demoralizes people‟s social economic engagements and higher education About 23/30 opinion leaders, 222/242 students, 59/79 lecturers and NGOs interviewed prefered the incorporation of peace education and accelerated learning in school curriculum but it should start from secondary level of education. However, some participants preferred to be implemented in all levels of education All scholars need to be empowered with conflict management know how, and practices.
Keywords: Armed conflicts, Quality, Education, Peace Education, Accelerated Learning
[1]. Adesina, A.D.O. (2010). Peace dilemma in Nigeria. A case of peace education programme for elementary school, Obafemi Awolowo University, Lle-Lfe, Nigeria.
[2]. Banraba, B. J. (2015). Examining the Contemporary Status of an Education System. The Case of the Republic of South Sudan, 1-15
[3]. Banta, B. (2013). Analysing discourse as a causal mechanism. European Journal of International Relations, 379-402.
[4]. Erik Melander (2015), Organized Violence in the World: An assessment by the Uppsala Conflict Data Program Care International in South Sudan, 2020),
[5]. Gunther McGrath, R., & Nerkar, A. (2014). Real options reasoning and a new look at the R&D investment strategies of pharmaceutical firms. Strategic Management Journal, 1-21.

Paper Title :: Environmental Regulation Practice and Sustainable Performance of Multinational Tea Firms in Kenya
Author Name :: Rebby Chepkoech || Dr. Pauline Keitany || Dr. Alfred Bett
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 38-43
Performance of firms has remained a global issue based on changes in climate and global warming among others. This issue has forced countries to adopt green strategies so as to reduce the effect of climate change on business sustainability. Climate change affect agricultural-processing firms directly leading to poor performance. Environmental regulation is one of the green supply chain practices introduced to businesses as a measure to solving problem of sustainable performance. This study aimed at determining the relationship between environmental regulation and sustainable performance of multinational tea firms in Kenya.The study was anchored on sustainable and institutional theories. Correlational and cross-sectional research design was adopted. A sample of 225 managers were selected using stratified sampling technique from a target population of 512 from the three multinational tea firms of James Finlay, George Williamson and Ekaterra with primary data being collected using a questionnaire. Content, face, criterion and construct validity of the instrument was achieved through interrogation of instrument by supervisors and experts. Reliability was examined using Cronbach Alpha coefficient where a score of 0.801 was realised. Linear regression and correlation analysis were used in establish coefficient of determination and correlation coefficient. The R squared value showed that environmental regulation had no impact on sustainable firm performance (R2 = 0.000, F=.034; p>0.05), this indicates that sustainable firm performance was not attributable to environmental regulation. Implying that whenever multinational tea firms invested on environmental regulation as a green supply chain practice there was no impact on their sustainable performance. The study recommends that multinational tea firms in Kenya should establish why this practice is not impacting on performance as expected. The findings may be beneficial to the tea industry players, policy makers, scholars, the general public as well as the county and national governments as it will give them necessary information that may assist in developing sustainable performance strategies in the tea sector.
Keywords: Environmental regulation, Sustainable Performance, Climate Change, Global warming
[1]. Ahmed, M., Zehou, S., Raza, S. A., Qureshi, M. A., & Yousufi, S. Q. (2020). Impact of CSR and environmental triggers on employee green behavior: The mediating effect of employee well‐being. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 27(5), 2225-2239.
[2]. Borsatto, J., Bazani, C., & Amui, L. (2020). Environmental Regulations, Green Innovation and Performance: An Analysis of Industrial Sector Companies from Developed Countries and Emerging Countries. Brazilian Business Review, 17, 560-578.
[3]. Chen, Y., Chang, C., & Lin, Y. (2014). Green trasformational leadership and green performance: The mediation effects of green mindfulness and green self-efficacy. Sustainability, 6, 6604-6621.
[4]. Ditlev-Simonsen, C. (2022). A Guide to Sustainable Corporate Responsibility: From Theory to Action. USA: Springer Nature.
[5]. Elmagrhi, M., Ntim, C., Elamer, A., & Zhang, Q. (2018). A Study of Environmental Policies and Regulations, Governance Structures and Environmental Performance: The Role of Female Directors. Business Strategy and the Environment, 1-31.

Paper Title :: The Magazines of the Educational Group (EO) in Greece: Content, Topics, Partners
Author Name :: Stella Chantzi
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 44-48
The article refers to the editorial production of the two magazines of the Education Group Ekpeideytikos Omilos (EΟ). The EO was an educational organization founded in 1910 in Athens, with the aim of realizing an educational/linguistic reform with the introduction of the demotic language and other changes in the structure of education. From the beginning, the magazineof the Group's (DEO)was implemented. Before the split of the EO, the DEO had articles, studies, texts of current affairs on educational, pedagogical, mainly linguistic issues. In 1915 the DEO was awarded the Zappeion Prize. After the split of the EO in 1927, the head of the group, D. Glinos, had published a new journal called ‘’Neos Dromos’’. The magazine echoes Glinos' left-leaning orientation, had articles by him and others criticizing educational current affairs and presenting the educational programs of socialist countries. A detailed description of their form, content and subject matter is given.
Keywords: magazines, Educational group EO, DEO, Neos Dromos
[1] 12th letter from Dragoumis to Delmouzos on May 5, 1911, F. 9, Delmouzos Archive.
[2] 14th letter from Dragoumis to Delmouzos on June 29, 1911, F. 9, Delmouzos Archive.
[3] 19th letter from Petrokokkinos to Delmouzos, on February 19, 1911, F.10, Delmouzos Archive.
[4] Accountability and account of the second year of the EO, DEO, vol. 3 (2), pp. 169-172, 1912.
[5] Α. Dimaras, Membership list 1910-1927: composition, description, estimates,Society for Studies of Modern Greek Culture and General Education,Athens, 1994.

Paper Title :: Women Leadership in Business: A Case Study of a Woman Leader at Ernst and Young
Author Name :: Aishwarya Sharma || Vedant Agarwal || Nikhil Wadhawan || Keshav Kumar
Country :: India
Page Number :: 49-53
The gender disparity in leadership roles within the business sphere remains an enduring and pressing concern, necessitating both attention and decisive action. This research paper addresses the persistent gender disparity in business leadership roles, emphasizing the urgent need for action. Despite well-documented benefits of gender diversity in leadership, a mere 10% of Fortune 500 companies are led by women. Drawing on insights from industrial/organizational psychology, the study builds a core framework to analyse the case study of a women leader. It‟s identified that women leaders bring unique attributes, such as strong communication skills and empathy, enhancing innovation and team dynamics. However, women still encounter barriers like organizational bias and limited networking opportunities. Early identification of leadership potential, through competency frameworks and behavioral assessments, can empower women for leadership roles. Overall, the findings emphasize the pressing need for continued efforts to promote gender equity in corporate leadership, ultimately leading to more inclusive and prosperous organizations.
Keywords: women, leader, business, Ernst and Young, corporate, gender
[1]. Dezsö, C. L., & Ross, D. G. (2012). Does female representation in top management improve firm performance? A panel data investigation. Strategic management journal, 33(9), 1072-1089.
[2]. Eagly, A. H., & Carli, L. L. (2018). Women and the labyrinth of leadership. In Contemporary issues in leadership (pp. 147-162). Routledge.
[3]. Ibarra, H., Ely, R., & Kolb, D. (2013). Women rising: The unseen barriers. Harvard business review, 91(9), 60-66.
[4]. Khushk, A., Zengtian, Z., & Hui, Y. (2023). Role of female leadership in corporate innovation: a systematic literature review. Gender in Management: An International Journal, 38(3), 287-304.
[5]. Kulkarni, A., & Mishra, M. (2022). Aspects of women‟s leadership in the organisation: Systematic literature review. South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management, 9(1), 9-32.

Paper Title :: The issues of intercommunity conflicts around the delimitation of the village territories of Kodougou and Nèguèla (Northwest, Ivory Coast)
Author Name :: Koffi Noël KOUASSI || Mariame Tata FOFANA || Kouamé Abou N’DRI
Country :: Ivory Coast
Page Number :: 54-62
In the context of the delimitation of village territories, the peaceful social relations between Kodougou and Nèguèla, based on common origin and the exchange of various goods, are taking on increasingly conflicting forms and creating obstacles to their deployment. This situation justifies this study, whose aim is to analyze the issues at stake in this divergent definition of village boundaries. So, if village boundaries are not contested outside the formalization procedure, what justifies people's opposition to the delimitation of village territories?
The production of field data was guided by an investigative framework organized around the symbolic, socio-political and economic issues at stake in the delimitation process. The main actors concerned by the study are all those involved in the process of delimiting village territories. We opted for the network or snowball sampling technique to constitute our sample. We interviewed a total of 21 actors. The data analysis follows an approach centered on the analysis of the interweaving of social logics, which enables us to take into account the entanglement of relationships between stakeholders. The analysis reveals that stakeholders develop arguments to rationalize their position, associating with each issue a problem to be solved and actors to be taken into account. It highlights the unexpected effects of boundary delimitation and the various constraints to be taken into account to achieve consensual deployment of the delimitation process.
Keywords: Delimitation of village territories, intercommunity conflicts, political issues, local economy, symbolic issues, social history, Kodougou, Nèguèla
[1]. Aurore Mansion, Cécile Broutin. (2012). « Quelles politiques foncières en Afrique subsaharienne ? défis, acteurs et initiatives contemporaines, Grain de sel, n°57 _570489.pdf
[2]. Bachelet Ariane & Richard Yann. (2009). « La construction de la frontière de facto abkhazo géorgienne, entre enjeux sécuritaires, politiques et identitaires », L’Espace Politique, n°36
[3]. Bassett Thomas J. (1995). L’introduction de la propriété de la terre : La cartographie et la Banque Mondiale en Côte d’Ivoire, ORSTM, Paris.
[4]. Chauveau Jean-Pierre ; Dozon Jean-Pierre. (1987). « Au coeur des ethnies ivoiriennes... l’Etat », In Terray Emmanuel. L’Etat contemporain en Afrique, Paris, L’Harmattan, p. 221-296.
[5]. Chauveau Jean-Pierre ; Dozon Jean-Pierre.(1988). « Ethnies et Etat en Côte d’Ivoire, Revue française de science politique » vol. 38, no 5, p. 732-747.

Paper Title :: Parent Teachers Association Involvement in Acquisition of Resources in Effective Management of Mission Secondary Schools in GRA Enugu, Nigeria
Author Name :: Rosemary Nkechi Mbah || Sr. Dr. Elizabeth Piliyesi || Dr. Paschal Wambiyah
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 63-72
The purpose of the study was to investigate how PTA involvement in acquisition of resources influence management of mission secondary schools in the Government Residential Area in Enugu North, Nigeria. The study was guided by the research question: To what extent is PTA involved in acquisition of resources for effective school management? The research was anchored by the general system theory. This research employed convergent mixed method research design. The study targeted 8 principals, 64 PTA executives, 72 heads of subject and 80 student leaders. Probability and non-probability sampling techniques were used to select 8 principals, 16 student leaders, 72 heads of subject, and 32 PTA executives from 8 mission secondary schools within GRA in Enugu North Local Government were sampled. Parent Teachers Association executives were sampled using simple random technique, schools and principals were sampled using automatic inclusion, heads of subject and student leaders were sampled using purposive sampling technique respectively. The data from principals and PTA executives were gotten using semi-structured interview guide, while the data from heads of subject and student leaders were gotten using questionnaire. The researcher ensured both face and content validity of the research instruments. Face and content validity were measured using lecturers and research specialists in education in and outside the school. The researcher found the Cronbach α = 0.85 to ascertain the reliability for quantitative data. A Pilot test was done in two mission secondary schools where 10 student leaders and 10 heads of subject participated to test the reliability and credibility of the research instruments. The researcher sought permission from the relevant authorities and the research participants collecting any data. The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS Version 21.0 software and presented as graph, tables, frequency and percentage. While qualitative data was analyzed thematically. The ethical considerations were observed at all levels. Key findings indicated that management of mission secondary schools suffer setbacks, it is not effective as it is supposed to be because PTA does not involve herself in the formulation of school policies, acquisition of resources for school, does not help to maintain discipline, and does not meet with staffs and students as supposed. However, areas for improvement include, workshops, constant and uninvited visits by PTA executives to the school, frequent communication between PTA and internal school management, revision and inclusion of PTA roles in school‟s policy book, constant consultations among both teams.
Keywords: Involvement, Effective management, mission secondary schools acquisition of resources, principals.
[1]. Akpan, C. (2014). Perception of Principals on Parents Involvement in school-based Management in Cross River State Nigeria. International Journal of Education and Research, 2(5), 529-540.
[2]. Arockiasamy, S. (2018, Januaray 18). School Management. Retrieved from National Standards for Family-School Partnership:
[3]. Ayonmike, C. S., (2020). Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Classroom as against Online Mode of Instruction on Students‟ Psychomotor Performance in Woodwork Technology. Journal of Educational and Social Research. 10. 9. 10.36941/jesr-2020-0106.
[4]. Bill, M. (2018, March 10). School Leaders: challenging Roles and Impact on teacher and School Effectiveness. Retrieved from Eductaion:
[5]. Colins, M. (2015). Involvement fourth edition. Cape Town: Cambridge University Press

Paper Title :: Analysis of Mining of Mineral C on Agricultural Land in Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency
Author Name :: Rita Mawanti KN, Dr. Rita Noviani, Dr. Ahmad
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 73-83
Agricultural land is land that is easiest to convert for other needs. Meeting the need for land includes agricultural facilities, production sites and also housing. Every year existing agricultural land is reduced due to land conversion. The land conversion that occurred in Jatikuwung Village, Jeruksawit Village and Wonosari Village, Gondangrejo District, Karanganyar Regency turned agricultural land into excavated mines. Apart from that, these three villages are included in the Sangiran Dayu cluster site. Special attention is needed so that the conversion of agricultural land to C excavation mining does not damage the Sangiran Dayu cluster site nor does it damage existing agricultural land. Quarry C mining damages existing agricultural land so that a lot of ex-mining land is damaged. This damage causes less functioning of the land to be returned as an agricultural area.
This research aims to determine the level of damage to agricultural land that has occurred and determine the rehabilitation efforts carried out.
Data collection was carried out from January to May 2023. The research method used was descriptive-qualitative research. Sampling was determined by proportional purposive sampling. Research data were obtained through interviews, observation, and direct measurements in the field. The results of the research show that from 2000 to 2022, mining processes have occurred several times on agricultural land on different land. The results of the analysis based on the parameters used show that agricultural land is heavily damaged at points Jatikuwung 1 and 2, Wonosari 1 and 2, as well as JS 1, JS 2, JS 7, JS 8, JS 9, JS 10 and JS 11. Land damage is severe This has resulted in many ex-mining lands not being rehabilitated to be returned to agricultural areas but transferred to other uses. Further treatment is needed in ex-mining areas, land rehabilitation tends not to be carried out, there is succession and more often ex-mining is converted to other land uses. Ex-mining land tends to be left to undergo natural rehabilitation so this requires more attention from the farming community, those responsible for mining as well as the government in order to maintain the function of the land again as an agricultural area.
Keywords: agricultural land, level of damage to agricultural land; Mining; rehabilitation
[1]. Asril. The Impact of Quarry C Mining on the Lives of the People of Koto Kampar Hulu District, Kampar Regency. Menara Ria u: Journal of Entrepreneurship, Vol 13, No.1, January-June 2014
[2]. Dixon, CBLeach (2018). Sampling Methods for Geographical Research. Yogyakarta. Wave
[3]. Hidayat, Muhammad, "Management Strategy for the Sangiran Site as a World Heritage". Sangiran Journal No. 1 of 2012
[4]. Bermana, Ike. 2006. Geomorphological Classification for Geological Mapping That Has Been Standardized. Bulletin of Scientific Contribution, Volume 4, Number 2, August 2006 : 161-173
[5]. Dixon, CBLeach (2018). Sampling Methods for Geographical Research. Yogyakarta. Wave

Paper Title :: The influence of the Programme of Pastoral Instruction on the education of teenage mothers in the Secondary Schools in the Archdiocese of Mombasa, Kenya
Author Name :: Stephen Osiche || Fr. Prof. Clement Majawa || Dr. Paschal Wambiya
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 84-91
The coastal region of Kenya has one of the highest teenage pregnancies in Kenya. In spite of that, minimal research has been done on the causes and possible remedies to the high level teenage pregnancy in the region. The Catholic Church in Kenya has a programme of Pastoral Instruction in all Public schools they sponsor. Lack of programme of pastoral instruction (PPI) during normal childhood development can lead to severe negative impacts in later life cycle stages and some deficits have irreversible consequences. The purpose of this study was to find out the effect of holistic pastoral education on enhancing the education of teenage mothers in the Catholic Archdiocese of Mombasa Sponsored Public Secondary Schools, Kenya. The study was carried out in the Catholic Archdiocese of Mombasa, based on the selected four counties with the highest pregnancy rates: Mombasa, Kwale, Kilifi and Taita Taveta counties. Convergent Mixed methods design was used to carry out the study. Research focused on children aged between 13 to 18 years by drawing a sample of 344 respondents using both probability (stratified and simple random sampling) and non-probability (purposive) sampling techniques. Convergent mixed method design was used in this study. The main research question of the study was to determine the influence of the Pastoral Programme of instruction on teenage mothers in Secondary schools in the Archdiocese. Questionnaires were used to collect data from students and teacher counselors while interview guide was used to collect data from teenage mother students, principals and pastoral personnel within the location of the study: Mombasa, Kilifi, Kwale, and Taita-Taveta counties. The researcher used both content validity and Cronbach's Alpha method to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The reliability threshold in Cronbach‟s Alpha was 0.8. Data analysis involved both quantitative (descriptive -frequencies, mean, standard deviation and percentages and qualitative techniques where data was summarized in themes and presented in narrative form as well sources as raw data excerpts. Ethical considerations were upheld to avoid plagiarism, with all and information cited being acknowledged and high integrity levels being maintained during the study. Findings of the study established that although holistic pastoral education is beneficial to the society in curbing teenage pregnancy and in enhancing girl child education, it is not done well in the Secondary schools in the Archdiocese of Mombasa. The study recommended that the Ministry of Education and the Archdiocese needs to sensitize principals, deputy principals and teachers to fully implement holistic pastoral education in schools to boost holistic education of children and curb teenage pregnancies.
Keywords: Pastoral, Holistic, programme, pregnancy, Convergent, teenage, Archdiocese
[1]. Abobo, F. (2012). Challenges facing implementation of life skills in secondary schools in Trans-Nzoia West District, Kenya. Unpublished MED Thesis: Kenyatta University: Nairobi.
[2]. Abobo, F., & Orodho, J. (2014). Life Skills Education: An Assessment of the Level of Preparedness of Teachers and School Managers in Implementing Life Skills Education in Trans-Nzoia District, Kenya. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 19(9), 32.
[3]. Abuya, B. (2013). Ministry of Education the Incidence of Sexual Harassment and Violence Among Girls Attending High Schools in Kenya by 2015.African Population and Health Research Centre (APRHC) Briefing paper. October 2013.
[4]. Achema G, Emmanuel A, Moses AO (2015) Factors responsible for teenage pregnancy and its implication on adolescent health and education: Perception of secondary school students in Nigeria. International Journal of Medical and Health Research. University of Kwazulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.
[5]. Acquilano, M. F. (2012). The Mass Implementation of International Sex Education Guidelines and the Legal and Moral Ramifications as Presented by the Roman Catholic Church. Avemaria international law journal. Retrieved on 23/11/2017 from

Paper Title :: An exploration of the factors influencing the intention to adopt participatory banking products in the Moroccan context
Author Name :: Insaf JOUIET || Ahlam MAARAF
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 92-108
Attracting and engaging profitable customers for participation banks services is one of the major challenges facing the banking industry nowadays. In this context, this study aims to explore and investigate the main factors that influence customers' intention to adopt participation banks in the Moroccan context. To achieve the research objective, a conceptual model was designed based on the diffusion of innovation theory of Rogers (2003) and an exploratory qualitative study conducted based on a sample of twenty active customers of conventional banks and non-users of participation banking services.
Following the proposed model, the relative advantage, the compatibility, the observability, the trialability and the social influence are assumed to have a positive and significant influence on the consumers' intention to adopt participation banking services, while the complexity and the uncertainty are assumed to influence negatively the consumers behavioural intention.
It is noteworthy that previous literature is quite limited on this matter, especially in the Moroccan case where participation banks have been recently launched in this country, which enhances the studies conducted in this context. In addition, participation banks can use the results of this study to implement effective marketing strategies to increase the adoption and use of participation banking services by Moroccan consumers.
Keywords: Adoption, Participation bank, diffusion of innovation theory.
[1] Abdelghani, E., & Hassanuddeen, A. A.(2012). The Relationship between Religiosity and Customer Adaption of Islamic Services in Morocco. Oman. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 1(9), 89-94.
[2] Abdullah, N. I., Dusuki, A. W. (2006). Customers‟ perceptions of Islamic hire-purchase facility in Malaysia: An empirical analysis. IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, 14(2), 177-204.
[3] Ali, M. and Puah, C.H. (2017), “Acceptance of Islamic banking as innovation: a case of Pakistan”, Humanomics, Vol. 33 No. 4, pp. 499-516.
[4] Al-Jabri, I. M., & Sohail, M. S. (2012). Mobile banking adoption: Application of diffusion of innovation theory. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 13(4), 379-391.
[5] Ayinde, L.O. and Echchabi, A. (2012), “Perception and adoption of Islamic insurance in Malaysia: an empirical study”, World Applied Sciences Journal, Vol. 20 No. 3, pp. 407-415.

Paper Title :: The effect of autonomy reduction resulting from the teaching of taqlīd on the reduction of Muslims’ acceptance of moral responsibility (A survey study in Qom-Iran)
Author Name :: Ali Asghar Mohammadzadeh || Mohammad Hedayati
Country :: Italy
Page Number :: 109-122
Taqlīd is a rule in Islamic jurisprudence. Based on this rule, mature muslims who are not jurists accept a jurist‟s opinions (marja„-i-taqlīd) and act on them. Taqlīd reduces the autonomy of individuals in finding religious rules seriously. The research problem is whether there is a significant correlation between the “autonomy of individuals in finding the religious rules” as an independent variable and “their acceptance of moral responsibility in the act of obeying religious rules” as a dependent variable. This problem was investigated in survey research with a population of 20 to 49 years old from Qom citizens by a questionnaire with closed-ended questions. The sampling method was the quota, and the Pearson correlation test was used in the conclusion. According to the finding, there was a significant correlation in the research samples. So far, no research has been done by an empirical method about the taqlīd, which is the study‟s innovative aspect.
Keywords: Jurisprudential Taqlīd, Autonomy, Acceptance of Moral Responsibility, Qom Citizens, Muqallid, Marja„-i-taqlīd
[1]. Āmidī, Ali. 1424 AH. Al-Iḥkām fī Uṣūl il-Aḥkām.Beirut. Dār ul-Fikr.
[2]. Abū Ḥāmid Ghazālī, Muhammad. 1430 AH.Al-Mustaṣfā min ‘ilm il-Uṣūl.Beirut. Al-Maktabat ul-„Aṣrīyah.
[3]. Abū Zuhrih, Muhammad. 1996. Tārīkh ul-Maẓāhib il-Islamīyyah fi il-Sīyasah wa al-‘Aqā’id wa Tārīkh ul-Maẓāhib il-Fiqhīyah. Cairo. Dār ul-Fikr„ Arabī.
[4]. Alipour, Masih, Hassan Mohaddesi, Allahkaram Karamipoor. 2019. “A Comparative Study of Religious Authority and Religious Autonomy (A Study of Two Generations after the Revolution - The Age of 15 to 30 and 50 to 65 Years).” Journal of Culture - Communication Studies 45:205-234.
[5]. Ash„arī, Ali ibn Ismāʻīl. 1397 AH. Al-Ibānah ‘an Uṣūl il-Dīn. Cairo. Dār ul-Anṣār.

Paper Title :: A study of people's perception about Domestic Use of Solar Energy
Author Name :: Sia Arora || Jiya Sansanwal || Sarthak Khandelwal || Ayana Gandotra || Vanya Savara
Country :: India
Page Number :: 123-131
This paper explores public perceptions of domestic solar energy adoption. Through surveys, it examines factors influencing individuals' attitudes towards solar energy for household use. Findings reveal a growing positive perception, driven by environmental concerns and cost savings. However, barriers, such as initial costs and limited awareness, persist. Understanding these perceptions is crucial for designing effective policies and educational campaigns to accelerate the adoption of solar energy at the domestic level. This research contributes valuable insights into the dynamic landscape of renewable energy acceptance, shedding light on the path towards a more sustainable energy future.
Keywords: Solar energy, domestic consumption, environment, government policies
[1]. Bang, H. K., Ellinger, A. E., Hadjimarcou, J., & Traichal, P. A. (2000). Consumer concern, knowledge, belief, and attitude toward renewable energy: An application of the reasoned action theory. Psychology & Marketing, 17(6), 449-468.
[2]. Black, J. S., Stern, P. C., & Elworth, J. T. (1985). Personal and contextual influences on househould energy adaptations. Journal of applied psychology, 70(1), 3.
[3]. Brummer, V. (2018). Community energy–benefits and barriers: A comparative literature review of Community Energy in the UK, Germany and the USA, the benefits it provides for society and the barriers it faces. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 94, 187-196.
[4]. Byrnes, L., Brown, C., Foster, J., & Wagner, L. D. (2013). Australian renewable energy policy: Barriers and challenges. Renewable energy, 60, 711-721.
[5]. Charters, B., Heffernan, T., & Daly, M. (2023). When individual action requires collective approval: a roadmap for solar power adoption by strata property owners. Journal of Social Marketing, 13(1), 100-120.

Paper Title :: The Relationship between Leadership Behavior and Work Culture with Employee Work Performance in the City Administration Parks Department West Jakarta
Author Name :: Ismi Nurmawati || Veithzal Rivai Zainal || Aziz Hakim
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 132-142
The problem formulation in the research is the relationship between leadership behavior and work culture partially and simultaneously with work performance at the West Jakarta City Administration Parks Department. This research aims to determine and analyze the relationship between leadership behavior and work culture partially and simultaneously with work achievements at the West Jakarta City Administration Parks Department.
The research method used in this research is a descriptive research method with the approach used in this research being quantitative. The number of sample members 100% representing the population is the same as the population itself, so the sample of employees of the West Jakarta Administrative City Parks Department is 28 people.
Based on the results of the research that has been carried out, it was found that a) The results of the research analysis illustrate that there is a very significant relationship between leadership behavior and employee performance. This proves that there is a strong and significant relationship between leadership behavior and performance within the City Parks Department. West Jakarta Administration. b) The results of the research analysis of the performance culture variable and employee performance show that there is a significant relationship, this proves that there is a strong and significant relationship between performance culture and performance within the West Jakarta Administrative City Parks Department. c) Meanwhile, the results of the joint analysis between leadership behavior and performance culture and employee performance within the West Jakarta City Administration Parks Department show that there is a very meaningful relationship, namely a strong and significant relationship.
Keywords: Leadership Behavior, Work Culture, Work Performance
[1]. Atmodiwirio, Soebagio (2000), Manajemen Pendidikan Indonesia, Jakarta : Ardadizya Jaya.
[2]. Junita, B., Subagja, I. K., & Hakim, (2022). A. The Effect of Organizational Culture and Emotional Intelligence on Employee Performance of Bri Bank Kalimalang Branch Office through Job Satisfaction.International Journal of Advances in Engineering and Management (IJAEM) Volume 4, Issue 4 Apr 2022, pp: 1255-1264 ISSN: 2395-5252
[3]. Koto, E. A., Samudra, A. A., Zainal, V. R., Sumrahadi, A., Hakim, A., Hariyadi, A. R., & Subagja, I. K. (2019). Relationship of work Motivation and participative Leadership with functional employment behavior of Education and culture of Bengkulu Province, Indonesia. International Journal of Business and Applied Social Science, September, 1-19.
[4]. Pasolong, Harbani (2008), Kepemimpinan Birokrasi, Bandung : Alfabeta.
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Paper Title :: Difficulties of High School Students in the Communication of Life Issues with Parents
Author Name :: Huynh Lai Phuong Thao || Dr Nguyen Thi Hoai An
Country :: France
Page Number :: 143-154
Communication between generations often faces many difficulties in every household, especially daily life issues. This article discusses the challenges of high school students in communicating about life issues with their parents based on quantitative and qualitative data collected from high school students in Grades 10 - 12. At the same time, the article assesses the current status of family communication, communication content, level of communication satisfaction, and recommendations to increase effective communication between parents and children.
Keywords: difficulties, communication, life problems, family, parents, high school students.
[1]. Arvinder, Singh HS, Nur Fatin Zulaikha (2018) Parent - teenager communication in the digital era, accessed date 29/08/2023 at:
[2]. Elena Mirela Samfira ( 2022), Parent, Child Communication: A case study of teachers from a Romanian Life Sciences University, Journal of Family and Youth,pages 131-150
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Paper Title :: Solutions for Mental Health Issues in Vietnamese Adolescents
Author Name :: Nguyen Minh Trang || Nguyen Phuong Thuy
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 155-165
In Vietnam, there is a growing concern about the mental health of adolescents experiencing various mental disorders. These challenges encompass common conditions like depression and anxiety, as well as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), no suicidal self-injury (NSSI), and even suicidal behavior. Several factors contribute to these issues, including academic pressure, family conflicts, excessive screen time, and the prevalence of school violence and cyber bullying. The insufficient availability of mental health services plays a significant role to worsen the situation, as only a small part of the population has access to mental health support. While the government has established the National Mental Health Program (NMHP), its coverage remains limited, leaving a substantial gap in the provision of mental health care. To address these pressing concerns, comprehensive solutions are needed. The research identifies several key strategies for addressing mental health challenges among Vietnamese adolescents, emphasizing the importance of collaboration between schools and families, raising awareness about bullying, reducing academic pressure, improving family communication, enhancing mental health literacy, and promoting outdoor activities and balanced screen time. Government policies and initiatives, including preventive measures against school violence and the integration of mental health education into teacher training, play a crucial role in improving the mental health landscape in Vietnamese schools. It is clear that solving these challenges requires a collective effort involving individuals, families, teachers, and government authorities. The research employed various methods, including data collection, analysis of literature, and case studies, to gain a comprehensive understanding of the issues and potential solutions. Ultimately, addressing these challenges is essential for the well-being and future prospects of Vietnam's youth.
Keywords: Mental health issues, Vietnamese adolescents
[1]. Baggio S, Fructuoso A, Guimaraes M, et al. (2018). Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in detention settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Psychiatry. 2018; 9:331. doi:10.33 89/fpsyt.2018.00331
[2]. Binnaz Kiran-Esen. (2012). Analyzing Peer Pressure and Self-Efficacy Expectations among Adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality An International Journal 40(8) DOI:10.2224/sbp.2012.40.8.1301
[3]. Blum R, Sudhinaraset M, Emerson MR. (2012) Youth at risk: Suicidal thoughts and attempts in Vietnam, China, and Taiwan. The Three-City Study of Asian Adolescents and Youth: Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei 50(Suppl. 3): S37–S44.
[4]. Boznovik K, McLamb F, O'Connell K, et al. (2021). U.S. national, regional, and state specific socioeconomic factors correlate with child and adolescent ADHD diagnoses. Sci Rep 11:22008. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-01233-2
[5]. Brown RT, Freeman WS, Perrin JM, et al. (2001). Prevalence and assessment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in primary care settings. Pediatrics. 107(3): E43. doi:10.1542/peds.107.3.e43

Paper Title :: The Impact of the Neighbouring Languages on Iraqi Language
Author Name :: Asst. lect. Dina Mohammed Salman
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 166-169
The present study is an attempt to investigate how Iraqi people of different regions are affected by the other languages such as Turkish and Persian languages. This study has presented the reasons behind the influence of Iraqi Arabic by these two languages. Of course, one of them is the position of Iraq and the other is the trading relationships between these countries and Iraq and many other reasons which will not be discussed in this research. The researcher through this study has presented the main three dialects in Iraq and how these dialects have affected by other languages.
The researcher has provided some real examples about the everyday life, non Arabic words that the Iraqi people use in their daily conversations. Some of these words are come from Turkish language and the other from Persian language.
Keywords: accent, dialect, Iraqi Arabic, Turkish, Persian.
[1]. Alkalesi, Yasin, M (2007): Modern Iraqi Arabic. Second Ed., Washington D.C., Georgetown University Press
[2]. Biadsy, F., & Hirschberg, J. (2009). Spoken Arabic dialect identification using
[3]. Doaa Kamal Mayoof SHALAWEE, Husam HAMZAH (2018)." International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention (IJHSSI) 7.03: 36-42.
[4]. Lippi-Green, R. (1997). English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-0- 415-11476-9.
[5]. Lyons, John (1981). Language and Linguistics. Cambridge University Press. p. 25. language standard dialect.

Paper Title :: The perception of Education Stakeholders on the effect of teenage pregnancy on the education of teenage mothers in selected public secondary schools in the Archdiocese of Mombasa, Kenya
Author Name :: Stephen Osiche || Fr. Prof. Clement Majawa || Dr. Paschal Wambiya
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 170-176
The Kenya Government has a policy requiring teenage girl children to go back to schools after delver their babies in case they get pregnant when still in school. Studies indicate that Mombasa has the highest number of such girls in secondary schools. The attitude of education stakeholders on the issue of teenage pregnancy and how returning girls can learn and succeed in life are important. This study therefore investigated the attitude stakeholders on the issue of teenage pregnancy on some selected Catholic sponsored public secondary schools in the Arch diocese of Mombasa. The main research question was: What is the status of teenage pregnancy and the perception of stakeholders on its influence on the education teenage mothers in selected Catholic sponsored secondary schools in the Arch diocese of Mombasa Convergent Mixed methods design was used to carry out the study. Research focused on children aged between 13 to 18 years in the Catholic Archdiocese of Mombasa Sponsored Public Secondary Schools by drawing a sample of 344 respondents using both probability (stratified and simple random sampling) and non-probability (purposive) sampling techniques. Questionnaires were used to collect data from students and teacher counselors while interview guide was used to collect data from teenage mother students, principals and pastoral personnel within the location of the study. The study found that the attitude of education stakeholders in the schools and out of school were negative to the education of girls returning to schools after pregnancy. The study recommended the strengthening of the Programme of Pastoral instruction to the schools to strengthen the girls morally, physically and academically to enable them cope with the negative attitude that they have to live with on a daily basis.
[1]. Omwega, M., Role, E., & Ndiku, L. (2016). Preventing youth from terrorist radicalization and recruitment. Baraton Interdisciplinary Research Journal, 6, 163-170.
[2]. Ondere J. S. (2012). A study on causes of dropping out among girls in selected mixed day secondary schools in Kasarani district, Nairobi County, Kenya. Kenyatta University.
[3]. Onono, M. A., Rutherford, G. W., Bukusi, E. A., White, J. S., Goosby, E., & Brindis, C. D. (2020). Political prioritization and the competing definitions of adolescent pregnancy in Kenya: An application of the Public Arenas Model. PloS one, 15(9), e0238136.
[4]. Orina, K. B., & Omariba, A. (2017). Impact of the Principal’s Leadership Behaviour on Students’ academic Performance in Secondary Schools, Manga Division, Nyamira District, Nyanza Province.
[5]. Osanloo, A., & Grant, C. (2016). Understanding, selecting, and integrating a theoretical framework in dissertation research: Creating the blueprint for your “house”. Administrative issues journal: connecting education, practice, and research, 4(2), 7.

Paper Title :: The Effects of Sex-for-Grade Practice in Higher Educational Institutions in Edo State, Nigeria
Author Name :: Endurance Abavo Smart
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 177-184
This study was designed to examine the effects of sex-for-grade practice in tertiary institutions and its implications for higher education in Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to seven hundred and twenty students and ninety lecturers in Edo State. Purposive and simple random sampling techniques were used. A Cronbach alpha value of .870 was obtained for reliability. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. The results from the presentation showed that endless trauma, low self-esteem, and depression are some of the effects of sexual harassment on its victims. Based on the findings of this work, it was recommended thatstudents who are victims of sexual harassment should visit counselors and psychologists for professional counsel. Faculty members who perpetrate sexual harassment should be suspended and guilty students should be expelled.
Keywords: Counselling, Student support, Sex-for-grade, higher education, Nigeria
[1]. Ajuwon, A. (2005).Attitudes, norms, and experiences of sexual coercion among young people in Ibadan, Nigeria: sex without Consent: Young people in Developing Countries. London and New York, Zed Books.
[2]. Bergman, M. E., Langhout, R. D., Palmieri, P. A., Cortina, L. M., & Fitzgerald, L. F. (2002). The (un) reasonableness of reporting: Antecedents and consequences of reporting sexual harassment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 230.
[3]. Boland, Mary L. (2002) Sexual Harassment: Your Guide to Legal Action. Naperville, Illinois: Sphinx Publishing 2002
[4]. Elllsberg M.A. Winkvist R., Pena (2001) Women‘s strategies responses to violence in Nicaragua; Journal of Epidemiology and community Health, 55 (8): 574 55
[5]. Enyia, J. O., Ayuk, A. A., Takim, T. O., Okorie, C., Ezikeudu, C. C., Ajimase, A. A., & Ekene, O. G. (2023). Sex for Favor and Grades in Nigerian Schools: An Insult on Intellectual Integrity and Fairness. PalArch's Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, 20(2), 251-259.

Paper Title :: Empirical Analysis of Performance Evaluation of Telecom Companies in Republic of Congo Based on DEA Model
Author Name :: Kayou Aise Rody || Yunliang Zhao || Kayou Ramsès Michel || Ngomah Madgil Don Stenay Junior
Country :: Congo
Page Number :: 185-200
This study evaluated price innovation impact on the telecommunication industry using a nonparametric approach based on linear programming which is conducted to measure the relative efficiency of a set of similar Decision-Making Units (DMUs). The DEA model evaluated the efficiency of various prices for the different kinds of services. Each company was assigned a set of efficiency scores for the period 2009 to 2016. Thus the data for this study was collected through an individual’s company website and by visiting the company for the periods 2009-2016. The sample comprises four telecommunication companies in Congo. The analysis measured DEA and FDH technical efficiency scores using the Efficiency Measurement System (EMS Version 1.3, 2000). Therefore the results showed two out of seven variables are found statistically significant at the significant level of 0.05. The negative coefficient of large indicates that a large firm is more likely efficient than a small firm. The results also show that government ownership-based firm is more likely to be efficient than the domestic ownership-based firm.
Keywords: Performance Evaluation, Congo Telecom Industry, Tobit Model, DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis)
[1]. Anderson, T. R., & Sharp, G. P. (1997). A new measure of baseball batters using DEA. Annals of Operations Research, 73, 141-155.
[2]. Banker, R. D., Charnes, A., & Cooper, W. W. (1984). Some models for estimating technical and scale inefficiencies in data envelopment analysis. Management science, 30(9), 1078- 1092.
[3]. Banker, R. D., & Kemerer, C. F. (1989). Scale economies in new software development. IEEE Transactions on software engineering, 15(10), 1199.
[4]. Barr, R. S., & Siems, T. F. (1997). Bank failure prediction using DEA to measure management quality Interfaces in computer science and operations research (pp. 341-365): Springer.
[5]. Basu, S. (2008). Returns to scale measurement The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (pp. 1-5): Springer.

Paper Title :: Intercultural trade, networks and modalities of trust in the Jula merchant diaspora (1500-1900)
Author Name :: CISSE Chikouna
Country :: Ivory Coast
Page Number :: 201-211
The study of merchant diasporas in the modern era has enjoyed good fortune since anthropologist Abner Cohen1 elevated them to the status of an analytical category in the late 1960s. Scott Levi2, Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert3, Sebouh Aslanian4, Francesca Trivellato5, Fahad Ahamd Bishara6, and many others have produced remarkable works on the subject, focusing almost exclusively on Asia, Europe and America. Under such conditions, we cannot speak of a global turning point in the discipline, as Francesca Trivellato7 proclaims, since Africa, the scene of great connected empires and intercultural trade attested to at least since the 8th century by Arab authors under the rule of the Wangara and later their Jula emulators, is the great forgotten in these studies of diasporic trading communities on a planetary scale. As Olivier Weather points out, network analysis has rarely been applied to sub-Saharan African societies, and even more rarely to regional trade, for at least two main reasons. The explanation is that, firstly, community studies focusing on social and family issues, launched in the 1970s by British sociologists in Africa, have not been recognized as a main area of interest among network scientists. Secondly, the approaches applied simultaneously by economists, historians and geographers have tended to eclipse formal network analysis in favor of econometrics or qualitative studies8. Maurice Godelier is right to call for a renewal of the notion of "economic rationality", by grasping people in all the conscious and unconscious aspects of their social relationships9. In taking up the Jula question, more than half a century after Yves Person's seminal work, our ambition is to go beyond piecemeal studies by geographical area and produce a global history of the Jula, focusing on the question of trust within this network marchand.In short, a socio-cultural and religious history that has long been overlooked in favor of economic, diplomatic and military history.
Keywords: Trade, intercultural, trust, diaspora, jula
[1]. Adekunle Julius, „‟Borgu and economic transformation 1700-1900: the wangara factor‟‟, in African Economic History, n°22, 1994, pp.1-18.
[2]. Ajayi Ade and Oloruntimehin Benjamin, „‟ West Africa in the anti-slave trade era‟‟, in Jhon E. Flint (éd), The Cambridge history of Africa, Vol.5 from 1790 to 1890, 2004, pp. 200-221.
[3]. Arnaud Jean-Claude, Le pays malinké de Côte d’Ivoire (Aire ethnique et expansion migratoire). Thèse pour le Doctorat d‟État. Université de Rouen-Haute-Normandie, Institut de géographie, 1987.
[4]. AslanianSebouh, From the Indian Ocean to the Mediteranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants from New Julfa, Berkeley, University of California Press, 2011.
[5]. Bathily Abdoulaye, Guerriers, tributaires et marchands. Le Gajaaga (ou Galam) le ‘’pays de l’or’’. Le développement et la régression d’une formation économique et sociale sénégalaise (8e-19e siècle). Thèse pour le Doctorat d‟État Ès-Lettres, Université de Dakar, Département d‟Histoire, 1985.

Paper Title :: Analysis of Factors Influencing Students' Interest in Investing in the Capital Market
(Empirical Study on Students in Wonogiri Regency from 2018 to 2022)
Author Name :: Sandra Arwansah Putra || Rina Trisnawati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 212-221
This research focuses on students residing in Wonogiri Regency who were enrolled in various educational levels (D1, D2, D3, D4, and S1) from 2018 to 2022, while also being recipients of scholarships through the Outstanding Student Award program. The data used in this study consists of primary data collected through the distribution of questionnaires. The data source comes from students filling out questionnaires using Google Forms. The population for this research consists of 2,456 students. The sample selection technique employed Solvin's formula, resulting in a sample size of 100 students. The data analysis techniques used in this research include instrumental test, classic assumption test, and model goodness-of-fit test. The instrumental test is used to assess the suitability of the instruments. The classic assumption test includes normality test, multicollinearity test, and heteroskedasticity test. The model goodness-of-fit test is used to test the research hypotheses and includes simultaneous significance test (F-test), determination coefficient test (R2), t-test, and multiple linear regression analysis. The research findings indicate that: 1) Investment knowledge does not influence investment interest, thus rejecting H1 in this study. 2) Investment return influences investment interest, thereby accepting H2 in this study. 3) Investment risk does not influence investment interest, thus rejecting H3 in this study. 4) Investment motivation influences investment interest, thereby accepting H4 in this study.
Keywords: investment, student interest, capital market.
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Paper Title :: Class Consciousness in "Charandas Chor" by Habib Tanvir: Exploring Identity, Struggles, Solidarity, and Capitalism
Author Name :: Moulshree Saxena
Country :: India
Page Number :: 222-226
This research paper delves into the multifaceted theme of class consciousness as depicted in the renowned Indian play, "Charandas Chor," written by Habib Tanvir. Through a comprehensive analysis of the play, this study explores the interconnected elements of recognition of class identity, class struggles, the presentation of solidarity and collective action, and the subtle critique of capitalism. The character of Charandas, an honest thief, serves as a pivotal lens through which the audience witnesses the recognition of class identity. As a member of the lower social class, Charandas's struggles and unwavering commitment to truth reflect the socio-economic disparities deeply ingrained in the rural Indian village. The play subtly critiques the inequalities associated with capitalism, prompting viewers to consider the broader implications of economic systems on individual lives and societal values. In addition to recognition, "Charandas Chor" masterfully portrays class struggles. The tensions between Charandas and the villagers, particularly the headman, represent the power dynamics and conflicts born from class disparities. The play highlights the challenges faced by the working class and the collective desire for change. Furthermore, the heart of the narrative lies in the theme of solidarity and collective action. The villagers unite to challenge established authority and traditional norms, illustrating the potential for transformative change when individuals come together in the face of injustice. This powerful theme underscores the core ideals of class consciousness and the need for social progress.
"Charandas Chor" is not merely a work of art but a mirror to society, inviting introspection on the recognition of class identity, the ongoing class struggles, the transformative power of solidarity, and the pursuit of a more equitable world. This research paper sheds light on the intricacies of class consciousness as presented in the play and its resonance in contemporary discussions on social justice and equity.
Keywords: Class consciousness, Capitalism, Class Identity, Folk Theater
[1]. Katyal, Anjum. Habib Tanvir: Towards an Inclusive Theatre. SAGE Publications, 2010, h+paper&ots=DE3ldzgiXW&sig=GUCBUJ4it8RO54GXmx78TZeqvpY#v=onepage&q&f=false.
[2]. Katyal, Anjum, and Javed Malick. HABIB TANVIR: Charandas Chor and Other Plays. By Habib Tanvir, 4th ed., Seagull Books, 2015.
[3]. Marx, Karl. ―Das Kapital.‖ John Wiley & Sons, Inc. eBooks, 2011, pp. 409–46.
[4]. Marx, Karl, and Friedrich Engels. ―The Communist Manifesto.‖ Oxford University Press eBooks, 2008,
[5]. Patel, Naresh, and Seema Bhupendra. ―HABIB TANVIR‘S CHARANDAS CHOR: RENEGOTIATING THE HUMANE.‖ Scholarly Research Journal for Humanity Science and English Language, vol. 4, no. 22, June 2014.

Paper Title :: Guidelines for the Development of characteristics of students program in Broadcasting and hosting at Guangxi Vocational and Technical College
Author Name :: Gu Jingsi || Nuttamon Punchatree || Wichian Intarasompun || Savitri Chitbanchong
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 227-237
The purposes of this research were 1) To study the state of characteristics of students' program in Broadcasting and hosting at Guangxi Vocational and Technical College and 2) To study the guidelines for the development of characteristics of students' program in Broadcasting and hosting at Guangxi Vocational and Technical College was including four following aspects: 1) Communication ability, 2) Self-Management, 3) Teamwork, 4) Innovation ability. The sample group of this research were 113 students program in broadcasting and hosting in Guangxi Vocational and Technical College. They were selected by random sampling. The research instruments were questionnaires and structured interviews. The statistics to analyze the data were percentage, average value and standard deviation. The results were found that1.The characteristics of students program in Broadcasting and hosting at Guangxi Vocational and Technical College in aspects was at a high level.2.Suggestions for the development of characteristics of students' program in Broadcasting and hosting at Guangxi Vocational and Technical College include:1) Communication ability:1) Improve management communication ability through practical curriculum design. Enhance self-confidence and develop communication skills through extra-curricular activities. Arrange interdisciplinary competitions, and actively participate in multi-major students to promote effective communication.2) Self-Management: Establish a good cooperative relationship with students and encourage them to complete personal tasks independently. Create independent classes and discussion classes to guide students to learn actively. Create a good self-management environment.3) Teamwork: project-based teaching, establishing teamwork awareness and improving students' teamwork ability. Participate in associations and organizations to enhance members' ability to cooperate.4) Innovation ability: Set up innovative ability training courses and promote the diversification of classroom education. Improve the construction of innovative teaching environment, mobilize students' desire to explore, and cultivate students' innovative ability.
Keywords: Guidelines for the Development of characteristics of students, Communication ability, Self-Management, Teamwork, Innovation ability
[1] Chen Yuan. (2011). On the core competence of students in Higher vocational colleges and their training approaches. Enterprise Review (17), 210-211. doi:10.19354/j.cnki.42-1616/f.2011.17.144.
[2] Chen Rong. (2022). Problems and Countermeasures in the training of vocational core competence of higher vocational students under the background of "Double high" construction. Shaanxi Education (Higher Education) (08), 48-50. doi:10.16773/j.cnki.1002-2058.2022.08.013
[3] Dou Kai & Zhang Ru. (2014). On the cultivation of vocational core competence of students in higher vocational colleges. Journal of Jiamusi Vocational College (10), 4.
[4] Fan, Jiaqian. (2022). Research on the Cultivation of Occupational Core Competencies of Middle-level Broadcasting and Hosting Students (Master's thesis, Jiangxi Normal University of Science and Technology). 9nYB4KRROLeGcESTg=&uniplatform=NZKPT&language=CHS
[5] Hou Zhenju. (2021). Analysis on Vocational Core competence training of higher vocational students under the background of mass entrepreneurship and Innovation. Modern Communication (09),16-18.

Paper Title :: An Attempt to a Sociolinguistic Study of Some Swahili Slangs Spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Case of Goma Town
Author Name :: William Nzitubundi Sendihe
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 238-254
This article is entitled “An Attempt to a Sociolinguistic Study of Some Swahili Slangs Spoken in the Democratic Republic of Congo: Case of Goma Town’’. The study refers to the analysis of some slangs used in the Swahili spoken in certain parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo, more specifically in Goma town.
Swahili language, or The Kiswahili, is known as a Bantu language widely used as a lingua franca in East Africa and having official status in several countries. Research shows that there are probably fewer than two million native speakers of Swahili, but it is in everyday use by over 20 million people.
The language dates from the contacts of Arabian traders with the inhabitants of the east coast of Africa over many centuries. Under the Arab influence, Swahili originated as a lingua franca used by several closely related Bantu-speaking tribal groups. Research shows that there are about 15 main Swahili dialects, as well as several pidgin forms in use. The three most important dialects are Kiunguja, spoken in Zanzibar and in the main land areas of Tanzania; Kimvita, spoken in Mombasa, and other areas of Kenya, and Kiamu, spoken on the is land of Lamu and adjoining parts of the coast.
Swahili is a bantu language spoken by the Swahili people, who are found primarily in Tanzania, Kenya and Mozambique. The language has a high number of loan words from other languages, mainly Arabic, as well as from Portuguese, English, and German.
As far as the variety of Swahili spoken in Goma is concerned, referred to as slangs in this research work, it has loanwords from a number of languages used in the country, such as French, English, Lingala, and someother local languages/ mother tongues according to the speaker. This is therefore the reason I have decided to carry out this study, in order to show how and why those Swahili slangs function in people‟s everyday communication.
Keywords: Swahili, Slang(s), language, speaking, communication, community.
[1]. Bethany K. Dumas and Jonathan Lighter (1978). Is Slang a Word for Linguistics?; Duke University Press, Durham, Northern Carolina, USA;
[2]. Dell Hymes (1964). Toward Ethnographies of Communication, American Anthropological Association, Arlington, VA;
[3]. Dickson Paul (2010). The Topical Dictionary of Americanism, walker and Company Ltd; Yonkers, New York;
[4]. George Yule (2006). The study of Language, Cambridge University Press; The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK;
[5]. Jonathon Green (2015). Five Hundred Years of the Vulgar Tongue, Digital Version, the Journal of English Language and Linguistics accessible through

Paper Title :: Communication does not only Imply Speaking
Author Name :: William Nzitubundi Sendihe || Augustin Ntahondi Habyarimana
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 255-262
This research article aims to show that communication does not only suggest speaking. In fact, in addition to speaking, people also communicate through various other ways, including: writing, gestures, body movements, sign language, eye contact, the way we look, the way we walk, the way we behave or react in every situation, etc. All these aspects are encompassed in two main categories of communication which are verbal communication and non-verbal communication.
Verbal communication combines both spoken and written skills, whereas non-verbal communication deals with body language, that is, the physical behaviour of our bodies, eye contact, postures, gestures, dressing style (clothing and adornment), environmental factors, and so on. Therefore, this article is going to explain the different kinds of communication through some illustrations and detailed elements.
Keywords: Communication, verbal, non-verbal, message, transmit, receive.
[1]. Argyle, Michael (1999). The psychology of interpersonal behaviour, 5th edn, Penguin, London.
[2]. Axtell, Roger (1998). Gestures: the do’s and taboos of body language around the world, rev. edn, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
[3]. Ballard, Dawna I & Seibold, David R. (2006). ‘The experience of time at work: relationship to communication load, job satisfaction, and interdepartmental communication’, Communication Studies, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 317–40. Barnard,
[4]. Malcolm (2002). Fashion as communication, 2nd edn, Routledge, London.
[5]. Bavelas, Janet Beavin, Coates, Linda & Johnson, Trudy (2002). ‘Listener responses as a collaborative process: the role of gaze’, Journal of Communication, vol. 52, pp. 562–80.

Paper Title :: Child Labor in Vietnam
Author Name :: Khuat Thi Thu Hien || Le Xuan Cu
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 263-269
This article focuses on clarifying the concept of child labour; analyzing the provisions of Vietnamese law on child labour; assessing the current situation of child labor in Vietnam through the results of the National Survey on Child Labor conducted by the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) in collaboration with the General Statistics Office (GSO) and the Organization International Labor (ILO) implemented in 2018, announced in 2020; propose some solutions to protect child labor.
Keywords: children, child labor, child labor protection, labor law.
[1] Convention No. 182 on the Prohibition and Urgent Action on the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour in 1999
[2] International Labor Organization. (1999), Convention No. 182 on the prohibition and immediate action to eliminate the worst forms of child labor
[3] Khuat Thi Thu Hien. (2016), Protecting child labor in labor relations, Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference "Social work with women children: cross country experience - Social work with women and children: experience of some countries", pages 91-97
[4] Khuat Thi Thu Hien. (2019). Complete the provisions of the 2012 Labor Code on underage labor, State Management Journal No. 284 (September 2019), pages 70-74.
[5] Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs (MOLISA) in coordination with the General Statistics Office (GSO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO), National Survey on Child Labor 2012, announced in December 2014 .

Paper Title :: Industries Assessment of Competency-Based Training effectiveness in Equipping Students of Tamale Technical University with Desired Competencies
Author Name :: Aboko Akudugu || Salifu Shaibu Abugri || Ibrahim Musah
Country :: Ghana
Page Number :: 270-277
The study utilised a descriptive survey to investigate Industry Supervisors' perceptions regarding the effectiveness of Competency-Based Training (CBT) programme in equipping students with industry-relevant competencies. The data was collected from industry supervisors (27) who actively supervised students during the 2022 Industrial attachment session. The results revealed that out of the 19 industry-desired competencies examined, students were assessed to be competent in 15 areas, with mean scores of 2.5 and above. Students demonstrated high levels of competency in "possessing theoretical agricultural knowledge," attaining a mean score of 2.64. Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) computed at p < 0.05, indicated that certain demographic characteristics of industry supervisors, such as age, experience, education, and sex, can influence how they assess students' competencies in specific areas. The study recommends forthe development of tailored training programmes to strengthen competencies in areas where students demonstrated lower proficiencies in critical thinking, networking, ICT skills, and adaptability.
Keywords: industry supervisors, Competency based training, industrial attachment, industry desired competencies, competency, world of work.
[1]. Amankwah, E. (2011). Relevance of Competency Based Training in University Education for National Development, Journal of Education and Practice, ISSN 2222-1735, Vol 2.
[2]. Anane, C., A. (2013). Competency based training: Quality delivery for technical and vocational education and training (tvet) institutions, educational research international issn-l: 2307-3713, issn: 2307-3721 vol. 2 no. 2.
[3]. Ansah, S., K, & Ernest, K. (2013). Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Ghana: A Tool for Skill Acquisition and Industrial Development
[4]. Ayariga, M. (2013). Public universities must restructure programs. Ghana News Agency, Ayariga.
[5]. Boahin P, Kamphorst, J. C, Hofman W. H. A. (2010) Tracer study on the performance of polytechnic graduates in Ghanaian labour market. 2010.

Paper Title :: Distributed Ledger technologies application in the energy supply sector
Author Name :: Dr. Pavel Malyzhenkov
Country :: Russia
Page Number :: 278-282
This research relates to the field of distributed ledger technologies and their application in the energy industry. Distributed ledger technologies are decentralized technologies for storing, exchanging, and recording information, where synchronization and data exchange is determined by a consensus algorithm, and copies of the data are stored on geographically distributed nodes. Blockchain technology is currently the best known and most researched of them. Meanwhile, blockchain is not the only configuration in which distributed ledger technology can be implemented. Non-blockchain DLTs can be in the form of cryptocurrency or be simply an architecture for storing and exchanging data and have no monetary meaning. Some are seen as being able to replace blockchain because they can process transactions much faster; transactions are added almost instantaneously and processed individually rather than in blocks. The reason alternative types of DLTs are considered useful is that a transaction can be represented by a node, and you can add transactions to the ledger as they arrive. This means that there is no need to wait for a block to be created to validate your transactions. In addition, various types of consensuses developed that reduce latency in the system and increase throughput. However, how reliable and efficient they will be is an open question.
This paper investigates distributed ledger technologies when applied to energy supply sector.
Keywords: blockchain, distributed ledger, energy supply, Industry 4.0
[1]. Akkawi M. A. et al. Determination and Reduction of Utilities‟ Power System Losses using Advanced Metering Infrastructure-The Case of Lebanon //Journal of Recent Trends in Electrical Power System. – 2019. – Т. 2. – №. 3.
[2]. Amoussou-Guenou Y. et al. Correctness of tendermint-core blockchains //22nd International Conference on Principles of Distributed Systems (OPODIS 2018). – Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik, 2018.
[3]. Ampel B., Patton M., Chen H. Performance modeling of hyperledger sawtooth blockchain //2019 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics (ISI). – IEEE, 2019. – С. 59-61.
[4]. Ancillotti E., Bruno R., Conti M. The role of communication systems in smart grids: Architectures, technical solutions and research challenges //Computer Communications. – 2013. – Т. 36. – №. 17-18. – С. 1665-1697.
[5]. Androulaki E. et al. Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchains //Proceedings of the thirteenth EuroSys conference. – 2018. – С. 1-15.

Paper Title :: Lajos Kelemen is a historian-archivist (1877–1963)
Author Name :: Peter Sas
Country :: Hungary
Page Number :: 283-287
The name and work of the historian-archivist Lajos Kelemen merged with the name of the former Transylvanian National Museum and the Transylvanian Museum Association, which has been operating today since 1859, thus proving and scientifically evaluating the entire 20th century history of Transylvanian culture.

Paper Title :: Integration of ICT Based Education in India: A Review of Challenges
Author Name :: Chandan || Parul
Country :: India
Page Number :: 288-291
The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 is an education policy implemented in India. It was approved by the Union Cabinet of India in July 2020. The National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 is a transformative document that aims to revolutionize the education system in India. One of the key pillars of NEP 2020 is the integration of technology in education, with a strong emphasis on Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This chapter explores the potential of ICT-based pedagogy; issues and Challenges in realizing the goals of NEP 2020 and revolutionizing the learning experience.
Keywords: NEP 2020, ICT pedagogy, Digital learning, E-content
[1]. Albirini, A. (2006). Teachers' attitudes toward information and communication technologies: The case of Syrian EFL teachers. Computers & Education, 47(4), 373-398. DOI:
[2]. Azevedo, A., & Hadwin, A. F. (Eds.). (2017). "Intelligent Tutoring Systems in Education: A Comprehensive Overview." Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-61425-0.
[3]. Balanskat, A., Blamire, R., & Kefala, S. (2006). "The ICT Impact Report: A Review of Studies of ICT Impact on Schools in Europe." European School net. Available at
[4]. Drent, M., & Meelissen, M. (2008). Which factors obstruct or stimulate teacher educators to use ICT innovatively? Computers & Education, 51(1), 187-199. DOI:
[5]. Ertmer, P. A., & Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T. (2010). "Teacher Technology Change: How Knowledge, Confidence, Beliefs, and Culture Intersect." Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 42(3), 255-284. DOI: 10.1080/15391523.2010.10782551

Paper Title :: Rememorizing the Anti-Miscegenation Laws inthe United States: A Scrutiny of William Faulkner’s Absalom, Absalom
Author Name :: N'zambi-Mikoulou Donald
Country :: Congo
Page Number :: 292-301
In writing this paper, I have discovered that William Faulkner‟s Absalom, Absalom is the reconstruction of Blacks‟ experience of the anti-miscegenation laws which, in the colonial era, prohibited interracial marriages in the United States because of Whites‟ eagerness to create a white America. The author refers to this historical reality throughSutpen‟s divorce with Eulalia and Bon‟s separation from Judith. While the first couple ends up getting divorced for the simple reason that they do not share the same race, the second gets separated due to the same cause and to their paternal link for fear of committing incest, for they are all Sutpen‟s biological children. These characters‟ failed love affairs because of the respect of the anti-miscegenation laws evidences the encroachment between history and fiction in the author‟s narrative.
Keywords: The United States, Blacks, Whites, Anti-Miscegenation Laws.
[1]. Bhusal, Ashok. “The Rhetoric of Racism and Anti-Miscegenation Laws in the United States”. International Journal of Arts and Humanities (IJAH). ISSN: 2415-1491, Vol. 4, Issue 2- Autumn 2017, pp. 83-89.
[2]. Faulkner William. Absalom, Absalom. USA: Radom House, 1936.
[3]. Foster, E. M. Aspects of the Novel. (USA). Harmon worth Penguin, 1962.
[4]. Greenblatt and Gallagher. “The New Historical Parameters: Genesis, Theory; and Practice”. International Journal of English Language, Literature, and Humanities (IJELLH). ISSN: 7065, Vol. III, Issue V, July 2015, pp. 111-127.
[5]. Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1850.

Paper Title :: Constraints Experienced by Youth Clubs in implementing Rural Development Programmes in Dhalai District of Tripura
Author Name :: Mr. Jiaul Islam Chowdhury || Dr. Aditi Nath
Country :: India
Page Number :: 302-307
Rural development plays a crucial role in the growth of the country as a whole. There have been many things that need to be prioritized for the welfare of the rural areas. Youth clubs in this regard may play an important role in organising different welfare programmes. The present study has been conduted in Dhalai district of Tripura where a good number of youth clubs are engaged with rural development activities. Therefore, the study intended to understand the programmes implemented by youth clubs for rural area development in the district along with the constraints experienced by them in implementing the programmes followed by the approaches adopted by them to resolve the problems. The study adopted purposive sampling method and identified twenty four respondents from eight youth clubs (one from each block) to collect data. The study found that the youth clubs are implementing numerous programmes and facing constraints regarding fund, community response and club member’s attitude. The study also presented the approaches adopted by the youth clubs to respond to the constraints proactively.
[1]. Field Observation
[2]. Cook, J. (1995). Training for Rural Youth, International Agricultural Development, 15(4), 13-22.
[3]. Jones, (1962). Socio Economic Study of Rural Youth, Indian Journal of Sociological Research, 11 (6).
[4]. Minhas, I.A. (1992). Residence in a Rural Community a Satisfaction with Rural Services: A Study of Pakistani Male and Female Rural Youth, Journal of Rural Development and Administration, 24 (2), 73-84.
[5]. Minhas, I.A. (1995). Social Class Origins and Migration of Rural Youth, Journal of Rural development and administration, 29(1), 163-168.

Paper Title :: Using technology to improve reading skills among the Diploma Holders – A survey based on Selected Advanced Technological Institutes
Author Name :: Suganthy Subhakaran
Country :: Sri Lanka
Page Number :: 308-314
English plays an important role in school curriculum as well as in higher education. It is quite obvious that in Sri Lankan contexts the students have to be motivated to learn English as it is not their mother tongue. They do not give much importance to learn English as it is a second language for them. So, the teachers from schools and lecturers from higher educational institutes have to put maximum effort to make the students learn English effectively.
Language learning with technology is a new method of learning in the modern world. We now live in a world in which technology pervades every aspect of our lives. Apart from its time and labour – saving function, technology can also inspire creativity and bring new opportunities to students, connecting those to new ideas and to new world. Here the researcher has introduced this technology and wants to prove that reading skills of the students can be improved by using or introducing this technology in the higher educational sector.
Recently most of the Sri-Lankan Higher educational institutes compelled to start e-learning as new methods to facilitate teaching and learning process due to COVID-19 pandemic situation. Any how all the students in the higher educational sectors are used to this new technology and are able to complete their higher studies successfully. So, it is inevitable for all teachers and the students to adopt into this new technology in future as well because nobody knows when this COVID-19 will come to an end.
In this research the researcher has explored her analysis into improving reading skills among the students through technology which pays a crucial role nowadays in higher education. The students can be motivated to learn this reading skill while they are using new devices of technology in their day- to- day lives.
Keywords: English, reading skills, higher education, technology, second Language
[1]. Ciampa, K 2014, ′ Learning in a mobile age: an investigation of student motivation‵, Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, pp82-96.
[2]. English Teaching Professional Journal (
[3]. Granito,Mark, Chernobilsky, Ellina. 2012. The Effect of Technology on a Student's Motivation and Knowledge Retention Northeastern Educational Research Association. Washington, USA.
[4]. John Cradler, Mary McNabb, Molly Freeman, and Richard Burchett, 2002, „Learning & Leading with Technology‵ Research Windows, vol.29, no8, pp46-49.
[5]. Modern English Teacher Journal (

Paper Title :: Providing Meta-Theoretical Framework of Economic Value for Fair Value Accounting: A Critical Realist Approach
Author Name :: Herry Hermawan || Mohammad Mukhtasar Syamsuddin || Hastanti Widy Nugroho
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 315-323
This paper aims to sketch a sociological framework for fair value accounting based on Dave Elder-Vass‟s meta-theory of economic value. Elder-Vass grounds his meta-theoretical account on the social constructivist ontology that he derived from the philosophy of critical realism. Through this framework, it is shown that the construction of economic value needs to be understood at two different theoretical levels, namely at the social-empirical level as first-order value theory—which is also known as a “lay theory of value”—and at the methodological level as a second-order theory or meta-theory of value, which provides the fundamental and general principles for the theoretical construction of the former. As a result, the economic value of goods needs to be understood in materially social and empirical terms rather than a purely analytical or transcendental one, as its emergence is causally grounded on the complex interplay between social agents and structures. This paper then draws its methodological implication for the valuation system of fair value accounting in general, showing the possibility of systematizing the theoretical account of fair value accounting to improve its logical coherence while maintaining the pluralistic consensus of mixed measurement bases, and the necessity of extending the scope of analysis to the sociological level to improve the fair valuation practice.
Keywords: fair value accounting, sociology of value, Dave Elder-Vass, criticalrealism
[1]. Benston, G. J., Bromwich, M., Litan, R. E., & Wagenhofer, A. (2007). Worldwide financial reporting: the development and future of accounting standards. Brigham Young University International Law & Management Review, 3(1), 143-144.
[2]. Bhaskar, Roy. (1997). The Possibility of Naturalism: A Philosophical Critique of the Contemporary Human Sciences. London & New York: Routledge.
[3]. Bhaskar, R. (1986). Scientific Realism and Human Emancipation. Routledge.
[4]. Casson, P. D., & Napier, C. J. (1997). Representing the future: financial benefits and obligations, risk and accounting.
[5]. Durocher, S., & Gendron, Y. (2014). Epistemic commitment and cognitive disunity toward fair-value accounting. Accounting and Business Research, 44(6), 630-655.

Paper Title :: Objective Quality and Price Variation in Tea Marketing
Author Name :: David Chepkwony || Dr. Lydia Langat || Dr. Patricia Chepkwony || Dr. Reuben Langat
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 324-336
Tea sector is an important part of Kenya’s economy as a leading export earner. Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA) farmers’ earnings in bonus payment fluctuate based on variation in tea prices, however farmers in the West of rift valley under KTDA factories are paid less compared to East of rift valley and this disparity has caused economic difficulty. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between objective quality and price variation in tea marketing. This was anchored on the quality dimensions’ framework. The study employed correlational research design with cluster and purposive sampling proceduresadopted to collect secondary and primary data. A sample of 7 factories representing 7 clusters with 69 tea factories was used to sample 2,142 invoices consisting of 19,890 panel data. The panel data was obtained using data extraction tool from secondary sources while primary data was obtained using questionnaires. The primary data utilized a census of 128 tea brokers, tea warehouses and buyers who handle tea in Mombasa tea Auction. Cronbach alpha obtained for objective quality were 0.895. Descriptive and inferential analysis was done using Microsoft Excel, SPSSand STATA. Panel multiple regression analysis was used to test research hypotheses at 5% significance level. The findings indicated that there is significant difference in objective quality of tea from East and West region (P<0.05)with quality of tea from KTDA factories in East better KTDA factories in West of rift valley. The study also found that objective quality had significant relationship with price variation. The study concluded that objective quality had significant relationship with price variation and supply had negative moderating effect on this relationship. The study recommended that KTDA factories and small scale farmersin West of rift valley should benchmark against KTDA factories in East of rift valley tea quality to improve quality of their tea.
Keywords: Objective Quality, Price Variation, Correlation Research Design, Kenya Tea Development Agency (KTDA), Kenya.
[1]. Apelbaum, E., Gerstner, E., & Naik, P. A. (2003). The effects of expert quality evaluations versus brand name on price premiums. Journal of Product and Management, 12(3), 154-165. Retrieved from
[2]. Bodell, R., Kerton, R., & Schust, R. (1986). Price as a signal of quality: Canada in the international context. Journal of Consumer Policy, 9(4), 431-444.
[3]. Boyle, P. J., Kim, H., & Lathrop, E. S. (2018). The relationship between price and quality in durable product categories with private label brands. Journal of Product & Brand Management, 27 (6), 647-660. Retrieved from
[4]. Buntak, K., Adelsberger, Z., & Nad, I. (2012). Impact of Product Quality in the Business Organization. International Journal for Quality Research, 6(3), 271-283.
[5]. Burgess, S. M., & Steenkamp, J. E. (2006). Marketing renaissance: How research in emerging markets advances marketing science and practice. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 23(4), 337-356. Retrieved from

Paper Title :: Moderating Role of Project Regulatory Framework on the Relationship between Project Scope Planning and Performance of Housing Projects in Kenya
Author Name :: Charles Muiruri Wanjau || Prof. Gregory Namusonge || Dr. Benard Lango
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 337-350
This study sought to determine the moderating role of project regulatory framework on the relationship between project scope planning and performance of housing projects in Kenya. This study adopted a descriptive research design. The target population was 675 building construction stakeholders; Project Managers, Engineers, Architects, contractors, and site supervisors drawn from 135housing projects within Nairobi Metropolitan. The study made use of primary and secondary data. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through the use of a structured questionnaire and Interviews. Pilot testing was done to test the validity and reliability of the research instrument. The Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS); descriptive statistics mainly percentages, frequencies, means & standard deviations and inferential statistics mainly the regression analysis. The descriptive results showed that project scope planning influenced the performance of housing projects in Kenya. The study found that 45.8% of the variance in the performance of housing projects was explained by project scope planning. The study also found that project regulatory framework moderates the relationship between project Scope planning and Performance ofhousing projects in Kenya. The moderation by project regulatory framework explains 74% of the variations in performance of housing projects in Kenya. Based on the study findings, it was established that project scope planning and project regulatory framework jointly explain significant variation in performance ofhousing projects in Kenya
The study suggests that in order to plan the project scope effectively, it is important to establish a concise and well-defined project scope. The study recommends the government to promote the establishment of comprehensive project teams that include experts in various domains such as architecture, engineering, finance, and project management.Moreover, conducting a comprehensive review of existing regulations related to housing projects in Kenya is recommended as well as identifying and addressing regulatory bottlenecks and inconsistencies that may hinder project performance may be pit into consideration.
Keywords: Scope planning, Framework, Housing projects, performance
[1]. Achar, M., Chebii, P., & Nugo, J. (2021). The Role of Communication Channels on Implementation of Housing Construction Projects in Nairobi County, Kenya. African Journal of Education, Science and Technology, 6(3).
[2]. Akhwaba, J. K., & Keiyoro, P. (2020). Project Scope and Execution of Fibre Optic Infrastructure. International Journal of Construction Project Management, 12(1), 3-16.
[3]. Alias, Z., Zawawi, E. M., Yusof, K., & Aris, N. M. (2014). Determining critical success Factors of project management practice: A conceptual framework. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 153, 61-69.
[4]. Banda, R. K., & Pretorius, L. (2016). The effect of scope definition on infrastructure projects: A Case in Malawi's public and private implementing agencies. South African Journal of Industrial Engineering, , 27(4), 203-214.
[5]. Chileshe, N., Njau, C. W., Kibichii, B. K., Macharia, L. N., & Kavishe, N. (2020). Critical success factors for Public-Private Partnership (PPP) infrastructure and housing projects in Kenya. International Journal of Construction Management, 1-12.

Paper Title :: Challenges on Online Licensure Examination for Teachers Review
Author Name :: Vemma Mae R. Guinto
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 351-354
This research delved into the challenges faced by graduates during the Online Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) review in the Philippines, a crucial step for aspiring educators. The study, conducted at Pangasinan State University, explored the difficulties encountered in learning management skills, understanding teaching concepts, awareness of educational trends, achieving excellence, and interactions during the online review. Results revealed that graduates faced slight challenges in these areas, with interactions playing a pivotal role in shaping difficulties. Significant correlations were found between challenges and factors like course specialization and GPA, emphasizing the need for tailored support. However, gender did not significantly impact the challenges faced. The study underscored the importance of tailored support programs addressing specific challenges, highlighting the necessity of fostering interactive online learning environments. Recommendations included implementing targeted support programs focusing on essential skills, interactive online platforms to enhance student interactions, and tailored support for students with lower GPAs. Integrating emerging educational trends and providing continuous professional development for educators were also advised. These strategies could better prepare graduates, ensuring their success in teaching careers and their ability to adapt to the ever-changing educational landscape.
Keywords: Online LET Review, Challenges, Graduates
[1]. Bliven, A., & Jungbauer, M. (2021). The impact of student recognition of excellence to student outcome in a online LET Reviewal model. The Journal of Online LET Review, 6, e1264.
[2]. Johansson, S., et al., (2021, December 10). University credits as a measure of teachers’ pre-service and in-service training: A longitudinal approach using Swedish data. Frontiers.
[3]. Napanoy,, (2021, February 13). Difficulties Encountered by Pre-service Teachers: Basis of a Pre-service Training Program.
[4]. Patrick, S. (2021). ERIC - EJ1315095 - Transforming Learning Through Competency-Based Education, State Education Standard, 2021-May. ERIC - EJ1315095 - Transforming Learning through Competency-Based Education, State Education Standard, 2021-May. Retrieved May 18, 2023, from
[5]. Sturgis, C., & Casey, K. (2018, October). Quality Principles for Competency Based Education.

Paper Title :: Religious Wars and Their Significant Role in the Emergence of the Modern Nation-State
Author Name :: Mohammed Amezzian
Country :: Qatar
Page Number :: 355-364
This paper discusses the role of religious wars in laying the foundation for the emergence of the modern nation-state. The central hypothesis is that the modern nation-state, that governs our world today, cannot be understood in isolation from the political turmoil that Europe experienced starting from the 13th century and the religious wars that reached their peak during the 16th and 17th centuries. An examination of this tumultuous period sheds light on the significant impact it had on the unique evolution of the concept of the nation-state on both religious and political levels.At the first level, religious wars raised the awareness among European peoples of the necessity to neutralize the influence of religion to mitigate its negative effects, which had led to the fragmentation of European unity and social fabric internally, as well as ongoing interstate conflicts externally. This awareness led European countriesto enact laws and agreements recognizing religious diversity and endorsing the principle of religious tolerance.On the international level, religious wars reduced the religious authority exercised by the Church, which had imposed its Catholic doctrine on Christians. As a result, Christians began to enjoy greater freedom in practicing their beliefs within quasi-independent states. Politically, religious wars secularized the political sphere, as European states no longer derived their political legitimacy from religious authorities, such as the Church in Rome, or submission to the Holy Roman Empire. Peace agreements that followed these wars, particularly the Treaty of Westphalia, bolstered the national identities of warring states and recognized their sovereignty within their regional borders. Under these agreements, their allegiance to the Holy Roman Empire became merely nominal, and they gained greater independence in managing their domestic affairs.
Keywords: Religious Wars, Nation-State, Treaty of Westphalia, Religious Pluralism, Religious Tolerance, Sovereignty.
[1]. Peter Hamish Wilson, Heart of Europe a history of the Holy Roman Empire. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2016. p. 19.
[2]. Tolerance and intolerance in the European Reformation, ed., Ole Peter Grell and Bob Scribner, Cambridge University Press 1996, introduction, p. 1.
[3]. Ibid, p. 1.
[4]. David Mayes, Divided by Toleration: Paradoxical Effects of the 1648 Peace of Westphalia and Multi confessionalism, Journal of Religious History, 2010 Vol. 34; Iss.2, pp. 290, 296.
[5]. TREATY OF WESTPHALIA, Munster, October 24, 1648, articles: XLIX , XXVIII, LXXVII, CVII, CXXIII.

Paper Title :: The Environment for Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in Niger
Author Name :: Souley Abdou Salam Awolo
Country :: Niger
Page Number :: 365-369
Based on a review of secondary institutional data, the study seeks to analyze the environment of Niger's SMEs in all its dimensions. The analysis focused on the business environment, the economic and political environment, and the institutional framework. The challenges to be met were then examined. In terms of the business environment, the Doing-Business 2020 report shows an improvement in the business climate, with Niger gaining a number of points. From an economic, political and institutional point of view, a great deal of effort has been made, as demonstrated by the setting up of several support and facilitation structures for SMEs. Despite all these improvements, much remains to be done, especially with the recent political and institutional crisis (26/06/2023) with all its consequences. Challenges remain to be met by SMEs and the authorities alike. This study has the merit of having added to our understanding of the SME environment in Niger.
Keywords: SMEs, environment, economic, institutional level
[1]. AfDB (2011), African Economic Outlook, West Africa Region
[2]. AFDB (2022). Niger : Financial Sector Deepening and Inclusion Project
[3]. African Development Bank (2011b), Africa in fifty years. Towards inclusive growth, Tunis.
[4]. World Bank (2010). Small and medium-sized enterprises, the engine of Indian growth
[5]. World Bank (2020). Doing Business report

Paper Title :: Determination of Social-Emotional Disorders Regarding the Use of Gadgets in Children Aged 5-6 Years Old
Author Name :: MA Muazar Habibi
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 370-373
This study aims to determine the forms of gadget use and their social-emotional disorders in the children at Lenterahati Islamic Boarding School Kindergarten, West Sakra District, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The subjects involved in this descriptive qualitative analysis were 2 Kindergarten children aged 5-6 yrs old. The methods of data collectionalso involved interviews with children's parents, sample observation, and documentation. The results showed that both FH and AL subjects used gadgets almost on all occasions, with smartphones mostly utilized by the Kindergarten childrenin West Nusa Tenggara. Furthermore, the alternative used in the absence of phones was television. Based on these results, the impacts of these gadgets on children showed that their social-emotional developments were still very undeveloped. These undeveloped attributes included condition unadaptability, behavioural irresponsibility, tolerance, and appropriate emotion control. This indicated that both subjects oftenforgot to perform other activities and did not want to be disturbed when using these gadgets. Evenwhen instructed by their parents to perform specific activities, they commonly displayed angry expressions. In addition, FH and AL were undisciplined, difficult to work with, and environmentally careless.
Keywords: Gadgets, Social Disorders, Emotional Disorders
[1]. Arikunto Suharsimi. (2013). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. PT Rineka Cipta: Jakarta
[2]. Beaty Janice J. 2013. Observasi Perkembangan Anak Usia Dini. Kencana Prenadamedia Group: Jakarta
[3]. Chusna. Puji Asmahul. (2017). Pengaruh Media Gadget Pada Perkembangan Karakter Anak. Tugu Publisher. Vol. 9, No. 2
[4]. Elfandi (2018). Dampak Gadget Terhadap Perkembangan Anak Usia Dini. Jurnal ITQAN [Online], Vol.9, No.2. Diakses pada laman pada tanggal 5 Desember 2020.
[5]. Fitrah, Muh dan Luthfiyah. 2017. Metodelogi Penelitian (Penelitian Kualitatif, Tindakan Kelas dan Studi Kasus). CV Jejak: Jawa Barat

Paper Title :: Evaluation of Sexual Violence Cases in Terms of Mental Health Before and After the COVID-19 Pandemic Process
Author Name :: Dr. Şeyda Öztuna, Uzm. Dr. Cihangir Işık, Prof. Dr. Musa Dirlik
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 374-384
Sexual violence has existed in all ages since the past years and continues to exist as an unsolvable problem. Local and global factors, such as the COVID-19 pandemic process, may also cause sexual violence to continue. Although many studies on sexual violence have been conducted in the national and international literature, it appears that there is not enough focus on the evaluation of sexual violence cases in terms of mental health before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, based on the mental health perspective, it was aimed to prevent sexual violence by evaluating the restrictions of the pandemic process with the cases exposed to sexual violence. The data of individuals who were exposed to sexual violence whom applied to Aydın Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine Department of Forensic Medicine between 11.03.2019-10.03.2020 and 11.03.2020-10.03.2021 were examined retrospectively. Data regarding the gender, age, educational level of the individuals who were exposed to sexual violence between these two dates, anal and vaginal findings that may be related to sexual violence, the time it took them to apply to the polyclinic after the incident, and the degree of closeness of those who were exposed to sexual violence to the perpetrator of sexual violence were evaluated. According to the relevant literature review and review, the data collected from the research were evaluated using basic descriptive statistics with the SPSS 22.0 program. The total number of cases who applied to the outpatient clinic between 11.03.2019 and 10.03.2020 was 81, the average age was 24.65, 12 cases were male and 69 cases were female. Between 11.03.2020 and 10.03.2021, the number of applications was 46, the average age was 24.21, 8 cases were male and 38 cases were female. Vaginal findings compatible with sexual violence were found in 61 cases and anal findings in 18 cases. 44 of the women stated that they were partners with the perpetrator of sexual violence; 9 of the men stated that they did not know the perpetrator of sexual violence. The education level of 54 of the cases was determined to be high school. When evaluated one year before and one year after 11.03.2020, when the first COVID-19 case was detected in Turkey, it was determined that there was a decrease in the number of cases applied between 11.03.2020-10.03.2021 compared to 11.03.2019-10.03.2020. We think that it is important to take the mental health perspective as a basis in solving the problem. Therefore, it is thought that the current study will contribute to filling the gap in this field and guide new studies, based on the mental health perspective.
Keywords: Sexual Violence, COVID-19, Mental Health, Violence
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