Volume 05 - Issue 06

Paper Title :: Analysis of the Utilization of the Jakarta Smart Card for Marginal Families during the Covid-19 Pandemic
Author Name :: Hilda Widya Kurniasari || Fentiny Nugroho
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 01-08
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that causes disease in humans and animals. A new type of coronavirus found in humans since the extraordinary event that appeared in Wuhan City, China, in December 2019, was later named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus2 (SARS-COV2) and caused Coronavirus Disease-2019 (Covid-19). During the Covid-19 pandemic, since the announcement of the first case in Indonesia on March 3, 2020, it has certainly caused a decrease in community activities in DKI Jakarta. Large-scale social restrictions greatly affect various sectors, such as trade, services, tourism, schools and places of worship. This paper aims to analyze the use of the Jakarta Smart Card (KJP) for marginal families during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a qualitative research method with a descriptive approach by conducting interviews with 4 (four) participants involved in the KJP program. The results obtained indicate that parents of students find it helpful to meet the educational needs and other facilities in the KJP program, especially the students‟ specific needs during the Covid-19 pandemic.
Keywords: Covid-19; Economic conditions; Education;Jakarta Smart card (KJP)
[1]. R. A. Ghiffari, “Dampak Populasi dan Mobilitas Perkotaan Terhadap Penyebaran Pandemi Covid-19 di Jakarta,” Tunas Geografi, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 81, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.24114/tgeo.v9i1.18622.
[2]. D. A. D. Nasution, E. Erlina, and I. Muda, “Dampak Pandemi COVID-19 terhadap Perekonomian Indonesia,” Jurnal Benefita, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 212, Jul. 2020, doi: 10.22216/jbe.v5i2.5313.
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Paper Title :: Persian Art and Science from the Arrival of Islam to the Safavid Dynasty
Author Name :: Dragan Potoĉnik
Country :: Slovenia
Page Number :: 09-23
In the Islamic period, Persian architecture developed further, particularly regarding mosques. The techniques that were passed on from the Sasanian era began to serve the purposes of the new religion and soon mosques with a central dome and two minarets came to prominence. In the Timurid and Safavid eras, minarets and domes became narrower. The use of ceramic tiles, which are synonymous with Persian mosques, became widespread.
In Islam, immediately after architecture, the most important religious art form is calligraphy: reproducing texts from the Quran is a religious act and, over the years, Muslim artists have developed a variety of Arabic script styles which differ in their degree of fluidity. In Persia itself, several styles developed and calligraphy soon established itself as the highest form of artistic expression. In the Abbasid and Seljuq periods, books began to emerge in which calligraphy was combined with illuminations, as in the Quran, or with illustrations, as was done in some scientific and historical books. With the Quran, bookbinding flourished and reached its peak in the 15th century. The art of making books – be it calligraphy, illumination or bookbinding – represents an important chapter in the history of Persian art.
In Persian painting and pottery, the influence of China can be seen after the time of the Mongol invasion, while miniatures became even more detailed and sophisticated – the most beautiful examples were created in the Timurid and Safavid eras. Ferdowsi‟s epic, Shahnameh, was the most frequently used literary basis for miniature illustrations and is most probably the best-illustrated Persian book.
Keywords: Persian art and science, Safavid dynasty, Umayyads and Abbasids, Persian literature and architecture, calligraphy, Persian scholars.
[1]. Habibollah AYATOLLAHI, The History of Iranian Art. Teheran: Center for International Cultural Studies, 2002.
[2]. James BARR, A Line in the Sand. Britain, France and the Struggle for the Mastery of the Middle East. London: Simon & Schuster, 2011.
[3]. Amira K. BENNISON, The great Caliphs. The golden age of the Abbasid empire. London: I. B. Tauris, 2009.
[4]. Frances COPELAND, Land between: The Middle East. London, New York, Toronto: Abelard-Schuman, 1958.
[5]. Touraj DARYAEE, Sasanian Persia. The Rise and Fall of an Empire. London, New York: I. B. Tauris, 2009.

Paper Title :: Organizational Culture and Performance of Small and Medium Enterprises Financing by Commercial Banks in Kenya
Author Name :: Waithera Samuel Maina || Dr Rosemarie Wanyoike
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 24-38
The role of commercial banks in financial intermediation in growing economy cannot be underrated. Commercial banks have become aggressive and have continued to increase their footprint to increase financial inclusion in the economy by widening their network. Despite these effort commercial banks performances in financing SMEs that are considered as the engine of social economic development of Kenya still remain wanting. In the modern uncertain, volatile and dynamic business environment that is coupled by advancement in technology, there is need for commercial banks to learn how to evolve and find a niche in the competitive Small and Medium enterprise financing market. The role of organizational culture in enhancing organizational performance has received mixed reactions in literature. It is on this premise that this empirical review was conceived. The objective of the review was to establish the link between organizational culture and performance of SMEs financing in the context of commercial banks in Kenya. The study was grounded on the iceberg theory of organizational culture and the sustainable balanced score card to anchor performance of SMEs financing in Kenya. The study adopted adaptability and involvement as constructs of organizational culture.The reviewed literature revealed that an organizational culture that emphasizes on adaptability and employee involvement is able to propel an organization to high sustained performance despite operating in an uncertain and unprecedented socio-economic environment. The review concluded that a commercial bank’s strong culture can assist it in accepting and taking prudent risks, conceive new ideas that meets SMEs today’s and future financial needs. The study recommends that organizations should seek to establish a strong positive culture that fosters adaptability and involvement for it to achieve sustained organizational performance.
Keywords: performance, organizational culture, adaptability, involvement
[1]. Basheer, M. F., Saleem, M., Hameed, W. U., & Hassan, M. M. (2019). Employee voice determinants and organizational innovation: Does the role of senior manager matter? Hamdard Islamicus, 42(1), 326–342.
[2]. Boylan, S. A., & Turner, K. A. (2017). Developing Organizational Adaptability for Complex Environment. Journal of Leadership Education, 16(2), 183–198.
[3]. Caliskan, A., & Zhu, C. (2020). Organizational culture and educational innovations in Turkish higher education: Perceptions and reactions of students. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 20(1), 20–39.
[4]. Cameron, K. S., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). DIAGNOSING AND CHANGING The Competing Values Framework. 1–12.
[5]. CBK. (2020). C E N T R a L B a N K O F K E N Y a Bank Supervision Annual Report 2020.

Paper Title :: The Relation between Divorce Experience and School Drop-out Rates on Children Aged 15-18 Years in Israel
Author Name :: Rana Khaleel
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 39-49
This study investigates the direct and indirect relations between divorce, and Arab children's school dropout in Israel. The researcher used both the quantitative and qualitative approaches. For the collection of quantitative data, a questionnaire was distributed to 265 male and female Arab students aged 15-18 in Israel. As for the qualitative data, interviews were carried out with 54 participants, including students, parents, educational counselors, social workers, and psychotherapists. The questionnaire results showed that children of divorced parents drop out of school at a higher rate compared to children from intact families. Regarding the general results of interviewing 54 participants, most of them agree that family dispersion after divorce usually lead of poor academic achievement that encourages 384 students to dropout from school. They also added that children usually live in a state of anxiety, and feeling of inferiority. These feelings usually decrease their performance at school. Finally, the results stress the important relations between experiencing divorce and children's dropout.
Keywords: Divorce, Children of divorced families, children of married families, School Drop-out, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM).
[1]. Abu Saad, a. (2010).School Guidance. Al-Masirah Publishing Distribution and Printing House: Amman.
[2]. Ahrons, C. R. (2007). Introduction to the special issue on divorce and its aftermath. Family Process, 46(1), 3-6.
[3]. Al-Harahsheh, M. (2016).The phenomenon of school dropout and its impact on development and the role of the school in limiting it (Master Thesis), Hashemite University, Jordan.
[4]. Amato, P. R., and Keith, B. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin,110(1), 26-46
[5]. Annetts, J., Law, A., McNeish, W., and Mooney, G. (2009).Understanding social welfare movements. Policy Press: Lebanon.

Paper Title :: Challenges and Opportunities of Complex Thinking as an environmental Management Issue
Author Name :: Ricardo O. Russo || Adriana Figueroa
Country :: Costa Rica
Page Number :: 50-53
This essay attempts to describe the historical aspects of complex thinking (CT); with a current example of the impact that this concept has had on the subject of Environmental Management; considering that to carry out environmental management within the framework of sustainable development it is necessary not to have a reductionist and deterministic approach to the environment but should be framed in the theory of complexity. In this order of ideas, the arguments that we handle about the paradigm of complexity are rooted in the midst of adverse conditions, but with the hope of enhancing and recovering so much means lost in the weeds of a disjunctive, reducing and simplifying thought.
Keywords: Complexity, Complex thinking, Sustainability, Sustainable development.
[1]. Bertalanffy, L. von, (1972). Teoría general de sistemas: Fundamentos, desarrollo, aplicaciones. México, D.F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
[2]. Lipman, M, (1998). Pensamiento complejo y educación. Madrid: Ediciones de la Torre.
[3]. Moser, K. 2018. Rethinking the Essence of Human and Other-Than-Human Communication in the Anthropocene Epoch: A Biosemiotic Interpretation of Edgar Morin’s “Complex Thought”" Humanities 7, no. 2: 57.
[4]. Morin, E. (1996). El paradigma perdido. Ensayo de bioantropología. Barcelona: Kairós. 5ª edición en castellano.
[5]. García, R. (2006). Sistemas complejos: Conceptos, método y fundamentación epistemológica de la investigación interdisciplinaria. Madrid: Gedisa.

Paper Title :: Existing Cropping Patterns of Rajasthan:2014-15
Author Name :: Shivjeet Kaur || Gurpreet Kaur || K.S.Sohal
Country :: India
Page Number :: 54-72
The present study deals with cropping pattern of Rajasthan during 2014-15. It is observed that five crops are major ones with over 10 per cent area individually and thesecombindly cover 82.43 per cent of the total cropped area. Among them, oilseeds and guar have 19.53 per cent and 19.00 per cent area under their cultivation respectively. Third and fourthcrops are bajra with 16.53 per cent and pulses with 15.01 per cent. Whereas wheat has 12.54 per cent area under its cultivation. Other crops are spices, maize, jowar, fodder, cotton and barley, each having a share varying from 1 to 4 per cent in the cropping pattern. Rest of the crops under the heading of other crops, combindly have 2.56 per cent under their cultivation. The study has deduced that oilseeds are predominant in eastern and southern parts of Rajasthan, while guar and bajra are more significant towards west of Aravallis. Pulses are dominant in central parts,but the predominance of wheat is associated with areas of moderate to high rainfall and irrigational facilities. Whereas, the remaining crops are area specific like maize in southern parts, jowar in eastern parts, cotton in extreme northern and central parts, spices in central and western parts,etc. It is found that geo-climatic conditions and magnitude of irrigation are the main determinants in the per cent share of crops among the cropping pattern of Rajasthan. In the present study, data is obtained from secondary sources, unit of study is district, simple percentages are used and cartographic technique is applied for mapping the results.
Keywords: Cropping pattern, extent of irrigation, rainfall, cartographic, geo-climatic, rain fed.
[1]. Agricultural Statistics: 2014-15, Directorate of Economics & Statistics, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
[2]. Chouhan, T.S. (1987), “Agricultural Geography: A case Study of Rajasthan State”, Academic Publications, Jaipur, pp. 261-267.
[3]. Das, Varun Kumar (2015), “Total Factor Productivity Growth of Jowar and Bajra in India: A Comparative Analysis Using Different Methods of TFP Computation”, Agricultural Economics Research Review, pp. 293-299.
[4]. Jha,, “Edible oilseeds supply and demand scenario in India: Implications for policy”, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, pp. 1-6.
[5]. Kharkwal, S.C. (1993), “Physical Cultural Environment and Development in U.P, Himalaya”, Nutan Publications, Delhi, pp. 105-125.

Paper Title :: A History of Cattle Keeping in Mufindi before the Introduction of Iringa Dipping Scheme in 1951
Author Name :: Julius Mgaya
Country :: Tanzania
Page Number :: 73-84
This paper deals with a history ofcattle keepingamong the society of Hehe inMufindi before the introduction ofdipping schemes. The available historical records tell usthat the acquisition and keeping of cattle among the society of Hehe in pre-colonial period were influenced by the activities of wars and conquestinneighbouring societies. In addition, colonial historiography of 1930s to 1950s depicted that the presence of tick-borne diseases particularly ECF in Mufindi affected the survival of cattle and its products like meat, cheese and butter.Despite the presence of historical facts of keeping of cattleamong the society of Hehe,little isknown on how the indigenous people were capable of controlling the existence of ECF among the cattle. Therefore, it is from that background that this study intended to shed the light on the history of cattle keeping and measures employed by the indigenous people of Mufindi to cope with tick-borne diseases before the introduction of dipping schemes in 1951. This paper employed historical research design utilizing qualitative approach. Primary and secondary sources were integrated together. Archival data were generated from Tanzania National Archives, University of Dar es Salaam and Mufindi District. Oral histories were extracted from indigenous people to corroborate the archival data. Localagency theory was used to inform the study. The study revealed that before the introduction of Iringa dipping scheme in Mufindi the indigenous people developed the mechanism which assisted them to control the existence oftick-borne diseases.These local mechanismswere destroyed during the onslaught of colonialism.
Keywords: Iringa Dipping Scheme, Cattle, Mufindi, ECF, Hehe
[1]. TNA, Mbeya (Iringa and Southern Highlands Province). Book. Vol. 1: European Settlement Iringa District
[2]. TNA, Acc. No. 24, File No/71/18: Iringa Dipping Schemes.
[3]. TNA, File. No. 1733/18: Tanganyika Territory Annual Report of the Department of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, 1923.
[4]. TNA, Annual Report Tanganyika Territory, 1925.
[5]. Tanganyika Territory Report for the Year, 1937.

Paper Title :: Reflections on How the Environment and Gender are Educational Innovations: Brief Note
Author Name :: Ricardo O. Russo || Marisa D. Russo
Country :: Costa Rica
Page Number :: 85-87
The concept of sustainability in any type of process is related to the so-called environmental crisis, which many authors attribute to the social and environmental problems generated by a predatory development model of nature and cultures; in itself, this crisis is of anthropic origin; and as such is related to economic development and the development of human and social capacities; however, respect for the environment has not been parallel, and this disrespect is also the cause of the environmental crisis. This brief, reflective historical note does not address all the issues involved in sustainability applied to the processes of Educational Innovations (EI) but emphasizes only a few. It is just an introduction to the debate on sustainability and its relationship with innovative aspects of education.
[1]. Batllori Guerrero, Alicia (2008). La educación ambiental para la sustentabilidad: un reto para las universidades. Cuernavaca: UNAM, Centro Regional de Investigaciones Multidisciplinarias.
[2]. Boff, L. (2008). Essential Care: An Ethics of Human Nature. Waco, Texas: Baylor University Press.
[3]. Costanza, R.; Daly, H.E. (1992). Natural Capital and Sustainable Conservation Biology, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 37-46.
[4]. Daly, H.E. (1991). Steady-state economics: with new essays. Washington, DC: Island Press.
[5]. Gadotti, M. (2002). Pedagogía de la tierra. México: Siglo Veintiuno Editores.

Paper Title :: The Impact of Political Competition and Governance on Economic Growth and Income Distribution: Evidence for Latin American and East Asian Countries
Author Name :: José Alexandre Ferreira Filho
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 88-99
This article investigates the effects of political competition and Governance indicators on economic performance and income distribution for Latin American and East Asian countries, during the period 1996-2019.The majority of the literature considers that the establishment of stable institutions, providing better levels of security of property rights, is the key-factor to improve economic growth and reduce inequality, taking into account the creation of favorable conditions to new investments and technological developments, especially considering an environment of globalization. In this sense, these “good institutions”, or the so-called good governance, are closely related to economic growth. On the other hand, growth requires reforms, therefore, political and economic changes. In a similar logic, one can expect that a lack of political competition may lead to policies that hinder economic growth and that political competition impacts growth positively via economic reforms, but one can also consider that governments with more freedom to make decisions and less threat from opposition political parties are associated with faster economic growth. In sum, in both cases, it will be necessary an empirical analysis to help to elucidate the theoretical dilemmas. We verify, using statistical methods, the positive relevance of variables associated with good governance to economic performance and income distribution as well as significant impacts from political competition.
[1]. ACEMOGLU, D.; JOHNSON, S.; e ROBINSON, J.;. Institutions as the Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 10481. 2004.
[2]. ACEMOGLU, D., S. NAIDU, P. RESTREPO and J. ROBINSON. Democracy, Redistribution and Inequality in Handbook of Income Distribution. Vol. 2. 2014.
[3]. BARRO, R. e LEE, J. International data on Education Attainment : Updates and Implications. Working Paper n. 42. Cambridge, MA. Center for International Development, Harvard University. 2003.
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Paper Title :: L’avènement des peines alternatives au Maroc: un choix ou une nécessité?
Author Name :: Abderrachid CHAKRI || Younes KHARRAZ
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 100-109
This article aims to discuss alternative sentences in Morocco and to highlight the need to introduce new alternative measures to the Moroccan penal system. Thus, the paper aims to answer this major question: does the use of alternative sentences in Morocco remain a choice influenced by the international context or a real national necessity? A historical and critical reading of the main laws governing alternative sentences was conducted and several conclusions were drawn. In fact, with the evolution of the penal and prison world, various custodial sentences no longer seem to be effective in providing criminal justice that favors reparation for the harm suffered by the victim, compensation for the victim, protection of society, repression, the social reintegration of prisoners and the prevention of recidivism. Also, to fight against crime and promote the reintegration of detainees, it seems essential to revise the traditional penal code and introduce new alternative penalties or substitutions, not custodial of liberty. Thus, we will see that the introduction of these new alternative measures to the Moroccan penal system, turns out to be a necessity and not a choice. It is in this sense that the draft criminal code n°10.16 forming and supplementing Moroccan criminal law and the draft criminal procedure code constitute a legal basis for the latter and limit the use of prison sentences.
Keywords: Alternative measures - Alternative sentences - criminal code – crime - criminal justice - Moroccan penal system - penal and prison policy - reintegration of detainees
[1] AdalbertoCarim Antonio (2011), Les peines alternatives dans le monde, th. Université de limoges, dir. Marcel BAYLE.
[2] Beccaria Cesare (2009), Des délits et des peines, Présentation, traduction et notes de Philippe Audegean, édition bilingue, texte italien établi par Gianni Francioni, Lyon, ENS Éditions.
[3] Carbasse, Jean-Marie (2014). Histoire du droit pénal et de la justice criminelle. In: Presses Universitaires de France, pp. 13-30.
[4] Code pénal marocain du 15 septembre 2011, issu du Dahir n° 1-59-413 du 28 joumada ii 1382 (26novembre 1962) portant approbation du texte du code pénal marocain, publié au bulletin officiel n° 2640 bis du 12 moharrem 1383 (5 juin 1963).
[5] Code de procédure pénale marocain, formant la loi n° 22.10.

Paper Title :: A survey of high school teachers' perspectives on using APOS theory to develop students' problem-solving skills in the context of derivatives
Author Name :: Tran Quoc Van || Duong Huu Tong
Country :: Vietnam
Page Number :: 110-118
APOS, which Dubinsky developed, is a constructivist learning theory based on Piaget's epistemology. This theory has been adopted all over the world to teach mathematics. Students benefit from a better understanding of mathematical concepts thanks to the application of the APOS theory in mathematics education, which contributes to the overall formation and development of the student's mathematical abilities. This research was carried out to lay the groundwork for subsequent research that will apply APOS theory to instructing high school teachers on derivatives. The research was conducted with forty high school teacher participants to survey their understanding and perspectives on mathematical competencies in general, problem-solving capacity in particular, and APOS theory in teaching the topic of derivatives. According to the research findings, most teachers understood the significance of their role in assisting students in acquiring new skills and appreciate the weight of this responsibility (especially the ability to solve mathematical problems). On the other hand, the majority of the teachers who took part in this survey had only a very basic comprehension of the APOS theory.
Keywords: APOS theory, problem-solving competence, derivation, teacher perspective.
[1]. A. Maharaj, "An APOS analysis of natural science students' understanding of derivatives," South African Journal of Education, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 1-19, 2013.
[2]. A. Maharaj, "An APOS analysis of students' understanding of the concept of a limit of a function," Pythagoras, Vol. 71, pp. 41-52, 2010.
[3]. D. A. Istikomah and P. Jana, "Mathematical problem solving ability in APOS modified learning model (M-APOS)," Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 1264, pp. 1-6, 2019. DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/1254/1/012071.
[4]. G. Polya, How to Solve It, 2nd ed. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1985.
[5]. H. Salado and M. Trigueros, "Teaching eigenvalues and eigenvectors using models and APOS Theory," The Journal of Mathematical Behavior, vol. 39, pp. 100-120, 2015.

Paper Title :: Assessment of the Knowledge of Primary Teachers on the Right Methodology of Teaching English and their Motivation and Practices Adopted to Impart Reading Practices to Children
Author Name :: Dr. N. Dhanya || Annapoorna M
Country :: India
Page Number :: 119-126
The study was conducted with an aim to investigate the motivation level and knowledge of teachers in implementing the strategies to teach reading skills and English in Class 1 and 2 and to train them intensively on the fundamentals of English language and different reading approaches. Seventy five primary school teachers teaching English in 30 schools of Kanayannur and Kochi Taluk, Ernakulam were selected through purposive sampling method. Percentile analysis and paired‘t’ test were the statistical tests carried out. The difference in level of awareness after the training programme was evaluated. Only a small percentage of respondents, according to the findings, had participated in a professional development programme to advance their English language skills. All the respondents (100%) valued reading skills and 89 percent appreciated independent and practiced choral and shared reading in their classrooms. All the teachers created posters and displayed their students' work. Only 60 percent of the teachers used smart boards, computers, and role-playing activities. In the classroom, all of the respondents arranged and displayed books. They knew the advantages of reading strategies. Significant difference was found in the level of awareness in reading skills, approaches, phonology, vocabulary grammar, comprehension before and after the training programme (p= 0.000, p< 0.05 is highly significant).Fifty two percent of the respondents rated the programme as excellent whereas 30 percent rated it as outstanding. All were highly satisfied with the training programme.
Keywords: reading, reading practices, reading approaches, teacher’s motivation, independent reading, choral reading, read aloud, reading competency.
[1]. Catapano, S, Fleming, J., & Elias, M. (2009). Building an effective classroom library. Journal of Language and Literacy Education [Online], 5(1), 59-73.
[2]. Cullinan, B.E.(2000).Independent Reading and school achievement. School Library Media Research. Research Journal of the American Association of School Librarians.
[3]. Diana-Crina Marin, M. B. (2022). Strategies to Improve Children’s Interest in Reading Activities. Research Gate.
[4]. Feitelson, P.A., and Goldstein.(1986).Patterns of book ownership and reading to young children. The reading Teacher.
[5]. Layne, S.L (2015).In Defense of Read Aloud Sustaining Best Practice. Stenhouse Publishers. Portland

Paper Title :: Como Despertar o Interesse dos Alunos do Ensino Médio no Processo de Ensino e Aprendizagem nos Dias Atuais?
Author Name :: Prof. M. Sc. Antônio Vanúbio da Silva
Country :: Brasil
Page Number :: 127-129
O papel fundamental da educação no desenvolvimento das pessoas e das sociedades amplia-se ainda mais no despertar do novo milênio e aponta para a necessidade de se construir uma escola voltada para a formação de cidadãos. Vive-se numa era marcada pela competição e pela excelência, onde progressos científicos e avanços tecnológicos definem exigências novas para os jovens que ingressarão no mundo do trabalho. Tal demanda impõe uma revisão dos currículos e metodologias, que orientam no trabalho cotidianamente realizado pelos professores no processo de ensino e aprendizagem junto aos nossos educandos. (PEREIRA; GOMES, 2022)
[1]. BRASIL. Ministério da Educação. Base Nacional Comum Curricular. Brasília: MEC, 2018. Disponível em: Acesso em: 8 junho. 2022
[2]. CAMPOS, S. D.; GOMES, R. L. R. A importância da aprendizagem cooperativa como filosofia educacional. Revista Atlante: Cuadernos de Educación y Desarrollo.Vol 14, Nº 08, janeiro-março, 2022. ISSN: 1989-4155. DOI:
[3]. COSTA, C. S.; MATTOS, F. R. P. (organizadores). Tecnologia na sala de aula em relatos de professores. Curitiba: CRV, 2016.ISBN 978-85-444-1364-7.
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[5]. PEREIRA, P. P.; GOMES, R. L. R. Metodologías Activas em la Enseñanza de Idiomas Extranjeros. Revista Atlante: Cuadernos de Educación y Desarrollo.Vol 13, Nº 07, outubro-dezembro, 2022. ISSN: 1989-4155.DOI:

Paper Title :: Ethics and Inclusion: Building the Society We Want
Author Name :: Prof. M. Sc. Onete Raulino da Costa || Prof. M. Sc. Adriana Lôbo Barroso || Prof. M. Sc. Hugo Leonardo || Prof. M. Sc. José dos Santos Ferreira || Prof. Spec. Jocélia Araújo Costa || Prof. M.Sc. Rickardo Léo Ramos Gomes
Country :: Brasil
Page Number :: 130-139
This study analyzes how the process of offering education for students with disabilities occurs in municipal schools in Fortaleza. The research presents a literature review on the transformations in the teaching-learning process, as well as the situation of Special Education in Brazil and in the city of Fortaleza. The research was carried out in four municipal public schools in Fortaleza. The main objective is to draw a comparison between schools that have a Specialized Educational Assistance (AEE) room and those that do not have this service for student learning. The research was developed following a qualitative approach, with theoretical basis through a bibliographic review, developed concomitantly with a documental research of the records of activities developed in the researched schools related to the theme developed here. In the end, the research showed that the four schools surveyed value their students and try to offer conditions that favor the teaching and learning process, but there is still a long way to go in this direction. We conclude that educational inclusion requires professionals who place ethics as a fundamental presupposition for us to have a society in which education actually happens for everyone.
Keywords: Ethics. Inclusion. Municipal Public Schools. Specialized Educational Assistance.
[1]. AGRELLO, M. P. Inclusão, Meta Hoje! In: SANTOS, G. C. S.; RIBEIRO, R. R. R. P. C.; SAMPAIO, R. M. G.; PINTO, S. E. L. (Orgs.). Inclusão: saberes, reflexões e possibilidades de uma prática em construção. Fortaleza: EdUECE, 2015. p. 161-179.
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[3]. BARROSO, A. L. A Ética na Sala de Aula: Experiências Didático-Pedagógicas na Disciplina de Ensino Religioso Escolar (ERE) na Escola Municipal Lirêda Facó. In: MAGALHÃES, F. L.; RUSSO, F. J. F.; GOMES, M. L. (Orgs.). Diálogos em Ciências da Educação: inovações e mediações. Fortaleza: Imprece, 2019. p. 11-41.
[4]. BASTOS, M. de J. A Importância da Ética na Educação. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Edição 05. Ano 02, Vol. 01. pp 264-276, julho, 2017. ISSN:2448-0959. DOI: 10.32749/
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Paper Title :: From street children to street gangsters in african big cities: what future for youth?
Author Name :: D.E. Musibono || B.L. Iketsh || B.M Makamba
Country :: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 140-144
A survey of 400 street gangsters called kuluna in the DR Congo has revealed that 400 of them (100%) used to be street children locally called Chègués. Only, 360 (90%) were not educated; 33 attended the primary school (8.25%); only 7 reached the second year of the secondary school (1.75%); 362 got single mothers (90.5%) and 38 were orphans (9.5%). This figure Shows how urban insecurity is linked to poor youth education, especially from the family. Indeed, from 660 street children or chègués, 560 of them did not go to schools (84.85%) ; 80 went to primary school (12.12%) ; only 20 reached the second year of the secondary school (3.03%) ; 90% got single mothers and 66 were orphans (10%). This paper is to remind our responsibility in the society degradation. Providing good education of children is an excellent investment for the future.
It is why we all (parents, adults, government, private sector, NGO, churches, etc.) should be active partners for the youth education. It is surprising that all kuluna are former chègués. Recycling these youths should start from street children (chègués) instead of from street bandits or kuluna as it is ongoing.
Keywords: Banditry, kuluna, chègué, insecurity, gangsters, Kinshasa, Service National
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Paper Title :: Physicochemical Properties of Cypriot Wild Carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) Powder as Cocoa Powder Substitute
Author Name :: Aziz Caliskan || Norhidayah Abdullah || Noriza Ishak
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 145-154
This study used Cypriot Wild Carob Powder to serve as an alternative for cocoa powder. The study conducted various physiochemical experiments, encompassing milling yield, water activity, colour analysis and proximate analysis. We noted that the milling yield, water activity, and dietary fibre content of WCP are higher than cocoa powder. Conversely, cocoa powder had moisture content (2.1 ± 0.37), ash (3.42 ± 0.05), protein (4.66 ± 0.78), fat (not detected), carbohydrate (46.7 ± 0.87) and energy (205 Cal), that were higher than WCP (6.56 ± 0.24), (4.63 ± 0.03), (24.3 ± 0.66) & (14.5 ± 0.15), (426 Cal) respectively. Hence, it is evident that the high dietary fibre and low energy values of WCP make it a suitable substitute for cocoa powder-based products to alleviate the concern of obesity.
Keywords: Cocoa Substitute, Wild Carob, Proximate Analysis, Physical Analysis.
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