Volume 05 - Issue 04

Paper Title :: Due to the Legal Default in the Unwritten Work Agreement for Transport Drivers
Author Name :: Agustin Leni Rohi Riwu
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 01-04
Transportation is a very important and strategic means. The role of transportation, where community activities always use transportation while not all people have transportation so that public transportation is provided to support community activities.City transportation is used as one type of business in the city of Kupang because of the business of transporting people and goods. Angkot entrepreneurs provide job opportunities for job seekers who have expertise in operating vehicles, especially cars, for that employers need workers in this case drivers (drivers in Kupang terms). Before hiring drivers, of course, there must be an agreement between the two parties, if there is an agreement, there will be a working relationship between the two parties. This research has been taking place from September 2021 to December 2021 in Oebobo District and Kelapa Lima District, Kupang City. This research is classified as empirical research, the aspects that will be examined in this study include: transportation entrepreneurs and transportation drivers, sampling using the side quaota method, which is determined by 10 transportation entrepreneurs and 20 transportation drivers, so the number of samples is 30 people, the type of data used is qualitative data, the data source is primary data secondary data. Data collection techniques using observation and interviews. The research data collected were analyzed descriptively qualitatively. The results obtained: (1) With the existence of entrepreneurs, the wheels of the country's economy can run well, so entrepreneurs must be able to continue to run their business by employing workers in its implementation. This relationship is called a working relationship. This employment relationship must be in accordance with the contents of the agreement and the sound of the labor law, an employment relationship based on an employment agreement. In the implementation of this work agreement, there are two types of agreements, namely written and oral agreements. In the statutory provisions it is called a Specific Time Work Agreement (PKWT) and an Indefinite Work Agreement (PKWTT), some of the things that distinguish them are regarding duties, the rights of employers to workers and workers' rights to employers. Especially in the matter ofdefault in the work agreement between the transport entrepreneur and the driver, the agreement must use an agreement in the form of a written agreement. Because if only verbally, there will be various risks that are potentially faced by entrepreneurs and drivers, (2) When a transport entrepreneur employs a driver, there is the possibility of a dispute or difference of opinion. Regardless of the possibility of that happening or not, of course, it is better to anticipate it with a dispute resolution clause. This is so that the method and place for resolving disputes between entrepreneurs and drivers becomes clear. Settlement that has been through deliberation and does not reach an agreement, it can be determined whether the next settlement is through the Arbitration mechanism or the Industrial Relations Court
Keywords: Default, Employment Agreement, Unwritten
[1]. Abdulkadir Muhammad, Commercial Transport Law, Citra Aditya Bakti, Bandung, 1994.
[2]. Abbas Salim, Transportation Management, Rajawali Pers,Jakarta, 2008
[3]. Ahmadi Miru, Contract Law Contract Design, Rajawali Pers, Jakarta, 2010
[4]. Adi Rianto, Social and Legal Research Methodology, Granit, Jakarta,2004
[5]. H.M.N Purwosutjipto. Basic Understanding of Indonesian Commercial Law 5, Penerbit Djambatan, Jakarta, 2000.

Paper Title :: The Effect of Blended and E-learning Education on the Quality of Education at Jordanian Universities during Covid- 19
Author Name :: Dr. Qutaiba Atef T'oma Almomani
Country :: Jordan
Page Number :: 05-11
Blended learning is being applied as an alternative, allowing the creation of new training models that transcend classroom spaces and into people's lives. According to several authors, this alternative proposes a mixture of face-to-face learning experiences with online learning activities and remote technology tools, the descriptive analytical approach was relied on as it is suitable for the purposes of this study. Based on defining the characteristics of the phenomenon, a description of the nature and type of the relationship between the study variables and the reasons for the relationship, and identifying its reality in reality The Mean of learning quality from the perspective of the sample members, in terms of relative importance, is medium, where Mean was (3.294) and with a standard deviation of (0.952), and the field (development of student skills) ranked first with an arithmetic average of (3.426) and with a deviation of 0. It was standardized at (1.128), with medium relative importance, when the field of (educational achievement) came in last place, with an arithmetic mean of (3.073) and a standard deviation of (1.194), and with medium relative importance.
Keywords: Blended E-learning Education; Quality of Education; Covid- 19.
[1]. Salama, Abdel Aziz Mohammed Judeh, Al-Khamisi, Al-Sayed Saad, Saeed, & Ahmed Mohammed Nobi. (2018). Improving the level of learning satisfaction and cognitive achievement using collaborative blended learning among graduate students. The Arab Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences, 2(3), 41-56.
[2]. Muhammad Al-Ajab, Al-Ajab, Adel Mansour Al-Sitari, Ali Saleh, & Ahmed. (2020). The effect of integrating distance learning methods and the self-questioning strategy in writing learning materials on learners' motivation and skills in preparing the research plan. Journal of Specific Education Research, 2020(58), 755-792.
[3]. Shaheen, Hala Abdel Momen&Hala Abdel Momen. (2021). Blended Education and Twenty-first Century Skills - An Analytical Study. The Arab Journal of Child Information and Culture, 4(17), 173-188.
[4]. Ghoneim, Muhammad Abd al-Salam, Suleiman, &Noha Muhammad. (2021). The contribution of academic flexibility to the trend towards blended education in light of the Corona pandemic among students of the College of Education. The Arab Journal of Educational and Psychological Sciences, 5(21), 161-194.Liu, Q., Peng, W., Zhang, F., Hu, R., Li, Y., & Yan, W. (2016). The effectiveness of blended learning in health professions: systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of medical Internet research, 18(1), e4807.
[5]. Buran, A., & Evseeva, A. (2015). Prospects of blended learning implementation at technical university. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 206, 177-182.

Paper Title :: The Effect of Physical and Cultural Condition on Female Participation on Sports in Adola (Ethiopia)
Author Name :: Mr. Guta Shuguti Gutema || Prof. Rakesh Dubey
Country :: Ethiopia
Page Number :: 12-16
The study had been conducted for the purpose of finding out the “The Effect Of Physical And Cultural Condition On Female Participation On Sports Inadola (Ethiopia)” The inner most intention of this study was to investigate the factors that affect the participation of female in sport in Adola College of teachers‟ Education. The study was mainly designed to answer the following basic research questions:-
 How Physical factors are influence the participation of female students in sports?
 What is the effect of family on the participation of female students in sport?
 What possible solutions should be carried out by physical education teachers to solve the problem?
[1]. Thomas A. John. Dnugs, Athletes and physical performance in Smith Grace Carol and Raymond A .Dambroski on Reproduction Consequences of Athletic Training.
[2]. Anthony Laker (2000) Beyond the Boundaries of Physical Education:
[3]. Astrand., PO, Rhyming I., 1954. A nomogram for calculation of aerobic capacity (physical fitness) from pulse rate during submaximal work. J Appl Physiol 7:218-221.
[4]. Babkes,M. L., and Weiss, M. R.(1999). Parental influence on cognitive and affective response in children‟s competitive soccer participation. Pediatric Exercese Science,11,44-62
[5]. Baenninger, M., and Newcombe, N.(1989). The role of experience in spatial test performance: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 20, 327-344

Paper Title :: Factors That Affect Participation of Female Students in Volleyball Sport in Adola College of Teachers’ Education (Ehiopia)
Author Name :: Mr. Guta Shuguti Gutema || Prof. Rakesh Dubey
Country :: Ethiopia
Page Number :: 17-22
The main objective of this research paper was to identify factors affect the participation of female students in Volleyball sport. The populations of the study were all the female students of Adola College of Teachers’ Education. The sample was selected by simple random sampling and purposive method. The sample was selected from second year and third year female students. The total participants of the research were 300 female students, 30 college teachers and 5 administrative staff of the college. Based on the data collected the general characteristics of the respondents of the study were analyzed and interpreted. The data were analyzed and interpreted through qualitative and quantitative method. According to the study, females’ participation in Volleyball Sport is not implemented properly in the college by many factors viz. lack of facility, equipment and lack of man power and skill on volleyball sport; there was no training continuity; there was no continuous super vision and support from concerned body such as administrators; and no cooperative work with federations and the major findings of the study were shows the participation of female students was low when compared to male counterpart that cover 90%, the second was the period of menstrual cycle which hindering participation of female students in volleyball sport and cover more than 83% as well as the third one was building class for clothe changing was the best solution to enhance the female students participation in volleyball sport and cover 80%. Even if the problems were vast and huge the researcher believed that if concerned bodies such as educational office, college administrators’, parents as well as teachers and students give more emphasis and support, participation of female students in Volleyball sport can be implemented in better way and successfully in the College.
Keywords: sport, participation, factor, female students, volleyball
[1]. Thomas A . John .Dnugs, Athletes and physical performance in Smith Grace Carol and Raymond A .Dambroski on Reproduction Consequences of Athletic Training.
[2]. Anthony Laker (2000) Beyond the Boundaries of Physical Education:
[3]. Astrand., PO, Rhyming I., 1954. A nomogram for calculation of aerobic capacity (physical fitness) from pulse rate during sub maximal work. J Appl Physiol 7:218-221.
[4]. Babkes,M. L., and Weiss,M.R.(1999). Parental influence on cognitive and affective response in children‟s competitive soccer participation. Pediatric Exercese Science,11,44-62
[5]. Baenninger ,M., and Newcombe,N.(1989). The role of experience in spatial test performance: A meta-analysis. Sex Roles, 20, 327-344

Paper Title :: Learning Difficulty of Oral Skills in Regular Education in Public Schools: Primary School Versus High School
Author Name :: Profa. M. Sc. Onete Raulino da Costa
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 23-37
This study is north thematic learning difficulty, with its focus on the difficulty of the English language learning by the Portuguese speakers, and discussed the origins of the difficulties in learning this language, the main reasons cited by students and scholars as justification its relevance, emphasizing the difficulty in the seizure of oral skills. a literature review to theoretically support the research information for the last 20 years of English language teaching will be made in Brazilian public schools from Elementary School and High School, as the foreign language teaching (LE) in public schools in our country starting in the sixth year of primary education extending to the third year of high school. The study has the general objective to understand the context of the difficulty of learning a foreign language, and to identify the factors identified as elements that increase the difficulty in the public schools of Brazilian municipalities. As well, as investigate ways that can contribute to building strategies that strengthen the understanding of the importance of these skills for everyday life. The specific objectives are: to understand the LE study in the global context; describe the main difficulties in teaching a foreign language in a regular classroom, highlighting the difficulties of seizure of oral skills, specifically listening; establish strategies to reduce rejection of parts of students to study the oral forms of a foreign language. Therefore, the survey data will be held in place by means of observations in the target institutions (EM Professora Lirêda school- 6th grade A of Elementary school) and (EEFM Professor Plácido Aderaldo Castelo school -3rd year B of High school), the research tool is a questionnaire to the research subjects: teachers of English and students of these classes of schools in the study.
Keywords: English Language. Leaning Difficulty. Oral Skills. Regular Education. Public Schools.
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[5]. CORREIA, L. de M.; MARTINS, A. P. Dificuldade de Aprendizagem. 1991. Disponível em: , acesso em 18 de setembro de 2016.

Paper Title :: Structural Reform for the Development of Legislation Regulations through the Omnibus Law Method to Accelerate Investment
Author Name :: Dr. Ganda Surya Satya
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 38-45
Structural Reform in the development of the national legal system is a comprehensive concept of reform through various changes in the legal sub-system. Legal updates covering the entire legal sub-system using the Omnibus Law Method in changing laws and regulations. The policy of formal law reform at least contributes to the shift in national law reform. The focus of this legal policy study is firstly how to model the scope of regulation in the Drafting of Law No. 11/2020 on Job Creation, secondly how to legal certainty in the ease of doing business, especially in the Regions. This paper aims to analyze and contribute to the basis and reference for structural reform of legal policy in the preparation of laws and regulations through the omnibus law method. This research is a non-doctrinal approach or socio-legal research method with a qualitative method, the specifications of the research use analytical descriptive, the main data types in this research are field data and supported by library data, the data analysis method uses juridical-qualitative. The results of the research and discussion in this study are in accordance with the problems that are the focus of the research, the following things were found: First, the model and scope of regulation in Law Number 11 of 2020 concerning Job Creation is a regulation based on regulating the ease of doing business, developing an investment ecosystem and increase in job creation, Second. The process of developing legal certainty in implementation in the regions in the context of ease of doing business is a legal certainty that is delegative which is currently in the process of completing the provision of delegative legal certainty.
Keywords: Structural Reform, Delegative Legal Certainty.
[1]. Barda Nawawi, Arief, 2007, Masalah Penegakan Hukum dan Kebijakan Hukum Pidana dalamPenanggulangan Kejahatan, Kencana, Jakarta.
[2]. Adji Samekto, FX, 2008, Justice Not For All :Kritik Terhadap Hukum Modern dalam Perspektif Studi Hukum Kritis, Gents Press, Yogyakarta.
[3]. Glen S. Krutz, Hitching a Ride: Omnibus Legislating in the U.S. Congress 12 (2001); see also Sinclair, Unorthodox Lawmaking (4th ed.), supra note 27.
[4]. Mertokusumo, Sudikno, 1993, Bab-Bab TentangPenemuan Hukum, Citra Aditya Bakti: Bandung.
[5]. Rahadjo, Satjipto, Pendidikan Hukum sebagai Pendidikan Manusia,Genta Publishing.

Paper Title :: Analysis of Tax Revenue on Capital Expenditure in Kupang City
Author Name :: Aplonia Atto || Marselinda Hege || Kretisana Jagi || Joritha Naisanu
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 46-52
The coronavirus pandemic (SARS-Co-V-2) has had a major impact on the development sector. The sustainability of the development sector is supported by economic development that the government continues to strive for, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Effective regional economic development requires the empowerment of economic actors and regional economic potential, as well as paying attention to physical and social spatial planning so that there is an even distribution of economic growth supported by the availability of regional finance. Regional financial sources consist of regional income and regional financing. With limited resources, local governments must be able to allocate revenues for productive regional expenditures. So far, regional governments have used regional revenues more for operating expenses than for capital expenditures. The higher the level of capital expenditure is expected to be able to improve the quality of public services which have an impact on increasing the public's contribution to development which is reflected in the increase in PAD. The research is focused on examining the effect of taxes on capital expenditures. This research will be conducted at the Kupang City Regional Revenue Service office located on Jalan Perintis Kemerdekaan and the Kupang City Regional Revenue and Finance Office. The study was carried out from June to October 2021. To answer the goal using regression analysis. The types of data used are primary data and secondary data. Data collection techniques: Interview, Document Study. Based on the research results show that local taxes have a significant effect on capital expenditures. This means that an increase in local tax revenue will increase capital expenditure in Kupang City.
Keywords: Taxes, Capital Expenditures, Analysis
[1] Musgrave, 1993. Keuangan Negara Dalam Teori dan Praktek, edisi V.Jakarta : Erlangga
[2] Priwikasari. 2014. Pengaruh Pajak dan Retribusi Daerah Terhadap Belanja Modal Pada Dinas Pendapatan, Pengolahan Keuangan dan Aset (DPPKA) Daerrah Istimewa Yogyakarta Tahun 2009-2013. Tugas Akhir. Universitas Negeri Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta
[3] Usman Regina. 2016. Pengaruh Pajak Daerah Dan Retribusi Daerah Terhadap Pendapatan Asli Daerah (PAD) (Studi Kasus pada Pemerintah Daerah Kota Bandung periode 2011-2015)
[4] Frelistiyani, Rohman. 2010. Pengaruh dana alokasi umum terhadap pendapatan asli daerah dengan belanja modal sebagai variabel Intervening. Jurnal- Universitas Diponegoro
[5] Thomas Sumarsan. 2010.Perpajakan Indonesia: Pedoman Perpajakan yang Lengkap Berdasarkan Undang-undang Terbaru. Yogyakarta: Graha Ilmu

Paper Title :: Strategic outsourcing enables innovation and sustainable development
Author Name :: Dr. Hassan Chagar
Country :: Morocco
Page Number :: 53-70
Outsourcing has been a key lever in supporting missions and public infrastructure development strategies in Morocco. To understand those outsourcing practices and its outcomes, it was necessary to mobilize a theoretical corpus integrating several theories in particular: resources-based-view, transaction cost theory, agency theory, new public management theory, x-efficiency theory, public choice theory, and contested markets theory. This corpus was reinforced by the lessons learned from good practices and expert opinions to constitute a model which was used for the empirical study concerning the organizations of transport infrastructure in Morocco (Roads & Highways, Ports to Airports, Railways). This research allows to build a model of the development and deployment of outsourcing strategies based on partnership, innovation and sustainable development and, in fine, suggests an economic model that can support entrepreneurship, economic growth, and unemployment reduction at the national level.
Keywords: Partnership; Innovation; Sustainability; Strategic Outsourcing.
[1]. ALSBRIDGE (2013) « Innovation in Outsourcing».
[2]. Barthélemy, J. (2007) Stratégies d’externalisation. Paris : Dunod. 202 p
[3]. Baumol, W. J., Panzer J. et Willig, R. D. (1986) «Contestable Markets and the Theory of Industrial Structure», Harcourt Brace and Jovanovitch.
[4]. Buchanan, J. &Tollison, R. (1973) «Theory of Public Choice: Political application of Economics», The University of Chicago Press, p. 48.
[5]. CEGOS (2011) « Les stratégies d’externalisation des entreprises françaises », Les enquêtes de l’observatoire CEGOS, Janvier, 18 p.

Paper Title :: Zumba Training and Stress and Coping Strategies used by Women
Author Name :: Zarańska Barbara || Artur Ziółkowski || Marcin Białas
Country :: Poland
Page Number :: 71-82
In the life of a contemporary woman, physical activity plays a very important role, as it is a source of satisfaction not only of health needs, but also the need to be socially accepted, the need to succeed, have fun, and relieve stress. According to the research, in people undertaking physical activity regularly, under the influence of physical exercises, stress decreases, there is a lower increase in emotional tension and a lower level of negative emotions in stressful situations. Women undertaking systematic Zumba training declare a lower intensity of perceived stress compared to the reference group - women not undertaking physical activity at all.
Keywords: physical activity, stress, Zumba, training
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[2]. Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress and coping. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[3]. Antonovsky, A. (1995). Rozwikłanie tajemnicy zdrowia. Warszawa: Fundacja IPN.
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Paper Title :: Mapping user satisfaction while evaluating the Primary Health Care System in the City of York, United Kingdom
Author Name :: Charalampos Platis || Anastasios Lampropoulos || Maria-Elisavet Psomiadi || Constantin Chalkias || Pantelis Messaropoulos
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 83-87
Over the past few decades Primary Health Care has been progress singly regarded as health systems’ cornerstone, mainly in western societies. European countries have established primary healthcare systems that emphasize in the provision of a wide range of accessible yet quality services that nowadays are required to be offered effectively in a way that enhances patients’ satisfaction. To evaluate the Primary Health Center and user satisfaction in the York area of the United Kingdom. 154 York citizens participated in the survey through the completion of an anonymous, pre-approved, structured questionnaire formulated by closed-ended items aiming in recording their experience visiting the Primary Health Center. For the statistical analysis the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 23.0 was deployed.31 men and 123 women, aging between 25 to 44 years, participated in the survey. The overall experience from the provision of medical services is higher among the younger respondents and the elder ones, all the while 81.2% of the participants reported absolute confidence in General Practitioners and 73.4% of them acknowledged participating in the decision-making process as well. The higher the satisfaction rate emerging from visiting hours, the higher the overall satisfaction from the whole appointment process, the provision of medical services, and the lower the frequency of communication with the doctor. Despite the level of trust in health professionals being very high, the relationship between physicians and patients is increasingly becoming more impersonal, compared to the past.
Keywords: Primary Health Care, satisfaction, health service users, general practitioner.
[1] WHO. Regional Committee for Europe resolution EUR/RC55/R8 on strengthening health systems as a continuation of the WHO Regional Office for Europe’s Country Strategy “Matching services to new needs”. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe;2005.
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Paper Title :: Study on the neead develop a new mentality in the management of the school organizations
Author Name :: Elena Pirvan (Oprescu)
Country :: Romania
Page Number :: 88-95
The quality of education is an essential aspect of contemporary society and the guarantor of a successful economy. In order to achieve a quality education, an innovative management is needed to transform the school organization into an organized social framework. The management of the school organization is developed following the needs of the school organization and also those of the society. The improvement of quality management in school organizations is based on the formation of a new model of thinking and behavior, a new attitude towards work and the development of some values. The quantitative research was carried out on a sample of 350 teachers from the Dambovita County, both in urban and rural areas. The results obtained highlight the prospects for improving quality management in school organizations.
Keywords: quality, education, quality management
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