Volume 04 - Issue 11

Paper Title :: Research on the transformation and upgrading path of traditional industries in Anyang
Author Name :: Zhi Liping Lun Mengyang
Country :: China
Page Number :: 01-08
Anyang is a traditional old industrial base in Henan Province, China. The unreasonable industrial layout, insufficient innovation ability, serious pollutant emission and environmental degradation caused by production also seriously affect the development of traditional industries in Anyang City. By excavating Anyang's characteristic tourism resources and advantageous emerging industries, this paper gives countermeasures and suggestions suitable for the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries, in order to promote the economic transformation and development of Anyang.
Keywords: Anyang city; traditional industries; upgrade path
[1]. Yang min. a new chapter on the transformation of ancient capital—— interview notes on Anyang's economic development [n]. Jiangxi Daily, June 4, 2017 (3)
[2]. Li Gongle. Note on the proposal of Anyang Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China on formulating the 14th five year plan for national economic and social development of Anyang City and the long-term objectives for 2005 [n]. Anyang daily, 2021-01-14 (5)
[3]. Wang Huimin, Liu Yunli, Li Yang, Li Shan. The press conference of "magnificent 70 years for a new era" was held in Anyang [n]. Anyang daily, September 24, 2019 (6)
[4]. Zhang Xiaoyu. Economic growth and sustainable development of Anyang City -- Based on Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) [J]. Financial circles, 2020, (1): 2-3
[5]. Haiwen. Exploring a new way of profit by "three gathering mode" [EB / OL]

Author Name :: Kouamé Abou N’DRI || VANGA Adja Ferdinand || SANGARE Salif,
Country :: Côte D’ivoire
Page Number :: 09-14
Fighting against the use of children in agricultural activities has become a priority for ivoirian government in all of its development programs. Its commitment is so important that some satisfactory results have been obtained especially in the domain of cocoa culture where the phenomenon knows a decrease. But today, with the increase of new forms of cultivation like the harnessed one in the North, many children are still employed in cotton farming areas instead of being in school classrooms in a compulsory education context. Through a comprehensive approach, this study's aim is to understand farmers' thoughts of using children in agricultural activities. It has been realised with farmers as target population in the department of Korhogo to whom an interview guide was submitted. At the end of these interviews, forty (40) farmers gotten on the basis of saturation were interviewed. Besides this population, some interviews have been done with twelve (12)responsibles of agricultural and educational structures as well as some community leaders. The results of this study reveal that the perception on child as a supervisor or guide of hitching oxen, his submission and agrarian space as security and hobby are perceptions those which legitimise the use of children in agricultural activities.
Keywords: Children, employment, harnessed culture, farmer, agricultural space
[1]. Guillaume, A., Vimard, P., FASSASSI, R., & N'GUESSAN, K. (1997). La circulation des enfants en Côte d’Ivoire: Solidarité familiale, scolarisation, et redistribution de la main-d’oeuvre. Crises, ajustements et recompositions en Côte d’Ivoire: La remise en cause d'un modelé.
[2]. Jan, G. (2003). L’obligation de scolarité: le rôle des organismes débiteurs de prestations familiales, Revue des politiques sociales et familiales, 73(1),
[3]. Kouamé, A., &Schellekens, J. (2002). Développement rural et attitude à l'égard de la taille de la famille en Côte d'Ivoire, Population, 57(2),
[4]. Leblond, M. (1970). La scolarisation dans le département du Nord au XIXe siècle, Revue du Nord, 52(206)
[5]. N’dri K, A., et Yodan, K . (2016). Logiques socioéconomiques du traitement différentiel dans la scolarisation des enfants dans certains ménages de Kolia (Nord ivoirien), Le carnet Éducation & Diversité est porté par le Réseau International Éducation et Diversité (RIED)

Paper Title :: Access of Credit and Financial Performance in Small and Micro Enterprises: Evidence of Enterprise Development Funds Strategies Used in Kenya
Author Name :: Joseph Kipngeno Kemei || Dr. Fredrick Warui
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 15-20
Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) has encountered myriads of challenges especially at early establishments. This has affected the financial performance of youth SMEs and some leading to closure. Despite the effort by government in Kenya for youth enterprise development funds their success rate is still very low. To address this issues the main objective of the paper is to establish the effect of access to credit strategy on financial performance of SMEs in Kericho County. Financial intermediation theory was utilized in the study. The study utilized a descriptive survey design where information was retrieved from SMEs in Kericho County who had access to YEDF and Uwezo funds. It targeted a population of 236 comprising of 144 employees in YEDF and 92 employees in Uwezo funded SMEs where a sample of 148 respondents were selected using stratified sampling method. Questionnaires were used in as data collection tools. The study conducted descriptive statistics where mean and standard deviation were adopted. ANOVA analysis was used to examine the relationship between the variables. The finding revealed access of credit had significant influence on financial performance. Where there was flexibility in access to loans as well as low requirement in accessing finance. It also showed that group loans strategy assisted significantly the growth of SMEs. The study recommended training and exhibition of SME products to create knowledge and market respectively for proper utilization of loan accessed.
Keywords: Access to Credit, Financial Performance, Descriptive Survey Design, Small and Medium Enterprise, Kenya.
[1]. Adjei, D. (2012). Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises in Ghana: Challenges and Prospects: A case study of Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis. Ghana: Unpublished Paper.
[2]. Central Bank of Mozambique. (2013). The Banks of Mozambique. Mozambique: Annual Report. [3]. Etemesi, E. (2017). Credit Access from Commercial Banks and Growth of Small and Micro Enterprises in Nairobi Central Business District. Nairobi, Kenya: United States
International University Africa.
[4]. Jerono, S. (2017). Determinants of Financial Accessibility by Small and Medium Enterprises in Eldama Ravine Sub-County, Kenya. Nairobi: Unpublished JKUAT Report.
[5]. Kuddo, A., Robalino, D., & Weber, M. (2015). "Balancing Regulations to Promote Jobs. From Employment Contracts to Unemployment Benefits": Working Paper. Washington, DC: World Bank.

Paper Title :: Quality of Services for Visitors with Disabilities at the Museum of the Indonesian National Army Navy (TNI Al) Loca Jala Crana
Author Name :: Esalina Kwasua || Agus Subianto || Arie Ambarwati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 21-27
This study aims to describe and analyze the quality of disability services at the Indonesian Navy Navy (TNI AL) Museum "Loka Jala Crana" located in the city of Surabaya. Referring to Zethmal's conception (1990) and the Regulation of the Minister of Public Works Number 30/PRT/M/2006, there are seven aspects of service that are studied in this study, namely Accessibility, Responsiveness (responsiveness), Security (safety and comfort), Tangibles (physical evidence), Reliability (Reliability) trust, Ease and Independence. By using qualitative research methods, the results of this study indicate that the quality of service for visitors with disabilities at the Loka Jala Crana Navy Museum is going well. This can be seen from seven aspects, namely Accessibility, Responsiveness (responsiveness), Security (safety and comfort), Tangibles (physical evidence), Reliability (reliability of trust), Ease and Independence, which have been going well. Supporting factors in service are facilities and infrastructure that have been implemented optimally. The existence of these supporting facilities aims to support service activities in the Indonesian Navy Museum Loka Jala Crana. While the inhibiting factor in this service is the lack of public awareness in an effort to participate in helping people with disabilities.
The suggestion of this research is that the Loka Jala Crana Navy Museum is expected to further improve the quality of service to the community, so that the service conditions for visitors are carried out better. In addition, the Loka Jala Crana Navy Museum further enhances socialization to the public through information media facilities, both face-to-face and online (online) so that the public better understands and knows the service procession for persons with disabilities.
Keywords: Quality, Service, Public, Persons with Disabilities
[1]. Hasibuan, Malay S.P. (2005). Human Resource Management, Revised Edition. Bumi Aksara, Jakarta.
[2]. Decree of the Minister of State Apparatus Empowerment No. 63 of 2003 concerning General Guidelines for the Implementation of Public Services. Decree of the Minister for the Empowerment of State Apparatus Number Kep/26/M.PAN/2/2004 dated 24 February concerning Technical Guidelines for Transparency and Accountability in the Implementation of Public Services.
[3]. Lupiyoadi, Rambat. (2001). Service Marketing Management. Jakarta : PT. Salemba Four.
[4]. Madani, Muhlis, et al. (2016). Guidelines for Writing Research Proposals and Thesis, Makassar: Faculty of Social and Political Sciences, University of Muhammadiyah Makassar.
[5]. Moleong, J Lexy. (2004). Qualitative Research Methods. Bandung: PT Pemuda Rosdakarya.

Paper Title :: Evaluation of Noise Level in Effurun, Delta State, Nigeria
Author Name :: Ejemeyovwi Danny Ochuko || Uwerevu Eric O || Ejemeyovwi Omamuyovwi Success
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 28-38
This research focused on evaluation and effects of noise level on health and behavioral attitude of people in Effurun metropolis, Uvwie Local Government Area of Delta State Nigeria. It targeted four strategic locations namely: PTI junction, Jakpa junction, Airport road junction and Enerhen junction using GRA as control point. The sound level meter was used to collect data during the following periods; morning (7-9am), afternoon (12-2pm) and evening (5-7pm) for two weeks at designated locations. The study used tables and bar graphs in the presentation of data while mean (average) was used in the data analysis of the noise exposure level at the respective locations. The results obtained shows and that Enerhen junction has the highest noise level of 92.04 dB (A), Jakpa junction 89.08 dB (A), PTI junction 87.08 dB (A) while Airport Road junction recorded the lowest value of 77.01 db (A). All The readings from the various locations were significantly higher than the recorded 50 dB (A) at GRA control point and the recommended level of 60 dB (A) for commercial and residential areas. The noise level was found to be higher during the busy hours of the morning and evening. Furthermore, the noise level was also found to be higher at weekends mostly on Saturdays than weekly days. Sequel to the above findings, the study recommends that vigorous campaign mode should be carried out to educate the populace on the effects of noise pollution on their environment.
Keywords: Noise, pollution; sound level meter, evaluation and effects,
[1]. WHO, 2005. United Nations Road Safety Collaboration: A Handbook of Partner Profiles, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
[2]. Oyedepo, S. O. and A.A. Saadu, 2010. Assessment of Noise Level in Sundry Processing and Manufacturing Industries in Illorin Metropolis, Nigeria, Environ. Monit.Assess, 158: 155-167.
[3]. Spence, D. 2003. Pollution, Noise Pollution and Toxic Torts, Environmental Law Lectre 7, Delivered at the Law Society. Earlfort Centre Dublin.
[4]. European-Occupational Safety and Health Administration: EU.OSHA, 2003
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Paper Title :: The Impact of Health & Safety, Work Environment and Discipline on Work Performance at Maersk Kenya Ltd
Author Name :: Bernard Angwen Oriama || Dr. Rosemarie Wanyoike
Country :: Kenya
Page Number :: 39-53
Accidents happening in many companies in Kenya need to be a cause of worry to all stakeholders. It is apparent that many employers fail to put in place suitable health and safety measures in their work places so as to defend not only the employees and management, but also their customers and other stakeholders who might have some kind of interests in their organizations. Ineffective occupational health and safety policies, and lack of discipline towards safety by employees pose negative effects on the organization as well as on its workforce. Some of these include, cost of wages paid for time lost, cost of damage to material or equipment, cost of overtime work needed because of accidents, temporary stoppage of operation etc. This study therefore seeks fill the gap in knowledge by investigating the impact of health and safety, work environment and discipline on work performance, and by extension the performance of the organization. The study aims at establishing the impact of health and safety, work environment and employee discipline on work performance. This study seeks to achieve the following objectives: to determine the relationship between health and work performance, to examine the relationship between safety and work performance, to establish the relationship between work environment and work performance, to access the relationship between employee discipline and work performance, to identify the relationship between health and safety policy and work performance and to assess the level of compliance of occupational health and safety practices and work performance. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design will be used. Secondary data will be collected from the company‟s records. Primary data will be collected through structured questionnaires targeting employees working inside Container handling depots, Warehouses and top managers. The area of the study is Maersk Kenya Limited, an entity of the Global Shipping company Maersk, with its head office located in Nairobi and a branch in Mombasa. The company has a complete department of Health Safety Security and Environment. Data will be drawn from two sources: primary sources and Secondary sources. Primary sources will include data collected through questionnaires, interviews, and personal observations in the selected relevant departments. The sources of secondary data will include data from company books, magazines, files, journals, internet and website. The target population for the collection of the data for the research is the employees in various departments. The office staff, operators of loaders or equipment handling machines, Cargo inspection staff, container wash bay staff, cargo stripping staff, Tallying staff, entry gate and exit gate security personnel, Health Safety Security and Environment staff, and selected managers. The paper concludes that Safety and health is a discipline dealing with prevention of work related injuries and diseases, and the protection and promotion of healthy workers. It aims at the improvement of working conditions and environment. The paper recommends that future studies can be extended to other firms to find out the Effect of Health & Safety, Work Environment and Discipline on Work Performance. The future research can assess the level of implementation and compliance of international and national laws related to health and safety in the workplace.
[1]. Boyd,C.(2003).Human Resource Management and Occupational Health and Safety
[2]. Burke, M. J., Holman, D., & Birdi, K. (2006). A Walk on the Safe Side: The Implications of Learning Theory for Developing Effective Safety and Health Training. In G. P. Hodgkinson & J. K. Ford (Eds.), International review of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1–44). Wiley Publishing.
[3]. Cambridge Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary.(2008) 3rd , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[4]. Cascio, W.F.(1986).Managing Human Resources Productivity,Quality of Life,Profit:NewYork: McGraw-Hill
[5]. Cole,G.A.(2002).Personnel and Human Resource Management, London: Thompson Learning Bedford Row,

Paper Title :: Impact of Covid-19 on the Labor Economy: Measures to Support the Sustainability of Employment in Ecuador
Author Name :: Johnson Marcelo Folleco Chalá || Mónica Alejandra Legarda Sevilla
Country :: Ecuador
Page Number :: 54-71
This document refers to an analysis of each of the variables of the labor situation, which show a growing behavior of unemployment in all its categories; while full employment decreases, which undoubtedly generates a negative impact on the economy. This situation, as shown, has been significantly aggravated by the presence of the covid-19 pandemic.
In June 2020, the national government establishes a set of measures in order to guarantee the sustainability of employment. These are embodied in the Organic Law of Humanitarian Support, where courses of action are prescribed for economic reactivation, and the recovery of job sources lost during the pandemic and to stop the rise in unemployment and underemployment rates.
The purpose of the referential framework is to show the impact of the measures approved after three quarters of their application; this study is limited to: the historical perspective, the theoretical framework of employment, underemployment and the labor market; as well as: the labor situation and the different indicators that show the behavior of the Economically Active and Inactive Population, the work forces and the categories with subcategories of employment and unemployment; all through the technical guidelines of the Ecuadorian Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC) and the recommendations of the International Labor Organization (ILO).
Keywords: Covid-19, Employment, Labor Economy, Labor Market, Unemployment, Underemployment.
[1]. Andocilla. (21 de Mayo de 2020). Análisis del capítulo III del Proyecto de Ley de Apoyo Humanitario. Obtenido de
[2]. Anisi, D. (1988). Pleno empleo: el nucleo del estado de bienestar. Revista Vasca de Economía, 10-31.
[3]. Argentina Unida. (s.f.). Obtenido de
[4]. Banco Central del Ecuador. (31 de 12 de 2019). Banco Central del Ecuador. Obtenido de Información Económica:
[5]. Bellod, J. F. (2007). La curva de Philips y la crítica de Friedmam. Contribuciones a la Economía revista academica.

Paper Title :: No Eureka moments!: Counsellors’ perceptions of triadic therapeutic relationship with non-English speaking clients
Author Name :: Dr. Merih Bektas Fidan
Country :: England
Page Number :: 72-82
This article explores how counsellors made sense of counsellingand interpreting processes when working withnon-English speaking clients. This research is part of the author’s doctoral study which aimed to explorethe dynamics of the triadic therapeutic relationship between interpreters, counsellors, and non-English speaking clients.Research was designed as a qualitative inquiry using data triangulationwhich was executedin two ways: First, two focus groups were held with a group of interpreters and counsellors; second, three groups of in-depth interviews were held with interpreters, counsellors and non-English speaking clients.
This articlereportsthe findings of the counsellors’ data. Results show that counsellors had towork throughhighly dynamic stages, dealing with unknowns and surprises;experienced significant dilemmas;lacked in proper training and supervision.Working though interpreting and translation made them feel cut off from the dynamic processes, acknowledging that triadic therapeutic work requires extended personal and professional qualities.
They overall enjoyed their experience, finding whole processesasa big ‘learning curve’. Finally, their suggestions include better leadership in making decisions in the education and mental health fields, and better prepared and tailored courses that match the needs of the broader and more diverse trainee profiles.

Paper Title :: Comparative study on physical properties of common and high performance recycled coarse aggregate
Author Name :: Ma Yanfei
Country :: China
Page Number :: 83-88
Starting from the preparation process of reclaimed coarse aggregate, the physical properties of ordinary reclaimed coarse aggregate and high-performance reclaimed coarse aggregate, such as surface shape, gradation, density, voidage, water absorption, firmness, crushing index, mud content and so on, are compared and analyzed in this paper. Finally, the conclusions of the comparative study are given.
Keywords: Ordinary recycled coarse aggregate; High performance recycled coarse aggregate; Physical properties; The comparative study
[1]. Xiao Jianzhuang, SUN Zhenping. Research on crushing and recycling technology of waste concrete [J]. Construction technology, 2005, 36 (2):141-144.
[2]. Shima H, Tateyashiki H, Matsuhashi R, Yoshida Y. An Advanced Concrete Recycling Technology and its Applicability Assessment through Input- Output Analysis. Journal of Advanced Concrete Technology, 2005, 3(l):53-67.
[3]. Li Qiuyi, LI Yunxia, Zhu Chongji et al. Research on strengthening Technology of Recycled Concrete Aggregate [J]. Concrete, 2006(1):74-77.
[4]. Zhao Wu, FENG Zhongxu, Dong Wu. Concrete, 2006(6):59-62. (in Chinese)
[5]. Du Ting, Li Huiqiang, Wu Xianguo. Experimental study on strengthening of Recycled Concrete Aggregate [J]. New Building Materials, 2002(3):6-8.

Paper Title :: Legal Protection Against
The Guarantee (Bank) in the Agreement Bank Guarantee
Author Name :: Wawan Gunawan || Mohammad Ghufron AZ || Kadek Wiwik Indrayanti
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 89-93
The term self-guarantee warranty itself comes from the English word guarantee or guaranty which means guarantee or guarantee. In Dutch it is called borgtog. In the activity of providing banking services to customers, banks may provide bank guarantee services, as long as they do not contradict / violate the statutory regulations stipulated by Bank Indonesia regulations. The formulation of the problem of this research is how is the legal relationship between the guarantor (bank) and the guaranteed party (customer) in the bank guarantee agreement and how is the legal protection for the guarantor (bank) when there is default. The result of this research is that the legal relationship between the bank as guarantor and the guaranteed party in the bank guarantee is based on the contractual relationship in the bank guarantee issuance agreement signed by the bank as guarantor and the customer as guaranteed. Legal protection for bank guarantees due to default of the guaranteed party (applicant) is divided into preventive and repressive. Repressively, the bank that will issue a bank guarantee first examines the bona fides of the bank guarantee applicant by using the bank prudential principle and imposes a counter guarantee which functions as collateral in the provision of guarantees from the bank.
Keywords: Bank, Guarantee, Default.
[1]. Adrian Sutedi, Aspek Hukum Pengadaan Barang Dan Jasa Dan Berbagai Permasalahannya, Sinar Grafika, Jakarta, 2014
[2]. H R. Daeng Naja, Hukum Kreditdan Bank Garansi, Citra Aditya Bakti, Bandung, 2014
[3]. Hermansyah, Hukum Perbankan Nasional Indonesia, Prenada Media Group, Jakarta, 2005
[4]. Huyarsodan Ahmad Anwari, Garansi Bank, Ghalia Indonesia, Jakarta, 1980
[5]. Malayu Hasibuan, Dasar-Dasar Perbankan, Bumi Aksara, Jakarta, 2011

Paper Title :: Influence of Non-Verbal Visual Signals on Implied Prejudice towards Women with Visible Tattoos in a Sample of College Students
Author Name :: Ana Fernández || Scarlyn Caraballo || Carolina Mora
Country :: Venezuela
Page Number :: 94-105
The present research aimed to determine the influence of glasses and sunglasses, used as non-verbal visual cues, on the implicit prejudice towards women with visible tattoos. The sample consisted of 30 university students, of both sexes and aged between 20 and 30 years. We worked with a quasi-experimental design, made up of three groups (two experimental and one control), subjected to an intervention and with a post-test only. For the measurement of implicit prejudice, the Implicit Association Test was used. The data collected were processed with the Friedman statistic, the result of which indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between any of the groups. However, new lines of research are discussed and suggested in relation to the principle of Endogroup identification that could underlie the use of non-verbal visual cues as an effective strategy for the reduction of prejudice.
Keywords: implicit bias, nonverbal visual cues, glasses, tattooed women, college students.
[1]. Baron, R. & Byrne, D. (2005). Psicología social. (10ma. Ed.).Madrid: Pearson Prentice Hall.
[2]. Baumann,C., Timming, A. & Gollan, P. (2016). Taboo tattoos? A study of the gendered effects of body art on consumers' attitudes toward visibly tattooed front line staff. Journal of Retailing and ConsumerServices, 29, 31-39.
[3]. Bordignon, N. (2005). El desarrollo psicosocial de Eric Erikson. El diagrama epigenético del adulto. Revista Lasallista de Investigación, 2 (2), 50-63.
[4]. Broussard, K. & Harton, H. (2018). Tattooortaboo? Tattoo stigma and negative attitudes toward tattooed individuals. The Journal of Social Psychology, 158(5), 521-540.
[5]. Cruz, M. (2003). De lo que dicen las miradas. Comunicar: Revista Científica de Comunicación y Educación, 10 (20), 188-194.

Paper Title :: Rice Inventory in Bulog General Company East Nusa Tenggara Province
Author Name :: Lende Dangga || Steni Angelina Asonewayuga
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 106-114
This research is entitled "Rice Inventory In Public Company Bulog East Nusatenggara Province" which is the problem of this research is how the level of rice inventory at the Bulog Public Company, East Nusa Tenggara Province. The objectives used are EOQ to find out the size of an economical order per period, ROP to find out when to reorder, SS to keep from experiencing a shortage of rice supplies and MS to keep the company from experiencing excess rice inventory in the warehouse. From the results of the analysis of rice inventories carried out by researchers, with the calculation of EOQ in three years the company must place an order of 78,558 tons each time an order with an order frequency of 3 times. With the ROP calculation, the company must immediately place an order again if the stock of rice in the warehouse is only 51,484,80 tons in order to overcome the problem of late arrival of rice supplies.
Keywords: Inventory, Rice, EOQ
[1]. Alicia, 2011. Raw Material Inventory Control. http://collection-thesis. Accessed on December 14, 2012.
[2]. Bambang Riyanto, 2001, Financial Management, Publisher FE.UGM, Yogyakarta. BPS, 2015, Withering Population Growth by Province. Statistical Tables/View/id/1268.
[3]. Retrieved 22 September 2016. Bulog. 2012. Domestic and Foreign Rice. Accessed on 22 September 2016. Famee, D. A. N. 2015.
[4]. Rice Inventory Efficiency Perum BULOG Regional Division of the Special Region of Yogyakarta. Gadjah Mada University Undergraduate Program.
[5]. Fahmi Irham. 2011. Management Theory, Cases, and Solutions "Inventory MANAGEMENT" volume 1, Alfabeta Publishers, Bandung.

Paper Title :: Le Royaume-Uni et les Règles de Jeu de l’Union européenne pour un Accord « Brexit »
Author Name :: Al Hassane FATY || Dr Cheikh Abdou Khadre MBENGUE
Country :: Senegal
Page Number :: 115-134
‘‘Brexit’’ est la contraction de ‘‘British exit’’, qui peut être explicité comme une ‘‘Sortie britannique’’, et c‟est le mot utilisé pour définir la sortie du Royaume-Uni de l‟Union européenne(UE). Le premier référendum a eu lieu en juin 2016, avec 51, 9 pourcent des voix pour partir et 48,1 pourcent pour rester.
Cette fois-ci, le Royaume-Uni a voté en faveur de la sortie de l‟UE en 2016 et a officiellement quitté le bloc commercial, c‟est son partenaire commercial le plus proche et le plus important, le 31 janvier 2020.
Pour rappel, la Grande-Bretagne a évité l'adhésion à l'UE à la fin des années 1950, mais a changé d'avis au début des années 1960, pour être repoussée par le Général Charles de Gaulle, président de la République française d‟alors. L'adhésion a été acceptée au début des années 1970. La Grande-Bretagne a rejoint l'UE afin d'éviter son déclin économique.
[1]. HOWORTH, Jolyon et SCHMIDT Vivien. « Brexit : Que s‟est-il passé ? Que va-t-il se passer ? ». Publié par Politique Etrangère. 2016.
[2]. PROJET DOCUMENTAIRE. « Le Brexit : Causes et Conséquences ». INSA Toulouse. 2017/2018
[3]. European Citizen Action Service. « Conclusions sur le Brexit : Aperçu des scenarios possibles des futures relations entre le Royaume-Uni et l‟Europe et leur impact sur les citoyens ». ECAS
[4]. CAMILLE, Trigaux. « Le Brexit et ses conséquences en matière de propriété intellectuelle »
[5]. GOTTI, Brigitte. « Les relations trans-Manche à l‟heure du « Brexit flou (II). CCI ParisIle-De-France : Accélérateur croissance. 13 Juin 2019.

Paper Title :: Vinay & Darbelnet’s Translation Techniques: A Critical Approach to their Classification Model of Translation Strategies
Author Name :: Evanthia Saridaki
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 135-137
The specific study starts with a general overview of V&D’s approach and a brief analysis of the two general translation strategies, direct and oblique translation, introduced in their classification model. An in-depth study of the seven techniques suggested by them follows, which is accompanied by a short criticism of their taxonomy. Representative examples are provided of how their theory is closely related to the practice and the evaluation process of translation. The final part of the study outlines some general conclusions drawn by the particular research and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of V&D’s approach.
Keywords: translation techniques, classification model, translation evaluation, translation theory, translation practice
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[2]. J. R. Ladmiral, Traduire: Théorèmes Pour la Traduction, Paris,Payot. 1958.
[3]. J. P. Vinay &J.Darbelnet,StylistiqueComparée du Francais et de l’Anglais: Méthode de Traduction, Paris, Didier, 1958.
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