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Volume 03 - Issue 08


Paper Title :: Exploring the Aspect of Incongruity in Dave Chappelle’s Stand-up Comedy
Author Name :: Bassou Mohamed || Chakib Bnini
Country :: Morocoo
Page Number :: 01-08
This article explores the incongruity theory of humor by examining the ways in which stand-up comedian Dave Chappelle creates humorous content. It argues that the appreciation of humor in Chappelle‟s stand-up comedy presupposes the detection of some kind of incongruity. To test this hypothesis, this article examines extracts from comedy routines performed by the comedian. The purpose is to show the ubiquity of the aspect of incongruity in the type of humor produced in stand-up comedy. It argues that it is through the use of incongruity that Chappelle manages to unmask racial imbalance and political injustice. In other words, it is by posing black and white cultures side by side that he manages to criticize the detrimental contradictions embedded in some aspects of American culture.
Keywords: Humor, Dave Chappelle, incongruity Theory, Stand-up comedy.
[1]. Badron, Adrian. “The Philosophy of Humor,” Comedy: A Geographic and Historical Guide, ed. by Maurice Charney. Connecticut: Greenwood Pres. 2005. PDF.
[2]. „Comedians Talking about Dave Chappelle,‟ YouTube, www.youtube.com/results?search_query=comedians+on+dave+chappelle (Accessed January, 2020)
[3]. Canestrari, Carla, and Ivana Bianchi. “Perception of Contrariety in Jokes.” Discourse Processes, 49.7. Web. (2012) : 539-564. Feb. 2020.
[4]. Celebrating Dave Chappelle (Mark Twain Prize for American Humor). Directed by Chris Robinson, Volcan Productions, 2020. Netflix, www.netflix.com/title/81214015?s=a&trkid=13747225&t=wha.(Accessed January, 2020)
[5]. „Dave Chappelle on walking away from a hit TV show‟, Martin B News, YouTube, www.youtube.com/watch?v=rXnaNljenG8. (Accessed December, 2019)

Paper Title :: Group Counseling with Relaxation Techniques for Reducing Anxiety Facing School Assignments in Junior High School School Students
Author Name :: Marina Yollanda || Faridah Ainur Rohmah
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 09-18
Adolescence is a transitional period where there are changes in itself, also known as puberty, which is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood. The changes experienced by adolescents will make adolescents get new roles and be tied to new activities, this can cause anxiety in adolescents. The purpose of this study is to reduce the level of student anxiety about schoolwork through group counseling with relaxation techniques. This study used an experimental research design with a one-group pretest-posttest design model.The data collection instruments used the interview method, observation, focus group discussion and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) measurement tool.The intervention was carried out in four sessions, namely the explanation of the conclusions of the results of the focus group discussion and the implementation of group counseling, anxiety psychoeducation, relaxation exercises, and evaluation.Participants in this study were students of class VII in Junior High School X Yogyakarta.The results showed that there was a significant change in the anxiety experienced by participants before and after following the intervention group process with a significance value of p = 0.028 (p<0.05) using the Wilcoxon test. Anxiety about the number of school assignments was reduced, participants became more comfortable, calm, and more optimistic in facing school assignments. The comfort obtained during breathing relaxation and muscle relaxation is also considered to be a daily need for participants if the body feels restless and tense.
Keywords: anxiety, group counseling, junior high school, relaxtation, school assignments, students
[1]. S.N. Adriani, M. Satiadarma. “Efektivitas Art Therapy dalam Mengurangi Kecemasan Pada Remaja Pasien Leukemia,” Indonesian Journal of Cancer, 5 (1), pp. 31-47, 2011.
[2]. H. Agustiani, Psikologi Perkembangan : Pendekatan Ekologi Kaitannya dengan Konsep Diri dan Penyesuaian Diri pada Remaja,Refika Aditama, Bandung, 2009.
[3]. M.A. Aminullah. “Kecemasan Antara Siswa SMP dan Santri Pondok Pesantren,” Jurnal Ilmiah Psikologi Terapan, 1 (2), pp. 205-215, 2013.
[4]. N. Arizona, Z. Nurlela, Jannati. “Efektivitas Konseling Kelompok Teknik Relaksasi untuk Mereduksi Kecemasan Siswa Menghadapi Ujian di SMP PGRI 1 Palembang,” Bikotetik (Bimbingan dan Konseling: Teori dan Praktik), 2 (2), pp. 125-130, 2019.
[5]. E.S. Astuti, Resminingsih, Bahan Dasar untuk Pelayanan Konseling pada Satuan Pendidikan Menengah Jilid I, Grasindo, Jakarta, 2010.

Paper Title :: Sugestões Educacionais E Combate À Desinformação Durante O Périodo Da Pandemia Covid-19
Author Name :: Prof. M. Sc. Rickardo Léo Ramos Gomes || Prof. Spec. Ivan De Oliveira Holanda Filho || Prof. Spec. Ernandes Farias Da Costa
Country :: Brasil
Page Number :: 19-29
This article presents educational recommendations for facing the pandemic and disinformation during social isolation. It aims to contribute to the formulation of adaptive, consistent, effective and equitable educational responses in order to mitigate the effects of the necessary social isolation during the pandemic and to discuss the infodemia that is made available in the news and social networks, alerting to the need to promote the appropriate clarification regarding the information disclosed about COVID - 19. The specific objectives are as follows: Demonstrate the importance of public policies in combating the pandemic; Propose ways of sharing knowledge to reach students, at the most varied levels, during the health crisis; Discuss the importance of fighting disinfodemia. To meet the proposed objectives, a documentary investigation was used, which consisted of access to databases updated by institutions such as, for example, the International Fact-Checking Network (IFCN) of the Poynter Institute, International Press Institute (IPI) and First Draft News, in addition to other access to media sites, national governments, intergovernmental organizations, study centers and academic publications. At the end of the article, it is argued that the involvement of the whole society for the conscious adoption of precautionary measures against Covid-19 requires a change in individual and collective behavior at that moment, in an immediate and rigorous manner. Brazil must take advantage of the end of the COVID-19 pandemic to become a more careful and humane country.
Keywords: Educational recommendations. Disinfodemia. Knowledge sharing.
[1]. ALLYN, Bobby.Fauci Estimates that 100,000 to 200,000 Americans Could Die from the Coronavirus. Washington: NPR 24 Hour Program Stream on Air Now, 2020. Disponívelem:https://www.npr.org/sections/coronavirus-live-updates/2020/03/29/823517467/fauci-estimates-that-100-000-to-200-000-americans-could-die-from-the-coronavirus. Acessoem: 29/03/2020.
[2]. AMA. COVID-19 coding and guidance. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2020.
[3]. BATISTA, Henrique Gomes. Isolamento social pode ter poupado 118 mil vidas em maio no Brasil, aponta estudo.São Paulo: GLOBO, 2020.
[4]. CABROL, M.; BAEZA-YATES, R.; GONZÁLEZ ALARCÓN, N.; POMBO, C. Is Data Privacy the Price We Must Pay to Survive a Pandemic? 2020. Inter-AmericanDevelopment Bank. https://doi.org/10.18235/0002292
[5]. DANTAS,Carolina. Coronavírus, Covid-19, Sars-Cov-2 e mais: veja a explicação para 16 termos usados na pandemia.São Paulo: G1, 2020. Disponível em https://g1.globo.com/bemestar/coronavirus/noticia/2020/03/24/coronavirus-covid-19-sars-cov-2-e-mais-veja-a-explicacao-para-16-termos-usados-na-pandemia.ghtml. Acessoem: 03/2020.

Paper Title :: Education under Colonial Rule: A History of Matengo Highlands Education under the Benedictine Mission Schools 1899 to 1961
Author Name :: Osmund Mandiluli Kapinga
Country :: Tanzania
Page Number :: 30-40
This paper provides an in-depth examination of the history of education in Tanzania under German and British colonial rule. It is placing in its broader social and political context.The paper focuses on one of the most unique education systems in the Matengo Highlands by then, Songea District in South Western Tanganyika. Education provided by Benedictine missionaries through their philosophy of ora et labora and kusoma Christianity which combined prayer and work managed to produce efficient and competent manpower for colonial enterprises. Using a qualitative approach, data were accessed from government archives (Tanzania National Archives), Peramiho Abbey Archives, Mwanza Zonal Archives, and Parish records. Moreover, the oral interview method explored the major factors and government policies that shaped the character of Matengo Highlands under the Benedictine missionaries and colonial education in general. The paper revealed that missionaries and colonial state cooperated in implementing these policies. It also revealed the African reactions to the educational system. Details concerning the kinds of subjects that were taught and the characteristics of the student body are also included. The findings are relevant to scholars of African history and education in Tanzania and Africa at large. This paper provides new insights into the sociopolitical dynamics surrounding colonialism and the educational system that ultimately supported it. This historical study provides a link to education for sustainable development in the current debates. The paper concludes that, as an ideology of a colonial superstructure, mission education in the Matengo Highlands carried over colonial functions knowingly or unknowingly. Recipients of missionary education in the Matengo Highlands served the colonial enterprises when cultivation of coffee was introduced in the highlands; taught in different schools; worked in health services, civil service, cooperatives, and as extension officers.
Keywords: Colonial Rule, Matengo Highlands, Colonial Education, Benedictine Mission
[1]. M.O.Kapinga, (1993), Capitalism and the Disintegration of Precapitalist Social Formation: the Case of Cash Crop Production in the Matengo Highlands, 1885-1960,MA Dissertation UDSM. 1993:69
[2]. Department of History, University of Dar-es-Salaam Annual Reports –DOA – about the Development of German East Africa 1901/02, cf. Tanzania National Archives (TNA) Secretariat File AB.56 1733/7/61, 1926
[3]. John Iliffe, A Modern History of Tanganyika, Cambridge University Press, London ,1979:117, cf. Egno Ndunguru, Historia, Mila na Desturi za Wamatengo, East Africa Literature Bureau, Dar, 1972:1
[4]. Iliffe, op.cit. 1979:117,
[5]. Jahresbericht urber die Entwicklung Von Deutch Ostafrika, 1901/02

Paper Title :: Colonial Economy Adversely Impacted on Zambian and Indian Women
Author Name :: Dr.Kamini Krishna || Dr. Dorothy Mwansa
Country :: Zambia
Page Number :: 41-46
Industrialization in Europe, particularly in England, led to the colonization of countries such as Zambia and India. These two countries are in two different continents but had a common colonizers the British. Before the arrival of the British rulers both countries were flourishing in trade and agriculture, in their own pace. This meant that the two countries had a stable economic development. Because, England needed market for its manufactured goods, it had to target the countries that had what it needed in terms of natural resources, raw materials especially cotton and labour power. This was tactfully summed up into „trade‟ when in actual fact it was a way of colonizing the areas. In the long run this led to the freezing of cloth industry and agriculture sector in India. They even captured land to control the agriculture system in Zambia and outraged the staple food by introducing the cash crop entity. It is however, sad to note that economically the most affected population in both countries were the „women‟. Before the coming of the British in both India and Zambia, women played a notable role in the growth of the economy in their societies. This article sets out to bring out the economic status of women in colonial times in India and Zambia. A pre-colonial scenario is essential in order to know the whether or not the coming of the British had any effect on the economic status of women in the above countries.
Keywords: Pre-colonial, industrialization, cash crop, land alienation, settler economy, indigo
[1]. Afrikan eye, The Effect of Colonialism on African Women, (Nairobi: African eye, 2006), http://afrikaneye.blogspot.com
[2]. Hammerton, J. (ed) „Emancipation of woman‟ Practical Knowledge For All. vol. 3 pp. 113-114.
[3]. Kelly, M.J. The origins Development of Education in Zambia: From pre-colonial times to 1996 .Lusaka: Image Publishers, 1999.
[4]. Majumdar, R.C. Raychaudhuri, H.C. and Datta, K., An Advanced History of India London: Macmillan, 1967.
[5]. Owen, R. and Sutcliffe, B. Studies in the theory of Imperialism. London: Longman, 1972.

Paper Title :: Leadership Styles and the Challenges of Managing Human and Material Resources in Teacher Preparation Institutions in Nigeria
Author Name :: Lawal, M. Babatunde || Rukaiya Gaji Galtimari
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 47-54
This paper presents an exposé on leadership and leadership styles, the different categories and types of human and material resources that need skillful management in our teacher preparation institutions in Nigeria, and the effect of leadership styles on the management of these resources. It succinctly identified some of the challenges that can constrain leadership while faithfully trying to drive the vision and mission of the institution for productivity. As a way out, strategies and mechanisms for coping with these challenges were discussed. From the presentation, it was concluded that for a progressive and conducive academic environment to evolve, the leadership therein demands styles that promote intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and discipline.
Keywords: Leadership, Leadership Styles, Quality, Teacher Preparation, Challenges, Human and Material Resources Management, Nigeria.
[1]. Chemers M. (1997) An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers.
[2]. Clack, Don. (2014). Leadership Styles. www.nwlink.com Retrieved 7th September 2014.
[3]. Daugherty, R. A. & Williams, S. E (2014). Developing Effective Leaders www.fcs.oakstate.edu Retrieved 13th September 2014
[4]. Goleman, D.(2002). The Six Leadership Styles for Effective Team Performance www.educational-business-articles.com Retrieved 7th September 2014 http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/leadership.html#ixzz3CqI9yrvt
[5]. Kouzes, J. M. & Posner, B. Z. (2010). The leadership challenges workshop. Value Cards. www.amazon.co.uk Retrieved 7th September 2014

Paper Title :: Regional Self-Government and Regional Governance in Greece and the EU: Developments, Concerns and Recommendations
Author Name :: Dimitrios V. Skiadas || Eleftheria – Paraskevi Ftaklaki
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 55-66
The development and evolution of the Multilevel Governance System of the EU is one of the most crucial elements of the current policy agenda in Europe, as the need for a more effective model has become obvious, and one of the most significant aspect of the relevant debate refers to a more active participation of the EU regions in formulating and implementing EU policies. By definition, this debate concerns also the Greek Regions, both in terms of verifying their current status as well as of seeking new relevant public policy options. Taking into account the various legislative initiatives on revising the existing local government schemes in Greece, putting forward proposals on establishing a new model of Regional Governance, based on scientific analysis and international experience, provides the relevant debate with a significant added value element. The various institutional, legal, political and budgetary characteristics of the Regions (as operating administrative entities) are being examined, taking into account the principle of subsidiarity, and using, as comparable elements, Regions from a similar, yet distinct, model, such as Spain. The main objective is to provide scope for discussion on the real transition from the existing schemes of local self-government to schemes of Regional Governance, which will provide the Regions with the capacity not to merely implement public policies formulated at central level, but to produce their own public policy options, at national and European level.
Keywords: Regional Governance, Local Government, Greece, Spain, European Union
[1]. V. Andronopoulos & M. Mathioudakis, (1988/1992), New Greek Administrative History – Regional Administration/Local Self-Government.
[2]. Association of Greek Regions, (2013), New system for the distribution of Central Independent Resources, in the Regions, Athens
[3]. Association of Greek Regions, (2015), Proposal of the Association of Greek Regions for transferring competences from the Decentralized Administrations to the Regions, Athens
[4]. Association of Greek Regions (2018), Legislative Proposal "Redesigning Local Government of 2nd degree - Transfer from Regional and Decentralized Administration to Regional Governance", Athens
[5]. Association of Greek Regions, Central Association of Municipalities of Greece, (2018), The role of self government in the political and administrative system and its contribution in the country's developmental reconstruction, Joint proposal of common position by the Association of Greek Regions and the Central Association of Municipalities of Greece in the Conference of the Association of Greek Regions and the Central Association of Municipalities of Greece on 18-19.04.2018 in Athens.

Paper Title :: Evaluating Sustainable Livelihood based in Food Security and Resilience of Rural communities in Los Rios, Ecuador
Author Name :: David Gortaire Díaz || Elma Ramírez Romero || Joselyn Izquierdo Trejo || Olga Contreras Balarezo
Country :: Ecuador
Page Number :: 67-77
A growing interest emerges concerning food security and resilience due to climate risk and small-scale farmer vulnerabilities. This article explores the farmers’ consumption patterns in Los Rios rural communities and its dependence on local production in the agricultural sector to evaluate the livelihood and welfare that farmers and their families could access. It was developed and test a model, which emphasizes the relationship between socio-economic and production variables. A survey was carried using a simple probabilistic sample. The study was designed to collect information about: i) socio-economic and demographic characteristics, ii) production indicators, and iii) food, diet, and welfare. Data was collected from a sample of 133 small-scale farmers in the province of Los Rios. The data was analyzed using i) descriptive statistics, ii) amoeba analysis, and iii) principal components analysis (PCA). The PCA model was obtained using R Studio. The study confirms that farmers mostly consumed what they produced; however, they cannot access several products because they dedicate most of their lands to conventional short-cycle crops destined for sale. Minor farmers present agroecology efforts as small-farms and family gardens.
According to a daily diet, the amoeba graph shows adequate food nutrition and welfare indicators, where farmers present some risk in consumption patterns. Finally, PCA explores the relationship between different variables. Income, education, and hectares produced are essential for covering the farmers’ needs and food access. Due to higher production being destined to sell and not to consumption, food security and resilience could be at risk in small-scale farmers’ communities. Farmers are vulnerable to price changes and technological access, that stop their product development. We recommend promoting family farming through agroecology, to improve the welfare and food security for small-scale producers and their families
Keywords: Food Security; Rural Livelihood; Food Diversity; Local Production.
[1] Misso, R., (2012). I sentieridellasostenibilitàterritoriale. In: Sostenibilitàdellosviluppo e dimensione territoriale-Ilruolodeisistemiregionali a vocazionerurale (Z. Andreopoulou, G.P. Cesaretti and Misso R. eds), FrancoAngeli, Milano, pg. 37-58.
[2] Romero, L. (2019, febrero 05). GACETA UNAM. Retrieved febrero 02, 2020, from https://www.gaceta.unam.mx/la-produccion-de-alimentos-el-mayor-desafio-en-el-mundo/
[3] Astudillo, M. J. (2017, marzo 23). Universidad Técnica del Norte. Retrieved abril 02, 2020, from https://www.utn.edu.ec/ficaya/carreras/agropecuaria/?p=1091
[4] Banco Central Del Ecuador. ( 2018). REPORTE DE COYUNTURA SECTOR AGROPECUARIO. Ecuador: Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, MAG. Retrieved abril 02, 2020, from https://contenido.bce.fin.ec/documentos/PublicacionesNotas/Catalogo/Encuestas/Coyuntura/Integradas/etc201802.pdf
[5] ESPAC. (2017). Encuesta de Superficie y Producción Agropecuaria Continua.

Paper Title :: Aerial Biomass and Carbon Stock Study in Plot Trees in the Boyera District in the City of Mbandaka, Equateur Province in DR-Congo
Author Name :: Kidikwadi T || Azangidi M || Ntalankwa M || Balianga B || Kolokota B
Country :: Republic of Congo
Page Number :: 78-86
This note consisted in estimating the above-ground biomass and the carbon stock contained in plot trees in Quartier Boyera in the city of Mbandaka, Equateur Province in DR-Congo. The general objective of this study was to inventory the plot trees in order to assess the above-ground phytomass and the sequestered carbon stock. We used the method of observation (description, analysis and inventory) supported by allometric measurements. A one-hectare experimental set-up made it possible to identify all trees with a diameter ≥ 10 cm DBH. The data thus obtained was subjected to statistical processing. The main results obtained for the whole flower are 10 species belonging to 8 families of which the Anacardiaceae predominate. A density of 150 trees per hectare; the basal area measurements amount to 21.77 ± 0.07m2 / ha; an aerial phytomass of 46.02 ± 0.35 t .ha-1 equivalent to 21.63 ± 0.17 t .ha-1 of sequestered atmospheric carbon and 72.83 ± 0.56 t .ha-1 equivalent carbon. Mangifera indica prime or 47 trees, a basal area of 8.41 ± 0.07m2 / ha; 24.69 ± 0.52 t .ha-1 of above-ground biomass; and the calculated mass of organic carbon 11.60 ± 0.25 t .ha-1. For the rest of the species the results are poor. Thus, the Boyera District constitutes a relatively important site for sequestering atmospheric carbon, contributing to the fight against climate change. It turns out that this type of urban ecosystem really makes an obvious environmental service.
Keywords: aerial phytomass, carbon, trees, plots, Boyera district, Mbandaka, DR-Congo
[1]. Belesi, K.H., (2009) Floristic, phytogeographic and phytosociological study of the vegetation of Bas-Kasai in DRC. UNIKIN doctoral thesis, 345p. + Annexes
[2]. Boyemba, F. B., (2011) Ecology of Pericopsis elata (Harms) Van Meeuwen (Fabaceae), tree of African tropical forest with aggregate distribution. Doctoral thesis, Faculties of Agronomic Sciences. University of Kisangani 206 p.
[3]. Burgun A, (2012) Descriptive Statistics, Medical Informatics Lab, University of Rennes. 45p
[4]. Chave, J. C. Andalo, S. Brown, M. A. Cairns. J.Q. Chambers, D. Eamus, H. Fôlster, F. Fromard, N. Higuchi, T. Kira, J.P. Lescure, B.W. Nelson, H. Ogawa, H. Puig, B. Rièra, and T. Yamakura, (2005) Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia 145: 87-99 P.
[5]. IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2007a). Summary for policymakers. In: Climate change 2007: The scientific elements. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, USA. 25p.

Paper Title :: The Rise of Digital Financial Services and Preference for Cash Transactions
A Bivariate Probit Analysis using Evidence from Zambia
Author Name :: John Musantu
Country :: UK
Page Number :: 87-95
The recent Covid-19 pandemic that the global economy is faced with has made a strong case forfinancial system‟s need of more inclusive and innovative digital financial services, especially in Africa. There is need for economies to substantially switch from cash-based processes to digital services. However, for this switch towards digital financial services to be realised, wider consumer acceptability is a prerequisite. In many African financial systems, use of digital financial systems has been growing but at a slower pace,especially, relative to Kenya which has been leading the global economyin this front. In our work, we investigate the drivers of consumer preference for cash and lack of trust in digital financial services. We employ a bivariate probit model as the unobserved terms of the two variables were established to be positively correlated. Our research concludes by offering project recommendations for financial inclusion stakeholders.
Keywords: Cash transaction preference, financial inclusion, bivariate probit, digital financial services
[1]. Allison, P. (2012). “When Can You Safely Ignore Multicollinearity?” Statistical Horizons. September 10, 2012. Available at http://statisticalhorizons.com/multicollinearity
[2]. Ardizzi, G., Iachini, E. 2013. Questioni di Economia e Finanza Number 144, Publishing
[3]. Division of the Bank of Italy, January, 1-49.
[4]. Goczek, Ł., Witkowski, B. 2015. Determinants of card payments. Applied Economics, 48(16), 1-14.
[5]. Greene W., 2012, Econometric Analysis.7th ed., Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pretice Hall

Paper Title :: Indian Communities Experiences and Challenges in Zambia: Before and After Independence
Author Name :: Kamini Krishna || Dr. Dorothy Mwansa
Country :: Zambia
Page Number :: 96-105
The versatile Indian community from various parts of the sub-continent settled in Zambia before and after its independence. It constitutes about 0.1 per cent of Zambia‟s total population. Zambia, a landlocked country, harboured the Indian diaspora that comprised of Hindus and Muslims (initially from the state of Gujarat) who stepped onto this land as early as 1904. The indigenous population of the Indian migrated via Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa and other coastal counties seeking livelihoods as small scale traders, artisans and clerks. The exodus from India continued even after the independence of Zambia, due to numerous reasons. These „aliens‟ occasionally faced hostility both from the European traders and indigenous Zambians because the former disliked the fierce competition that imparted on the trading game and the latter viewed them as plunderers, only next to the colonizers. The British rulers separated all communities by creating segregated communal zones. The implementation of such a system inadvertently left a deep void in the understanding of the Zambian social and cultural practices by the Indian settlers, thus further destroying any hope of their integration into the fabric of the Zambian society. The newly formed Zambian government implemented regulations such as prescribed business items specifically for the Indian traders to safe guard certain economic activities for the local people. This hindered the customary business of the Indians but they managed to divert their economic activities accordingly and proved to be successful by doing so. From the earliest historical records it can be inferred that the Indians actively participated in the political arena while expanding on their economic activities and thus, gradually began their closer interaction with local people. The paper highlights the history of the Indian migration into Zambia and examines the contributions, experiences and the challenges they faced in the political, social and economic realm in colonial and post-colonial Zambia. The article also includes the latest statistics on Indian men and women‟s involvement in epitomizing Zambia as a role model for other nations in sub-Saharan Africa.
Keywords: colonial, post-colonial, regulations, artisans, and exodus
[1]. N. Prithvish, Basis of Zambian Settlements, Africa Quarterly, 17,1 (1977),pp. 59-75.
[2]. L.M.Singhavi, Other Countries of Africa, Report of the High Level Committee on the Indian Diaspora, New Delhi (2000) Ministry of External Affairs, pp. 99-109.
[3]. B.J.Phiri, A History of Indians in Eastern Province of Zambia, High Quality Printers, 2000, p.4.
[4]. Worldsavvy.org/monitor/index.php?option=com_context&view=articleid=430&itemid=810 p.2.
[5]. K. K. Virmani, The Dawn of Freedom, New Delhi: Kalinga Publication, 1988, p.14

Paper Title :: Perceived Influence of Reinforcement on Students’ Academic Performance in Motor-Vehicle Mechanic in Technical Colleges in Rivers State
Author Name :: Igwilo, Quintus || Prof. Okwelle, P.C. || Deebom, M.T/td>
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 106-112
The study examined the perceived influence of reinforcement on academic performance of Motor-Vehicle-Mechanic students in Technical Colleges in Rivers State. Two research questions were answered with two null hypotheses that were formulated. The population of the study was 124 Motor Vehicle Mechanic personnel comprising of 19 teachers and 105 students from four technical colleges in Rivers State. There was no sampling due to small population size. The instrument for the data collection was a self-structured questionnaire designed after the pattern of Likert-5 point rating scale. The instrument was face and content validated by two experts from the Department of Vocational and Technology Education and one in Measurement and Evaluation in Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt. A reliability coefficient of 0.82 was established for the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient. Research questions were answered with Mean and Standard Deviation while hypotheses were tested using z-test at 0.05 significant level. The study found that verbal rewards such as praises, commendable appreciation, affirmation of students’ performance, and teachers’ words of encouragement among others are verbal reinforcers that affects students’ academic performance in Motor Vehicle Mechanic in Government Technical Colleges in Rivers State. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that teachers of Motor Vehicle Mechanic in Government Technical College should adopt verbal rewards such as clapping of hands, praises as reinforcers since it has a positive effect in improving students’ academic performance in Motor Vehicle Mechanic in Government Technical Colleges.
Keywords: Reinforcement, Students’ Academic Performance, Motor Vehicle Mechanic and Technical Colleges
[1]. Akinade, E. A. (2012). Modern Behaviour Modification Principles and Practices. Ibadan: Brightways publishers.
[2]. Amuma, C. & Idoli, N. B. (2013). Effects of Material and Non-material Reinforcers on Academic Performance of Girls on Health Science in the Senior Secondary Schools in Abia State. Global Journal of Science Research, 12(2); 1 – 8.
[3]. Audu, R. & Intia, M. M. (2014). Training Needs of Motor-Vehicle-Mechanic Teachers at Technical Colleges Level. Journal of Education and Training 6(1); 14 - 26.
[4]. Buseri, A. R. (2017). Achievement Motivation, Emotional Intelligence and Learning Styles as Predictors of Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Rivers State. An Unpublished Ph.D Thesis Department of Educational Psychology/Guidance and Counselling, University of Port Harcourt.
[5]. Doyin, O. O. (2014). Strategies for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Motor Vehicle Mechanic Trade in Some Selected Technical Colleges in Osun State. Unpublished B.Ed (Tech) Project. Kaduna Polytechnic, Kaduna.