Volume 03 - Issue 11

Paper Title :: State, Government and Society: Reflection from the Weberian, Mercantilist and Statehood Theories
Author Name :: Johnson Marcelo Folleco Chalá || Mónica Alejandra Legarda Sevilla
Country :: Ecuador
Page Number :: 01-15
The purpose of this document is to establish the fundaments of the State, its bases through economic, social and political study, with the purpose of deducing the parameters that underpin the State and government structures; and that structure the basis for the conformation of modern states, which potentiate the vision of a better administration; compacted posture from the academy, based on responding adequately to social demands. In addition, the change of the social construct is analyzed from the conformation of the great empires, the formation of the feudal states, the conformation and consolidation of the modern states, the emergence of the national states and the concepts of nation to the approach of the States of well-being in open societies, which arose from absolutist structures to current democracies and, the challenges they face with globalization. It also analyzes the crisis of governance and governability in the administration of the State, which emerge from the ignorance of contextual and structural realities to encourage the approach of new state policies; to rethink the existing ones duly supported in the context of cyclical realities through a comparative model from the focal diversity of theories and treaties that allow establishing a diagnosis that puts into practice new processes that contribute to the success of new challenges.
Keywords: State, Government, Capitalism, Mercantilist, Statehood.
[1]. Auguste-Louis, & Loiseleur, A. (1833). Recuperado el '4 de 07 de 2019
[2]. Cárdenas, R. M. (2008). El Libre Mercado o un Mercado Libre. Contribuciones a la Economia.
[3]. Carlos H. Acuña. (2007). Lecturas sobre el Estado y las Políticas Públicas. Buenos Aires: Proyecto de Modernización del Estado.
[4]. Evans, P. (marzo de 1996). El Estado como problema y como solución. (I. d. Social, Ed.) Desarrollo Económico, Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 529.
[5]. Evans, P. (2007). Instituciones y desarrollo en la era de la globalización neoliberal.

Paper Title :: Progressive Muscle Relaxation to Reduce Anxiety in Junior High School Students
Author Name :: Dedek Jannatul Makwa || Erny Hidayati
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 16-22
Anxiety is potentially experienced by anyone, including students in an academic environment [3]. Some of the anxiety felt by students is when facing some less mastered subjects such as mathematics and English. Besides, students also feel anxious about teachers who have a way of teaching that tends to be fierce, assertive, and very disciplined. Students also feel anxious about facing class lessons when the learning media they have are incomplete. The anxiety experienced by students causes physical reactions such as increased heart rate, trembling, cold sweats, hot and weak bodies. Besides, the anxious experienced causes disruption of concentration while studying. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of progressive muscle relaxation in reducing anxiety experienced by students. The assessment methods used were individual interviews, Focus group discussion, and measurement of student anxiety using the BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory) measurement tool. Participants are first-grade junior high school students. The intervention given showed that there were differences in anxiety levels before and after progressive muscle relaxation with a value of Z = -2.375 and a significance of p = 0.018 (p <0.05) using the test Wilcoxon. Based on the intervention evaluation sheet, participants stated that the reaction due to anxiety felt reduced, and the body felt more comfortable.
Keywords: Anxiety; adolescent; relaxation.
[1] Davis. M., Eshelman. E.R, McKay. M, The relaxation & stress reductionworkbook, Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC, Jakarta, 1988.
[2] Djiwandono S.E.W, Konseling dan terapi dengan anak dan orangtua, PT Gramedia Widiasarana Indonesia, Jakarta, 2005.
[3] Firmantyo. T, Alsa. A, “Integritas akademik dan kecemasan akademik dalam menghadapi ujian nasional pada siswa,” Jurnal Penelitian Psikolog, 1(1), 1-11, 2017
[4] Hairina. Y, “Intervensi untuk mengatasi gangguan perilaku menentang anak dengan parent management training”, Jurnal Studi Gender dan Anak Vol. 1 No.1, 81-89, 2013
[5] Hollenstein. T, Lougheed. J.P, “Beyond storm and stress: typicality, transaction, timing, and temperamen to account for adolescent change” American Psychologist, 68(6), 444-454, 2013.

Paper Title :: Analysis of Teacher Perceptions in the Development of LIAA (Linguistic Intelligence Assessment Android) in Elementary Schools
Author Name :: Otang Kurniaman || Eddy Noviana || Munjiatun || Zufriady || Kurniawan
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 23-27
Technological developments in learning in elementary schools change teachers' perceptions of technology use in testing linguistic intelligence, therefore it is necessary to provide a survey using google form research instruments and analyzed using excel so that the percentage appears in the perceptions of teachers in the city of Pekanbaru. The results of this study the perceptions of teachers in the use of technology in the world of education are very often 52.10%, 45.80%, this illustrates that the use of technology among teachers is accustomed, but in testing linguistic intelligence it is very less with a percentage of 2.10%, and 8.30%, this gives a conclusion. that so far the teacher has tested using manuals in testing linguistic intelligence
Keywords: Perception, Linguistic Intelligence, LIAA (Linguistic Intelligence Assessment Android)
[1]. Astuti, N.P.E. (2020). Optimizing Children Gross Motoric Skill By Yoga Asana Practice In Covid-19 Pandemic. Jurnal PAJAR (Pendidikandan Pengajaran), 4(5), 926-936. DOI :
[2]. Armstrong, T. (2002). 7 Kinds of Smart. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Umum.
[3]. Armstrong, T. (2009). Multiple Intelligences. (3rd Edition). Virginia, USA: Julie Houtz.
[4]. Dewi, D. S., &Wilany, E. (2019). Hubungan Antara Kecerdasan Linguistik Verbal Dan Kemampuan Membaca (The Relationship Between Verbal Linguistic Intelligence And Reading Comprehension). DIMENSI, 8 (1), 187-197.
[5]. Dispernaker. (2020). Peran Teknologipada Masa Pandemi Covid-19.

Paper Title :: Cultural Relations between Children and Adults: A Dialogue from the Sociology of Childhood
Author Name :: LIMA, Samantha Dias de || NASCIMENTO, Renata Cristina Lacerda Cintra Batista || RIBEIRO, Ana Sebastiana Monteiro
Country :: Brasil
Page Number :: 28-35
This theoretical essay aims to problematize the understanding of childhood(s) and child, as well as their cultural relationships in contemporary times, seen from the renewed perspective of the Sociology of Childhood. Childhood Studies is chosen as theoretical foundation, nearing in particular the Sociology of Childhood, through selected bibliographical references. The power of the child's cultural relationships with adults is shown as one of the possible ways to make contemporary children and childhoods visible, which must be taken into consideration by the institutions in which the child participates, such as family and school.
Keywords: Children. Childhoods. Adults. Cultural relationships. Social relationships.
[1]. ABRAMOWICZ, Anete. A pesquisa com crianças em infâncias e a Sociologia da Infância. In: FARIA, Ana Lúcia Goulart de; FINCO, Daniela (Orgs.). Sociologia da Infância no Brasil. Campinas, SP: Autores Associados, 2011. p.17-p36.
[2]. AGAMBEN, Giorgio. O que é contemporâneo? E outros ensaios. Chapecó, SC: Argos, 2009. 92 p.
[3]. BRASIL. Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional.. Ministério da Educação. Brasília, 1996.
[4]. BRASIL. Estatuto da criança e do adolescente. Lei nº 8.069, de 13 de julho de 1990. Brasília, Congresso Nacional, 1990.
[5]. BRASIL. Convenção sobre os Direitos da Criança. 4. ed. Brasília, DF: Câmara dos Deputados, 2003.

Paper Title :: The Future of Multilateralism with an Impact in World Economy Due to Covid 19
Author Name :: Nabonita Sen
Country :: India
Page Number :: 36-42
Covering and encompassing across the globe, multilateralism seems to be in an emergency crisis conciseness. Skepticism or cynicism welfare of the multilateral order grounded in cardinal or fundamental liberal principles revealing and displaying throughout the Western world, inside the European nations, Brexit and, discordance over the European Union‟s (EU) the future is under a shell that‟s causing damage to the EU as a regional multilateral pillar, bordering the supranational bloc‟s capacity as a global actor as well. Nonetheless, to say at the same time, a more forceful, and decisive rather confidently China and Russia are looking for the outlook, to reshape multilateralism, challenging the primitive liberal principles that have guided the post-Cold War multilateral order, to which the world has become habituated. The multilateral order has witnessed tremendous prosperity in the post cold war era having multilateral cooperation in presence. Yet to say, multilateralism can only operate in the geopolitical context within which it exists. The woeful return of great-power competition, so noticeably diminishing during the heralding decades, is dissolving the very key foundations on which the multilateralism of the post-Cold War era stood. Deep cascades and vulnerabilities have been created between democratic and authoritarian states. As states continue to cannon those channels, the United States and other democratic countries have moved toward a conception of multilateralism that defends democratic interests within existing, and even the new ones. The prospects of multilateralism at regional and global levels will also inspect and scrutinize ways in reforming the existing international organizations so they are better placed to get to grips with new global issues. The prospects of multilateralism as well as the adverse affects of COVID 19 will cover the area of discussion leading to democratic populism, economic slowdowns, stagnation of supply chains, unemployment, change in people‟s behavior, and how with effective, efficient and innovative strategies that we can expect for better running global governance.
Keywords: Future of Multilateralism, Transformation of Multilateral system, New actors, Multilateralism 2.0, Multi-polarity, World Economic Forum, shrinking of Economies, Unemployment, Power Politics, COVID 19, Uniting Of Nations.
[1]. Alan S Alexandroff, Andrew Fenton Cooper – Centre for International Governance Innovation, Woodrow Wilson School of Public &International Affairs, Project on the Future Multilateralism, 2010. Rising State, Rising Institutions: Challenges for Global Governance.
[2]. Michael Schechter, (Ed), Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. Future Multilateralism: The Political and Social Framework, p.1-2, 136
[3]. Mario Telò, Springer Netherlands, 2012. State, Globalization and Multilateralism: The Challenges of Institutionalizing Regionalism.
[4]. Stephen Gill, Palgrave MacMillan, 1997. Globalization, Democratization and Multilateralism. p. 2, 171-173.
[5]. German development institute, Silke weinlich, Sven Grimm: The future of Multilateralism, 8 January 2020.

Paper Title :: Robert Filmer, Thomas Hobbes and John Locke: Controversies over the Power of the Monarchy in England in the 17th Century
Author Name :: Ibrahima Lô
Country :: Senegal
Page Number :: 43-49
The four major stages of the 17th century - Cromwell’s Revolution, the Republic, the Restoration, the Revolution of 1688 - laid bare the religious, economic and social quarrels that had constantly divided the English people. These quarrels fuelled the ideological debate of this century. This can be seen in some of the writings of the time. In fact, these turbulent events, which shook England deeply throughout the 17th century, provoked the reaction of great contemporary thinkers who, depending on their position in society, tried to justify the correctness of royal power: this was the case of Robert Filmer in his attempt to defend the divine rights of royal power; it was also the case of Thomas Hobbes with his justification of royal absolutism and that of John Locke in defense of the constitutional monarchy. This work attempts to demonstrate how these illustrious 17th century thinkers developed different theses to justify or reject the need for absolute royal power,
Keywords: royalabsolutism, monarchy, royal power, revolution, constitutional monarchy
[1]. Filmer, Sir Robert, Patriarcha, or the Natural Power of Kings [1680], LIBERTY FUND, INC. 8335 Allison Pointe Trail, Suite 300 Indianapolis, Indiana 46250-1684.
[2]. Hallowell, John H., The Moral Foundation of Democracy; University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, 1954
[3]. Hobbes, Thomas, Leviathan, Edwin Curley. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett Publishing Co. 1994
[4]. Vivet,Jean-Pierre, Mémoires sur le règne de Charles 1er in les Mémoires de l’Europe Tome III : l’Europe classique (1660-1763), Paris: Robert Laffont,1971
[5]. Johnson, Eric F., et. al., The Bedford Glossary for European History, Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2007, p.21.

Paper Title :: Kupang City's Regional Water Supply Company (PDAM) Net Profit Model
Author Name :: Dwi Dersmi Selan || Ariyon Stefen Ndun || Joritha Naisanu
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 50-53
PDAM is a government-owned company that aims to provide public services to the community in meeting drinking water needs and is one of the sources of Local Revenue. The operating system carried out by the PDAM so far is the principle of Cost Recovery. The Cost Recovery Principle has the understanding that the company must be able to finance all of its own expenses by not using sources of financing outside the company. The management of the company is entirely the responsibility of the management of the PDAM Kupang City, starting from planning to all operational activities and reporting fully the responsibility of the management of the PDAM Kupang City. The researcher observes that net profit always increases every year and is directly proportional to the components of net profit that is increasing water sales every year and operational costs incurred also increase every year, where the increase in operational costs is highest due to an increase in employee costs that automatically affect the net profit for the period. The purpose of this study is: to find out the net profit model PDAM Kupang City. Data collection methods in this research are interview and documentation study. The population of this study is all Kupang PDAM PDAM financial reports, with a sample of the Kupang PDAM PDAM Profit and Loss report for 10 years. This type of research is quantitative descriptive, and the data analysis method used is multiples regression analysis (multiple). The results showed that: Analysis using a two-way t test showed that the variable sales volume and operating costs significantly affected the PDAM's net profit.
Keywords: water supply company, model, net profit
[1]. Oktapia,Nuripa, Rizal R. Manullang, Hariyani. Analisis Pengaruh Biaya Produksi Dan Biaya Operasional Terhadap Laba Bersih Pada PT Mayora Indah Tbk Di Bursa Efek Indonesia (BEI)(Studi Kasus Pada PT. Bursa Efek Indonesia). Jurnal Ilmiah Akuntansi Bisnis Dan Keuangan (JIPAK), Volume 11, Nomor 2, November, 2017.
[2]. Susilawati, Endang& Asep Mulyana. Pengaruh Penjualan dan Biaya Operasional terhadap Laba Bersih PT. Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa (Persero) Tbk. Periode 2010-2017. Jurnal Saintifik Manajemen dan Akuntansi, Vol.1 No.2Universitas Nurtanio BandungIndonesia, 2018.
[3]. Doroh, Adiyanto Koten. Analisis Kinerja Keuangan Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum Kota Kupang. Program Studi Manajemen, Fakultas Ekonomika dan Bisnis Universitas Katolik Widya Mandira Kupang, 2019.
[4]. Gunardi, Gunardi, Sugianto Ikhsan, Syafirah Sehaq. Pengaruh Biaya Operasional Terhadap Laba Bersih PT. Sari Indah Teguh Purwakarta Periode 2013-2017. Journal of Accounting and Finance2019. Vol. 4 No. 01, 2019.
[5]. Jusuf, Jopie. Buku Analisis Kredit Untuk Akun Officer. Jakarta : PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, 2018.

Paper Title :: Patent analysis and Research of haze control technology
Author Name :: Zhi Liping || Huang Yanyan
Country :: China
Page Number :: 54-59
in this paper, the 1956-2019 incopat patent database for patent retrieval about fog treatment technology at home and abroad, from the trend of the application for a patent for the annual, the types of the applicant, research subject, patent validity, technical means and regional distribution of Angle analysis, hope can through these retrieval and analysis of reference in the governance of fog weather in our country, and promote countermeasures.
Keywords: Haze control; Patent analysis; Countermeasures and Suggestions
[1]. Huang Zhenzhong. Overview of Air Pollution Prevention and Control technology in China [J]. World Science and Technology Research and Development,2004(02):30-35.
[2]. Ren Panjie, Li Xiaorui, Sheng Ruohong, Geng Yi, Fan Zhanchun. Analysis on causes of haze weather and countermeasures [J]. Environment and development,2017,29(08):200+202.
[3]. shen zhongzeng. The dilemma of citizen participation in haze governance and countermeasures [J]. Environment and development,2019,31(08):218-219.
[4]. Tang Decai, Li Zhijiang, Ying Cheung. Literature review and effectiveness analysis of haze control [J]. Ecological economy,2017,33(12):174-179.
[5]. Liao Lifang. Brief Analysis on Chinese Patent of Haze Prevention Technology [J]. Chinese Invention and Patent,2015(06):52.

Paper Title :: Interrogating Issues of Identity: A Study of Violence in Dhurba Hazarika’s Sons of Brahma
Author Name :: Vibha B || Dr. Yogananda Rao
Country :: India
Page Number :: 60-63
Human world is marked by heterogeneity. Multiplicity manifests itself in the forms of tradition, ideologies, history, race, language, culture, ethnicity, attire and nutritional preferences that people embody. Though diverse things are meant to co-exist, competition invariably forms the other face of the diversity coin. This sheds light on the „survival of the fittest‟ law of nature. An analogous is seen in the human world, only that the competition between the two or more forces in society is driven not by nature‟s law that ensures equilibrium in the ecosystem, but by socio-economic, cultural, emotional and political factors that distorts equilibrium in the human world. The clashes between the competing forces results in conflict. The various forms of conflict may turn out to be violent or non-violent. Among wide range of sources of conflict marring the society, ethnicity is one of the ancient and prominent cause. Ethnicity signifies classification of people or group relationships. Ethnicity is always seen as juxtaposing nationalism. While ethnic groups demand recognition of ethnic identities and territorial entitlements, nationalists ensure that political boundaries are not cut across by ethnic boundaries. The ethnic group forming the majority constantly conspires to dominate the state and other ethnicities. The clash between the two parties results in ethnic conflict. The ethnic conflicts often involve dehumanizing acts which are violent in nature. The insurgencies tainting the North-East India are an example of ethnic conflict. North-East India comprises of 40 million tribes who are less similar and more distinct from each other. British colonization and Indian annexation of the region resulted in the division and unison of the inhabitants based on unnatural boundaries. The hegemony created a rupture between the political entity and the autochthons activating ethnic mobilization. North-East Indian tribes on the one hand are countering nationalism with ethno-nationalism and on the other hand, are engaged in inter-ethnic wars. The main aim of insurgency is to attain independence that will guarantee acknowledgement of unique identities and socio-economic progress of the tribes. Assertion of ethnic identities is a challenge to imagining India as a nation with single identity. Therefore, the explicit assertion of distinctness was harshly suppressed by the Indian government for convenience of administration. After decades of suppression, these distinct voices have now found expression and forums to record it; one such forum is fiction. A qualitative analysis, in the backdrop of intertextual reading, of Sons of Brahma authored by writers hailing from Assam is conducted to discover how North-East Indian writer attempts to retrieve and assert the trial identity and represent the same textually. Constant reference to violence drives the study to focus on the same and examine if violence is an expression of resistance to erasure of tribal identity.
Keywords: Identity issues, Conflict and violence, North-East India, Insurgency, Ethno-nationalism
[1]. Baruah, Sanjib. (1999). India Against Itself: Assam and Politics of Nationality. University of Pennsylvania Press. Print.
[2]. Roy, K. Sanjay. “Conflicting Nations in North-East India.” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 40, no. 21, 2005, pp. 2176–2182. JSTOR. Accessed 4 March. 2020.
[3]. Economic Theory of Conflict Sociology Essay. 7th September, 2019. Web.
[4]. Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. (1993). Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives. Pluto Press. London.
[5]. Jackson, Jennifer and Lina Molokotos-Liederman (eds.). (2015). Nationalism, Ethnicity and Boundaries. Routledge. London.

Paper Title :: Impacts of Conflict on Food Security in Bunkpurugu District of North-Eastern Ghana, the Moderating Role of Humanitarian Aid
Author Name :: Iddrisu Sandra
Country :: Ghana
Page Number :: 64-72
There is a dearth of literature on the relationship between conflicts and food insecurity, the extent to which this relationship is moderated by foreign food aids and humanitarian donations has not received adequate attention. This study employed a cross sectional design to solicit data from 384 participants using questionnaires and interview guides. The data which was analysed within the framework of system theory revealed that conflicts in Bunkpurungu district led to the destruction of food crops, burning of farm produce, displacement and killing of farmers and prevention of farming activities, these invariably affected food productions. The supply of food aids was, however, minimal and played an insignificant moderating role in the relationship between conflict and food insecurity. The study concluded that conflict in the district aggravated household food insecurity in spite of aids that came from outside the district. The study therefore recommended that the Government of Ghana may like to liaise with the Mamprugu Traditional Council to address the causes of the numerous ethnic conflicts in the district and provide a framework for their final resolution, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture may provide storage centres for farmers at the District Assembly so that harvested food may be spared from destruction during conflict, the Northern Regional House of Chiefs and the Overlord of Mamprugu Kingdom may like to take steps to address the continuous outbreak of chieftaincy conflicts in BunkpuruguYunyoo District and the District and Regional Security Council may like to intensify efforts at preventing conflicts and also ensuring that farms and food stores are protected from destruction during conflicts.
[1]. AfDB, 2012, Highlights of the food security situation in Africa, Quarterly Bulletin, issue 3, 1 65.
[2]. Agyeman. E (2019); Resolving Framers-Herders Conflict in Agogo Traditional Area; Journal of Political Economy and Development, Vol (4)2 67-89
[3]. Breisinger.C, et al, (2014), Building Resilience to Conflict through Food-Security Policies and Programs: An Overview. 2020 Conference Brief 3, Ethiopia.
[4]. Brinkman, H. & Cullen S. (2011), Food insecurity and violent conflicts: Causes, consequences and addressing challenges, New York, WFP.
[5]. Bruck. T., Dunker.k.m, Ferguson.N.,Meysonnat.A., Niellsen.Z (2018) Determinants of forced migration in Europe: Evidence from 3.D models of Flow and Stocks: IZA discussion papers, 11834

Paper Title :: Special Leadership Skills Needed for the Academic Library Professional during Covid-19 Pandemic Uncertain World
Author Name :: Dr. G. Thamaraiselvi
Country :: India
Page Number :: 73-77
The current coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has sharply prompted and made awareness regarding how it would inevitably continue to be in the World. Changeability, Uncertainty, Complexity and Ambiguity are the realities of today, and leaders of the society must accept this reality and have to make decisions anyway while facing the challenges that have no solutions. Leadership is a long journey that never stops and the institutions and other organizations, which can turn the challenges into opportunities, will be the ones who succeed in the ensuing pandemic uncertain world. The global outbreak of Corona Virus (COVID-19) has created important challenges for leaders at all levels in the Educational institutions all over the World. In this article, special Leadership activities to be undertaken, during this uncertain pandemic period, what kind of special skills are needed, why they are important and what are the healthy habits to be followed to overcome the problems during this Covid-19 pandemic etc. are discussed and explained in details.
Keywords: COVID-19, Leadership Skill, Academic Library, virtual skill, pandemic.

Paper Title :: Representation of Reality Inequality in Online-Based Educational Institutions
(Semiotic Analysis in Teacher Room (Ruangguru Ads)
Author Name :: Indiwan Seto wahjuwibowo || Riska Amelia Jayadi
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 78-84
Ads act to deliver messages through one-way communication between the ad creator and the targeted audience. Sometimes, the ads themselves are too biased to build and design and combine the visuals' desired communication messages. An advertisement for a non-formal internet education institution called Ruangguru issued an ad titled "Ruangguru 6 Tahun #hidupkanmimpimu. The ad space is judged to have a reality gap between what is shown in the ad and society's reality. In this study, the researchers used qualitative types and defining traits, using the semiotic method of Charles Sanders Peirce. Document study data collection technique with a trichotomy data analysis approach from Peirce in analyzing the ad. The results showed a real gap in this ad that could be reviewed from several scenes with a more in-depth analysis.
Keywords: Inequality Reality, Charles Sanders Peirce Semiotics, Peirce Semiotic Leotards, advertising.
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[5]. Hall, Stuart. (, 2012). Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: SAGE Publishing.

Paper Title :: Human Rights: imposition speech or an emancipation instrument ?
Author Name :: Camila Franco Henriques
Country :: Portugal
Page Number :: 85-95
Human rights emerged to protect the individual from the State and are undeniably part of today's world. However, the discourse of protecting the individual, promoting peace and enforcing dignity, often ends up serving as a justification for implementing a logic of imposing and dominating of the strongest over the weakest. That way, the main objective of the present paper is to analyze how human rights have been understood and interpreted in contemporary society, using universalist and relativistic theories to understand how universal human rights can be used as an anti-hegemonic instrument of protection. The research will be qualitative, hypothetical-deductive and done through bibliographic research.
Keywords: Human rights; protection; universalism; relativism; anti-hegemonic instrument.
[1]. BARZOTTO, Luis Fernando. Os Direitos Humanos como direitos subjetivos: da dogmática jurídica à ética. In: Filosofia do direito. Os conceitos fundamentais e a tradição jusnaturalista. Porto Alegre: Livraria do Advogado, 2010. P .43-80. Disponível em: Acesso em: 04 jan. 2016.
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[5]. DONNELLY, Jack. The relative universality of human rights. Human Rights Quarterly, v. 29, n. 2, p. 281-306, 2007.

Paper Title :: Challenges of Civil Society Organisations in Fragile States Introducing reflective instrumental theory
Author Name :: WARA, Yusuf Abubakar
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 96-106
Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) also known as the third sectors have become important tools for societal development, peace and unity. Unfortunately, in most fragile states the CSOs‟ efforts have not yielded significant result due to the colossal challenges they face in such weak democratic environment. As these kinds of states mingle in corruption and human right abuses, so the civil societies serving within them suffer from lack of enabling environment and fair play. It was on this note that this article presents reflective instrumental theory that analyse the relationships between states and civil societies as positive, neutral and negatives. The determinant of the nature of the relationship depends on the state‟s mode of operandi. In standard democracies, the relationship is positive, in semi-standard democracies it‟s neutral and in sub-standard democracies it‟s negative. This article adopts content analysis to argue that while the democratic attitudes of advanced democracies aided the complementary roles of the civil societies; the undemocratic behaviours of fragile democracies negates those roles. It is based on the premise that the higher the level of adherence to the principles of democracy; the higher the effectiveness of civil societies and vice versa. The article suggests that for civil societies to triumph the people should stand for them and the government must enact rules that will make the environment favourable for them to function.
Keywords: Civil Society, Government, Fragile States, Instrument of Reflection
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Paper Title :: Analysis and Research of prefabricated building patent in China
Author Name :: Ma Yanfei
Country :: China
Page Number :: 107-111
Based on the concept of prefabricated building and the characteristics of prefabricated building, this paper analyzes and studies prefabricated building patents in China. This paper makes an in-depth analysis from five aspects, such as annual application volume, provincial distribution, legal status, patent applicant and technical hotspot, and finally gives some conclusions and Suggestions.
Keywords: China Prefabricated building Patent analysis
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