Volume 02 - Issue 09

Paper Title :: Big data application in tourism – the case of Hong Kong
Author Name :: Paul Leung, Jamie Lo
Country :: Hong Kong
Page Number :: 01-11
This paper attempted to review how effective tourism entities are utilizing data especially big data collected from social media for their decisions, and reveal some of the perceived barriers in practical utilizations. The study adapted case study as its methodological design and make use of Hong Kong as the subject for investigation. Data and method triangulation will be used to ensure validity and objectivity. Key informants from different stakeholders including data generating institutes, research agents and consultants, IT specialists and users including government and travel trade will be interviewed to solicit their view on the subject. While Hong Kong will be used as the subject of investigation, the researchers believe that many of the finding will be generic enough to apply to other locality and even across different disciplines.
Keywords: Big Data, Social Media, Knowledge Management, Culture
[1]. V. Mayer-Schonberger and K. Cukier, “Big Data: a revolution that transform how we live, work, and think,” New York, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013.
[2]. H. Koscielniak, and A. Puto, “Big Data in decision making process of enterprises, Procedi Computer Science, Vol. 65, pp. 1052-1058, 2015.
[3]. Statista, “Mobile Active User,” available at:, 2018.
[4]. Zephoria, “The Top 20 Valuable Facebook Statistics”, available at: (access 5 February 2018), 2018.
[5]. D. Agrawal, P. Bernstein, E. Bertino, A. Davidson, U. Dayal, M. Franklin, J. Gehrke,L. Haas, A. Halevy, J. Han, H.V. Jagadish, A. Labrinidis, S. Madden, Y. Papakonstantinou, J. M. Patel, R. Ramakrishnan, K. Ross, C. Shahabi, D. Suciu, S. Vaithyanathan, and J. Widom, “Challenges and opportunities with big data: A white paper prepared for the computing community consortium committee of the computing research association”, available at: (accessed 5 June 2017), 2012.

Paper Title :: Demografic Factors Assosiated with Instructional Leadership Practised by Secondary School Principals
Author Name :: Juliana Baharuddin
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 12-20
This study was conducted to examine the level of instructional leadership of secondary school principals in Kelantan. Respondents for this study consist of 375 teachers from secondary schools in Kelantan state. Instructional leadership is a leadership style that supports the process of learning and facilitating in school. The instrument used to study instructional leadership is the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) by Hallinger and Murphy, 1985. The instrument is an original instrument in English and has been translated into Malay. All data and details collected were analyzed using Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Data analysis was carried out using Descriptive Min Test, Tester and ANOVA One-Way. The findings show that the instructional leadership level is high. In terms of gender, the level of instructional leadership practice of male principals and female principals is almost identical. The study also found that principals aged 26 to 30 years had the highest level of instructional leadership compared to older principals. Whereas, in terms of leadership experience, principals who have served as principals for 5-7 years have the highest level of instructional leadership. This study suggests stakeholders such as the Ministry of Education, the State Education Department and the District Education Office to strengthen the instructional leadership practices of principals by implementing the principals' professional development courses that lead to an increase in instructional leadership principals.
Keywords: Instructional Leadership, Principals, Professional Development
[1]. Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The strategies for taking charge. New York, NY: Harper & Row
[2]. Bevoise, W. D. (1984). Synthesis of research on the proncipal as instructional leadership. Educational
[3]. Leadership, 41(5), 14-20
[4]. Blase, J., & Blase, J. (2000). Effective intructional leadership: Teacher’s perspectives on how principals
[5]. promote teaching and learning in schools. Journal of Education Administration, 38(2), 130-141

Paper Title :: Study of the Violence Perpetrated between Adolescent Couples and Emotional Intelligence
Author Name :: Nieves Gutierrez Angel
Country :: Spain
Page Number :: 21-30
The violence between the members of the couple during courtship relationships is a topic of emerging interest in recent years due to the high prevalence that has, and the consequences involved, coming to be considered at present a public health issue. Studies that have aimed to investigate the relationship between violence between couples and Emotional Intelligence, have focused on domestic violence and not on this type of violence. Objective. The objective of this paper is to analyze the prevalence of violence exerted in the dating relationships of university students and to examine the possible relationship between being the executor of these types of violence and the levels of Emotional Intelligence. Method. It is a cross-sectional study that aims to analyze the prevalence of different variables collected in a specific period of time. The sample consists of 341 participants in the first and second year of the Degrees of Science of Physical Activity and Sports and in Primary Education. Results Abusive behaviors in dating relationships through verbal aggression as the most common form of violent behavior used in this stage. Women being the ones who, to a greater extent, exercise this type of violence. Conclusions The results of both this work highlight the high prevalence of violent behavior during courtship relationships. Which brings us to the duty of promoting actions with preventive character in the school, and to the intervention before them once they have happened.
Keywords: dating violence; university students; emotional intelligence.
[1]. Amor, P.J., Echeburúa, E., Corral, P., Zubizarreta, I., y Sarasúa, B. (2002). Repercusiones psicopatológicas de la violencia doméstica en la mujer en función de las circunstancias del maltrato. Revista Internacional de Psicología Clínica y de la Salud, 2(2), 227-246.
[2]. Arriaga, X.B., y Capezza, N.M. (2005). Targets of Partner Violence: The Importance of Understanding Coping Trajectories. Journal Interpersonal Violence, 20, 89-99. doi:10.1177/0886260504268600
[3]. Bar-On, R. (1997). The Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i): A Test of Emotional Intelligence. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.
[4]. Basoglu, M. (2007). A mental health care model for earthquake survivors. En U. Niaz (Ed.) The Day the Mountains moved: International Perspectives on Handling Psychotrauma (pp.194-199). SAMA Editorial and Publishing Services.
[5]. Benítez, J.L., y Muñoz, J.F. (2014). Análisis factorial de las puntuaciones del CADRI en adolescentes universitarios españoles. Universitas Psychologica, 13(1), 175-186. doi:10.11144/Javeriana.UPSY13-1.afpc

Paper Title :: The use of classical exersice elements in the preparation of athletes engaged in technical and aesthetic sports (pole-dance, aerial silk and aerial hoops)
Author Name :: T. L. Drach
Country :: Ukraine
Page Number :: 31-34
The article deals with the topic devoted to choreographic training of athletes engaged in techno-aesthetic sports. There were presented the results of the author's own research, regarding the classical excercice use in the preparation of pole-dance, aerial silk, aerial ring performers. The text provides an example of a training programme for athletes, as well as the possible consequences of the choreographic practice for performers.
Keywords: choreography, classical exercice, gymnastics on the pylon, gymnastics on canvases, gymnastics on the ring.
[1]. “The beautiful yet dangerous art of aerial silk”. April 29, 2010.
[2]. Basic Circus Arts Instruction Manual: Chapter 2 - "Static Trapeze, Rope and Silks." and Chapter 8 - "Manual for Safety and Rigging." [European Federation of Professional Circus Schools (FEDEC), 2008.
[3]. 5-125: Rigging Techniques, Procedures, and Applications.US Army, 1995.
[4]. Sharon McCutcheon, Geoff Perrem. Circus in Schools Handbook. Tarook Publishing, 2004. (ISBN 0975687409)
[5]. Hovey Burgess, Judy Finelli. Circus Techniques. Brian Dube, 1989. (ISBN 0917643003)

Paper Title :: Compounding in Gojri
Author Name :: Badar Zaman, Feng Qi
Country :: China
Page Number :: 35-38
This paper is an attempt to explore the compound words in Gojri language. A qualitative descriptive approach is employed to analyse the data. Like other Indo-Aryan languages, Gojri also involves compounding as a productive word formation process. This morphological operation is concatenative in nature. Gojri compounds are left-headed with the first component of the compound as the head. Root or primary compounds ,attributive compounds, determinative compounds and coordinative compounds occur in Gojri. Rhyming compounds in the form of full and partial reduplication are found in Gojri.
Keywords: Compounding, Gojri, Formation
1. Adams,V.1973.An Introduction to Modern English Word Formation. London: Longman.
2. Bauer, L.2001.Compounding In Martin Haspelma editor, Language Typology and Language Universals Mounton de Gruyter The Hauge.
3. Bauer, L. 1983. English word Formation, Cambridge: Edinburg: Edinburg University Press.
4. Booij, G.2005. The Grammar of Words. Oxford University Press, London.
5. Bloomfield, L. 1933. Language. Newyork: Holt.

Paper Title :: The impact of Internal Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Credit Risk at Jordanian commercial banks listed on the Amman Stock Exchange
Author Name :: Eljaser Alelfartas
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 39-48
The aim of this research is to investigate the relationship between Internal corporate governance mechanisms and credit risk using data from 13 commercial banks listed on the Amman stock exchange during the period 2009-2016. Panel data was utilized and the data gathered from 104 annual reports from13 commercial banks listed on the Amman stock exchange, which analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, and regression. Seven main corporate governance variables were analyzed namely: (Board size, Board Independence, CEO /Chairman Separation, Audit Committee Independence, Ownership concentration, Institutional Ownership, and Foreign Ownership) in terms of their relative impact on the dependent variable (credit risk). furthermore, bank size and debt Ratio were used as a control variable. Based on the results of the study, it has been observed that Internal corporate governance mechanisms variables have a significant effect on credit risk.
Keywords: Corporate Governance, Credit Risk, Panel Data.
[1]. (BIS), B. o. I. S. (2014).
[2]. Aebi, V., Sabato, G., & Schmid, M. (2012). Risk management, corporate governance, and bank performance in the financial crisis. Journal of Banking & Finance, 36(12), 3213-3226.
[3]. Al-Amarneh, A. (2014). Corporate governance, ownership structure and bank performance in Jordan. International Journal of Economics and Finance, 6(6), 192-202.
[4]. Al-Smadi, M. O. (2013a). Examining the Relationship between Corporate Governance and Banks' Performance, and Risk in Saudi Arabia. European journal of economics, finance and administrative sciences(59).
[5]. Al-Smadi, M. O. (2013b). Examining the relationship between corporate governance and banks’ performance, and risk in Saudi Arabia. European journal of economics, finance and administrative sciences, 16(2), 59-62.

Paper Title :: Chaos and order in memory
The aesthetic of the fragment of trauma
Author Name :: Dr. Carolina S. Bertin
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 49-57
Throughout the production of Maus- a survivor’s tale (1991), its author Art Spiegelmanproclaims in Metamaus (2011),thatin addition to the testimony of his father, the historical basis were anintrinsic base so that he could independently visualize the genocide by which his relatives have been through. At the same time, there is no way to deny how the author’s imagination includes itself in his work, transforming the work of the post-generation author in a blend of fantasy and history. In this article, we analyze the way in which Spiegelman reconstructs the Shoah, becoming active in the creation of new paradigms for the retransmission of the event, without leaving aside the historiographicalbases.
Keywords: Interest, subject of Law, juridical-contracting relation, rights and obligations, accessory obligation, principal oligation.
[1]. BRÜSEKE, Franz Josef. “Caos e Ordem na Teoria Sociológica”. Available in: .
[2]. LANGER, L. The Holocaust and the Literary Imagination. Yale: Yale University Press, 1975.
[3]. ROSENFELD, A. “The Problematics of Holocaust Literatura”. In: Bloom, H. Literature of the Holocaust. Broomall: Chelsea House Publishers. 2004, pp. 21 – 48.
[4]. Spiegelman, A. The completeMaus – a surivor’s tale. New York: Penguin Random House, 1991.
[5]. ______. Metamaus. New York: Penguin Random House, 2011.

Paper Title :: Assessment of Spatio-Temporal Vegetation Greenings using NDVI in North Kordofan State, Sudan
Author Name :: Ibrahim M. Eltom, Mohammed Ahmed. H.A.Alzubair
Country :: Sudan
Page Number :: 58-68
Land degradation has been a serious environmental problem in Sudan Sahel Zone and information about vegetation greenness cover distributions is more essential for several vegetation resource changes and the management of sustainable growth of vegetation cover. The study combines various approaches which include statististical trend analysis of satellite derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI) residuals to identifying the thematic mapping crating for spatial greenness seasons. The objective of this study is to assess the spatial heterogeneity and the dynamics of the vegetation greenness and land cover change using different multi-spectral images derived from AVHRR instrument. The NDVI is used as one of the geosciences adapted methods that depends on the satellite images to calculate the vegetation greenness applying mathematical function. For this project seven landsat TM-images have been selected which were taken from 1972 to 2005.The results show that there is a remarkable correlation between vegetation cover greenness and the rainfall among the studied seasons. The greenness of positive high values showed there were 5 seasons that depicted high NDVI values, while 2 of the seasons showed less NDVI values (1984 and1990).This suggests that more in-depth study of this kind of projects has to be taken by integrating the spatial data with climatological and mathematical functions.
[1]. Agriculture Statistic Office (1990): Report on crop production statistics, North Kordofan State, Sudan, El-Obeid Town.
[2]. Anne Schucknecht, Stefan Erasmi, Irmgard Niemeyer & Jörg Matschullat (2013): Assessing vegetation variability and trends in north-eastern Brazil using AVHRR and MODIS NDVI time series. European Journal of Remote Sensing ISSN: (Print) 2279-7254 (Online) Journal homepage:
[3]. Ashbindu Singh (1989): Digital Change detection techniques using remotely sensed data, International Journal of remote Sensing, Vol.10, Issue 6, pp 989-1003.
[4]. Bai.Z.G and D.L. Dent (2006): Global Assessment of land degradation and Improvement: Piolt study in Kenya, Report 2006/07, World Soil Information (ISRIC), FAo.
[5]. Braun Matthiasa & Herold Martin (2003):Mapping imperviousness using NDVI and linear spectral unmixing of ASTER data in the Cologne-Bonn Region (Germany). Proceedings of the SPIE 10th International Symposium on Remote Sensing, 8-12 September 2003, Barcelona, Spain

Paper Title :: Dismissed Employees: Swift Redress or Lengthy Litigation?
Author Name :: Phang Jai Juet
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 69-73
Employees who have been dismissed naturally find themselves in a financial limbo. They have, after all, lost their means of making ends meet. The law acknowledges that laborious and costly litigation would be a burden that would deprive these employees of the remedy they seek.

Paper Title :: The Impact of E-Commerce for Taxation
Author Name :: Mohammad Abdul-JalilHamdan
Country :: China
Page Number :: 74-91
This article examined the various taxation principles that are crucial for the ecommerce taxation platforms. In addition, the paper has examined the challenges and the issues that arise during the implementing of taxation on the e-commerce platforms. The paper has discovered that there are still some hindrances in the existing taxation systems, which are not flexible enough to exercise the countries sovereignty duo to the massive use of e-commerce tunnels. However, the paper also establishes that it is very possible to tax the physical commodities that are handled using the digital platform. This however requires the application of the principles of the OECD MTC, which provide the necessary guidelines for tax to be enforced to some given business entities. Additionally, the paper examines the various cases surrounding taxation of business entities and the corresponding revenue margins attainable by the most effective tax regimes in the world. The disparities are analyzed and thus discovered that the e-commerce platform plays a very significant role in the volumes of trade activities that make up the revenue for any given country. In addition, the article briefly looks at the interventions by different bodies such as the European Union and the influences these organization have had in the e-commerce platforms. It is worth establishing that the European Union, The United Nations and other international bodies and countries miss on the accurate values of revenue redistributions and losses in some instances. This clearly indicates that the dimensions of the e-commerce platform is not yet determinable accurately but can only be estimated to provide some vital stochastic predictions for the future.
Keywords: E-Commerce; Taxation; OECD MTC.
[1]. Agarwal, J. and Wu, T., 2018. E-Commerce in Emerging Economies: A Multi-theoretical and Multilevel Framework and Global Firm Strategies. In Emerging Issues in Global Marketing (pp. 231-253).Springer, Cham.
[2]. Alm, J., McClelland, G.H. and Schulze, W.D., 1992. Why do people pay taxes?. Journal of public Economics, 48(1), pp.21-38.
[3]. Atanasov, A.D., 2017. Permanent Establishment 2.0-Is It Time for an Update?.
[4]. Atwood, T.J., Drake, M.S., Myers, J.N. and Myers, L.A., 2012. Home country tax system characteristics and corporate tax avoidance: International evidence. The Accounting Review, 87(6), pp.1831-1860.
[5]. Azam, R., 2017. Ruling the World: Generating International Tax Norms in the Era of Globalization and BEPS. Suffolk UL Rev., 50, p.517.

Paper Title :: Imperatives for Managing the Business Environment for Market Driven Opportunities
Author Name :: Podium Ogoja, Sunday Ewah, Monica P. Lebo
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 92-108
The study focused on imperatives for managing the business environment in totality for market driven opportunities. The researchers explored various literatures that captured salient environmental variables as well as market driven postulations. Thereafter, research questionnaire was developed and administered to 1170 respondents with the characteristics of interest to elicit their responses. The major expositions of the study include, market driven firms tends to be more successful in most cases, though the vulnerability of market trends often posed as big threat and also inhibit the maximization of desired objectives. The use of well articulated business plan gives firm sense of direction and also placed emphasis on product quality and service delivery for market driven opportunities. The study further state that the failure of most businesses was anchored on mismanagement and poor market potentials apart from other perennial challenges. Competitive tendencies amongst firms were seen as generating rivalry, but advantageous to customers because they are exposed to different brands. In like manner some companies enjoy strategic advantages because they possess valuable resources that are non-substitutable and expensive to imitate based on the study. In conclusion it was affirmed that the constant favourable managing of the business environment leads to reasonable marketing opportunities and businesses are encouraged to be vigilant to occurring environmental dynamics.
Keywords: Business Environment, Markets, Strategic Advantage, Mismanagement, Model of Competition.
[1]. Barney, J. B (2001) Resource-Based Theories of Competitive Advantage: A ten Years Retrospective on the Resource-Based view. Journal of Management, Vol. 27, No. 6, Pp. 643-650.
[2]. Chittor R. and Ray, S.(2007) Internationalization Paths Of , India Pharmaceuticals Firms. A Strategic Group Analysis. Journal of International Management, Vol.13, Issue 3, September, Pp. 338-355
[3]. Ewah, S. (2007) Foundation of Marketing Principles and Practice. Reprint Edition, Pafelly Printers and Publishers, Ogoja, Cross River State, Nigeria.
[4]. Ewah, S. (2009) Feasibility Study: Requirement for Starting a New Business.
[5]. Journal of Policy and Development studies. Vol. III, No. 1, Pp. 121 – 127. Published by University of Science and Technology, Enugu; Nigeria

Paper Title :: Determine the Factors of Influence the Technological, Organizational, Environmental, Halal Awareness towards Halalan-Toyyiban Risk Management Plan (HTRMP)
Author Name :: Nurshahirah Saleh, Irwan Ibrahim, Fadilah Abd Rahman
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 109-114
Halalantoyyiban issues are really concern by the consumer in Malaysia instead of looking at the halal logo especially foods. Business owner should take a serious action in handle and manage this issues before being happened. HTRMP has been introduce by JAKIM to help in manage the halal and toyyiban supply chain, start from procurement until consumer. The objective is to determine the factors that influence adoption of HTRMP in food industry and halal awareness as a mediator. Thus, to propose a conceptual framework for this study to be applied in the context of technological, organizational, environmental factors. Based on previous and latest research, the factors have positive relationship towards halal standard.
Keywords: TOE framework, HTRMP, Food Industry, Halal Toyyiban Supply Chain Management.
[1]. Omar, E. N., Jaafar, H. S., & Osman, M. R. (2013). Halalan Toyyiban Supply Chain of the Food Industry. Journal of Emerging Economies and Islamic Research, 1(3), 1–12.
[2]. Samicho, Z., Farhana, N., Karim, A., Firdaus, A., & Azmi, M. N. (2016). Halalan Toyyiban Elements in Halalan-Toyyiban Risk Management Plan (HTRMP) of Chilled Food Products During Warehousing Activities: A Review. J. Appl. Environ. Biol. Sci, 6(11), 103–110., 2016
[3]. Azmi, F. R., Musa, H., Sihombing, H., & Fam, S. (2018). Adoption Factors of Halal Standards : The Malaysian Perspectives. Proceedings of the 3rd International Halal Conference (INHAC 2016), (September).
[4]. Azmi, F. R., Abdullah, A., Bakri, M. H., Musa, H., & Jayakrishnan, M. (2018). The adoption of halal food supply chain towards the performance of food manufacturing in Malaysia. Management Science Letters, (June), 755–766.
[5]. Ngah, A. H., Zainuddin, Y., & Thurasamy, R. (2014). Adoption of Halal Supply Chain among Malaysian Halal Manufacturers: An Exploratory Study. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 129, 388–395.

Paper Title :: The Constitutionality of Free Education in Namibia: A Statutory Review
Author Name :: Elock Emvula Shikalepo
Country :: Namibia
Page Number :: 115-121
The concept of free education in Namibia has not been understood correctly, owing to lack of proper explanation and context. The objective of this review was to analyse the concept of free education in Namibia from constitutional and statutory perspectives, to generate an undoubted constitutional definition of free education. This review was necessitated by diverse misinterpretations of free education in Namibia, and by assertions that the concept was birthed by certain political personalities in recent times. In addition, citizenry did not know the difference between the constitutional„free education‟ and the statutory „parental contribution‟ to School Development Fund, which lack of knowledge compromised the quality education in public schools. The review was carried out by documentaryanalysis of the relevant Article of the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia, coupled with an analysis of the relevant Sections, Sub-sections and Regulations of the Education Act of the Republic of Namibia.Relevant media articles on free education were also reviewed. The findings were analysed thematically, presented and discussed according to similarities. Key findings revealed that the Namibian citizenry was short of an ideal constitutional and statutory interpretation of free education concept, which unfortunately instigated stakeholders, particularly parents, to neglect their statutory mandate in respect of educational provisions. This neglectultimately compromised the quality of education for their children. Even politicians who engineered the statutes failed to appreciate an ideal definition of free education and distinguish it from statutory parental contribution to School Development Fund. Recommendationspoints to the broad Namibian citizenry to assimilate an ideal constitutional and statutory interpretation of free education, and play their part in contributing meaningfully to the pursuit of quality educationin Namibian public schools.
Keywords: Free education, Education Act No. 16 of 2001, school development fund, primary education, public schools
[1]. Mashuna, T. (2014). Dr Abraham Iyambo: The Father for Free Primary Education in Namibia and Youth Leader in Exile (1961 – 2013). New Era Live. Retrieved from: on: 11 July 2019.
[2]. Immanuel, S. (2017). Free education divides Swapo. The Namibian Newspaper.Retrieved from: on: 11 July 2019.
[3]. Nampa. (2016). Hanse-Himarwa warns schools not to solicit money from parents.Energy 100 fm. Retrieved from: on: 24 July 2019.
[4]. Tjitemisa, K. & Nakale, A. (2015).To buy or not to buy school stationery. Lela Mobile. Retrieved from: Accessed on: 30 July 2019.
[5]. Pogisho, J. (2013). Namibia implements universal primary education – no more school development funds at primary schools. Namibia Review, 20 (10):1-2.

Paper Title :: Textual Studies of Ilia Chavchavadze’s Notepad Entries and Fragmentary Speeches
Author Name :: Esma Mania
Country :: Georgia
Page Number :: 122-126
Our research concerns these two radically different intellectual products of Ilia Chavchavadze: on the one hand, his fragmentary speeches as the material reflecting public and civic activities, and on the other hand, his private records as texts intended solely for his own use. Analysing and linking these two different perspectives of Ilia Chavchavadze - fragmentary speeches and notepad entries - to his other texts and activities, on the one hand, complement his portrait and on the other hand, reveal many public facts or tendencies that were unknown to the readers to date. Although the material to be considered was very complex and varied, its logical structuring and fundamental study became possible by means of selecting the right strategy and methodology. Our research has provided an important basis for publishing this up-to-date material in accordance with the latest academic requirements in textology.
Keywords: Textual scholarship, Ilia Chavchavadze, manuscript study, personal identification, dating.
[1]. Ninidze, M., Amirkhanashvili, I. (ed.). (2017), Chronicles of the life and works of Ilia Chavchavadze, Tbilisi, Publishing House "Mtatsminda",101, 103, 518, 544. (Ilia_Chavchavazis Cxovrebis_da_Shemoqmedebis_Matiane.pdf)
[2]. Newspaper "Iveria", 1897, №8
[3]. Newspaper "Droeba", 1876, №50
[4]. Newspaper"Zakavkazie", 1907, №73
[5]. Chavchavadze I., Complete collection of works in twenty volumes, volume XIV, Tbilisi, 2007, 453-454

Paper Title :: Effects of What’sApp m-Learning Tool on Nigerian Undergraduates’ Achievement and Retention in an Education Course
Author Name :: Dr. Ayeni Julianah Olukemi, Prof. Mkpa Agu Mkpa
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 127-136
This quasi-experimental study sought to determine the effects of WhatsApp m-learning tool on the academic achievement and retention of an Education course among undergraduates of Abia State University Uturu, Nigeria. The purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting from a population of 60 students registered for the Education course, 25 subjects of who were randomly assigned to experimental (E) group; and 35 to the control (C) group. While the E group was taught using the WhatsApp platform, the C group was taught using traditional didactic approach. Both groups were taught for 4 weeks after which a valid and reliable achievement test (reliability index of 0.89) was administered to the E and C groups. The retention test which was same as the achievement test except for the reordering of the special arrangement of the items, was administered to the E & C groups 4 weeks later. The obtained scores were the data used to answer the 3 research questions applying means and standard deviation; and ANCOVA for data on the 3 hypotheses that guided the study. The results proved the superiority of the WhatsApp m-learning tool over the traditional didactic approach both in the achievement and retention. The academic achievement was not influenced by gender. Recommendations were made for tertiary level teachers to utilize the WhatsApp more confidently as a supplement to the traditional didactic approach.
Keywords: WhatsApp m-learning Tool; Academic achievement, Retention.
[1]. Abaido, G.& El-Messiry, H (2016) Efficacy of WhatsApp as a means of disseminating educational information. Retrieved from http://www.k/
[2]. Aicha, B.A. (2014) Impact of WhatsApp mobile social learning on the achievement and attitude of female students as compared with face-to-face learning in the classroom. Retrieved from
[3]. Andriotis, N (2017). Make your e-learning stick: 8 Tips & Techniques for Learning Retention. Retrieved from https://www.talent/
[4]. Ashiyan, Z & Salechi, H (2016) Impact of WhatsApp on Learning and retention of collection knowledge among Iranian EFL learners. Advances in language Literary studies 7(b) Retrieved from https://www.journals.aiac.all/index.php/alls/article/view/2620.
[5]. Baran, E (2014) A, review of research on mobile learning in teacher Education. Education technology and society 19(4) 17-32.

Paper Title :: Toxicity test of some plant extracts of plants used in catching fish in Sankuru
Author Name :: Marie Madeleine Akonga Oyakoy, René Gizanga Valu, Séraphin Ifuta Ndey, Athanase Kusonika Ndamba and Dieudonné Musibono Eyul'anki
Country :: Republic of the Congo
Page Number :: 137-146
This study presents the results obtained in the context of a thesis on the evaluation of the toxicity and environmental impacts of three ichthyotoxic plants on Gambusiaaffinis (Blighiawelwitschii, Dyschoristeperrottetii and Millettiadyschesnei). The overall objective of this study is to evaluate the toxicity rate of ichthyotoxic plants Blighiawelwitschii, Dyschoristeperrottetii and Milletiaduchesnei on the health of aquatic ecosystems in general and populations of Gambusiaaffinis in particular. Samples of these three ichthyoxic plants were collected from the Lomela territory, Sankuru Province, and those from Gambusiaaffinis were collected from the Funa River, Kalamu Commune, Kinshasa, DRC. The analyzes were carried out in ecotoxicological and ecosystem health laboratories of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Kinshasa. The results of the analyzes revealed that Blighiawelwichii is toxic to biotest individuals in concentrations: 10-0, 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4 with 0% of survivors observed, followed by 66.7 % of the survivors observed in the concentration of 10-5 and with a lethal concentration of around 0.0000045 ml / ml, Milletiaduchesnei is toxic to populations of Gambusiaaffinis in these concentrations of 100 and 10-1 with 0% of survivors in each concentration, 10-2 and 10-3 with 66.7% of the survivors observed in each of concentrations and with a lethal concentration of around 0.0045ml / ml, Dyschoristeperrottetii is toxic to populations of Gambusiaaffinis in these concentrations: 10-0, 10-1, 10-2 with 0% of the survivors observed, and with a lethal concentration of around 0.00055ml / ml.
Keywords: ichthyotoxic plants, toxicity, Gambusiaaffinis
[1]. Annual climatological bulletin of Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi. Year 1954. Brussels: Publications of the National Institute for the Agronomic Study of the Belgian Congo (INEAC), Bureau climatologique, (Communication No. 10), 1955, 161 p.
[2]. AUBREVILLE, A., (1959). The forest flora of Côte d'Ivoire. Second revised edition. Volume two. Publication No. 15. Tropical ForestryTechnical Center, Nogent-sur-Marne, France. 341 pp.
[3]. BRUSLE and QUIGARD, (2001), J and QUIGNARD, JP (2001), Biology and ecology of European freshwater fish.
[4]. BRUTON, MN (1988), Biology and ecology of African freshwater fish;
[5]. Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Congo, promulgated on February 26, 2006.

Paper Title :: The Training of Intellectuals in the UFFS: Between What Has Been Announced and What Has Been Achieved
Author Name :: PALHANO, Isabel Castilho, NASCIMENTO, Maria Isabel Moura
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 147-155
This article analyzes the limits and advances in the formation of the intellectual, in the face of the contradictions of public policies of the State, in the implementation of the Federal University of the South Frontier originating from the struggle of social movements, considering the totality in the relationship between the categories of Education and class struggle. Would the creation of the Federal University of the Southern Frontier as a conquest of social movements be the possibility of the constitution of a new intellectual as an organic of the working class in the countryside in the Gramscian perspective? This reflection will be carried out from official documents: PDI (Institutional Development Plan 2012/2016) and Final Report PIBIC/CNPq (2012/2013) of the University. This work will point to the limits and advances in the materiality of the training of such intellectual UFFS. The documentary analysis points to an effort to train this intellectual coming from the class of the worker. However, due to the theoretical limits of the constitution of the University itself, it is led to indications that the graduates of their courses will be fruit of this theoretical approach.
Keywords: Formation of intellectuals. UFFS. Philosophical principles. Public Policies
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Paper Title :: Addressing the High Spate of Suicide Cases in Today’s Nigeria: An Ethical and Philosophical Appraisal
Author Name :: Amunnadi, Chukwudi, A., Ezeugwu, Evaristus, C.
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 156-161
The problem of mental health is a global challenge that has been estimated to be affecting about one billion population presently. The recent appointment of the first Minister for Prevention of Suicide by the government of Britain underscores that Nigerian is not alone in the threat of suicide in our contemporary times. However with the tagging of Nigerian as the poverty capital of the world, the third or the fourth of the world most terrorized nation, it may not be long before the country may also be listed on the global index as the most suicide prone nation, given the rising statistics of suicide cases in recent times. This work is therefore an attempt at addressing the high spate of suicide from ethical and philosophical perspective. It applied a survey approach in data collection while content analysis technique was employed in the analysis of data. The work discovered that stress, poverty, self-medication, bad governance and parenting style are some of the factors that promote suicide in Nigeria. Therefore, recommended for the promotion of compulsory life style education, family life education, Christian education and evangelism as well as the establishment of foster parent for indigent member of the society as a way forward.
Keywords: Suicide, ethics, stress, poverty, greed, injustice, life-style/family life Education, Christian Education
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