Volume 02 - Issue 03

Paper Title :: How to Interpret the Survival of the Chinese Communist Party since 1989 ?
A Literature Review by American and Chinese Scholars
Author Name :: Zhaohui Hong
Country :: USA
Page Number :: 01-09
Since 1989, American and Chinese scholars have engaged in debates about the collapse of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and China. The fact that both China and the CCP continue to survive contradicts many American scholars’ predictions that China or the CCP would collapse after 1989. This paper examines and reviews the literature contributed by American and Chinese scholars regarding the survival of the CCP in the past 30 years. It addresses five main issues related to the resilient Communist regime, the role of CCP’s democratic centralism in its survival, the effective procedure of the CCP’s political system, the checks and balances with the CCP’s characteristics, and the feasible action plans of intra-party reform. The article also discusses the existing literature about the CCP’s characteristics of the intraparty elections and the inherent checks and balances since 1989.
Keywords: Chinese Communist Party, intra-party elections, political reform, resilience
[1]. Cao, Siyuan. (2012). Three Suggestions for the CCP’s 18th National Congress. Caijing Blog. Retrieved July 2 from
[2]. ________. (2013). China's Political Transformation Path: National Constitutionalism and Inner-Party Democracy. Edited by Zhang Boshu, The Deadlock, Break up, and China's Democratic Transformation. Hong Kong: ChengzhongShuju, pp. 113-124.
[3]. Chang, G. G. (2001). The Coming Collapse of China. New York: Random House.
[4]. Chen, Hongtai. (2011). Taking the Theory of Scientific Development as the Guide to Actively and Steadily Promote the Reform of the Political System. The Frontline, 3(1): 1-9.
[5]. Chen, Yejun. (2009). Exploring the Roadmap for the Development of China's Democratic Politics--Yu Keping: The Minimum Cost and Best Way for Democratization in China. People's Network (Theory Channel). Retrieved on September 9 from

Paper Title :: Border Security Issues and Challenges of the Nigeria Customs Service
Author Name :: Babatunde Olomu, Alao, David Oladimeji, Eyitayo Adewumi
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 10-19
Regulating migration flows and containing border disputes remain central to border security agencies across the world. The reality, however, is that controlling access to territories and citizens is difficult in the globalised security context, as technology has enabled the increased flow of goods, people and ideas across national boundaries, while global inter-connectedness has increased interactions between people around the world whether for work, sport or entertainment. The paradox lies, therefore, in the increased relevance of the Customs service agency with regard to securing the nation‟s borders despite the fact that their position is being challenged by transnational security actors and vulnerabilities as well as well as numerous inherent weaknesses from within the agency itself. Thus, in order to counter threats both from within and outside a state border, new patterns of security interaction are required. It is on this basis the study not only intend at identifying the major challenges militating against border security in the Nigeria Customs Service but also, to proffer solutions through insightful suggestions and recommendations.
Keywords: Challenges, Border Security, Nigeria Customs Service.
[1]. Adekanye, J. Bayo. (1998). “Conflicts, Loss of State Capacities and Migration in Contemporary Africa”. Appleyard, R. (ed.) Emigration Dynamics in Developing Countries, Volume 1: Sub-Saharan Africa. Sydney: Ashgate.
[2]. Adeola, Gabriel L. and Fayomi, Oluyemi O. (2012). “The Political and Security Implications of Cross Border Migration between Nigeria and Her Francophone Neighbours”. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, Vol. 1, No. 3. 1-9.
[3]. Adeyinka, A. M. (2014). “Trans-Border Movement and Trading Activities across Nigeria– Benin Republic Border”. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences (MCSER) Publishing, Rome-Italy, Vol. 5, No. 1 (January). 415-423.
[4]. Akinyemi, O. (2013). “Globalization and Nigeria Border Security: Issues and Challenges”. International Affairs and Global Strategy, Vol. 11.
[5]. Asiwaju, A. I. and Nugent, P. (2011). “African Boundaries: Barriers, Conduits and Opportunities”.

Paper Title :: Historical slavery sites and vestiges as a cultural resource for tourism to be promoted in the D R Congo
Country :: Republic of Congo
Page Number :: 20-38
African transatlantic slavery
The 400-year transatlantic slavery occurred in subsaharan Africa, including the Kongo kingdom and more specifically in the Muanda region in the D R Congo. While Gorée Island (Senegal), Saint Louis (Senegal), Saint Denis (Reunion Island), Joal, Portudal (in Portugal), Loango (Angola), etc. have developed cultural tourism upon slavery vestiges, the D R Congo has neglected Muanda zone despite the fact that local various slavery sites and historical vestigesare still subject of public curiosity. Therefore, they area true cultural heritage and social tourism resource to be exploited.
Historically speaking, during the colonial era until the 1960s, tourism was one of the three national income sources (i.e. mining industry, agriculture and tourism) in the belgian Congo. In this article, we highlight the cultural and historical touristic resource. It is a question of promoting historical vestiges related to the slave trade as an attraction or a tourism capital to valorize. It would be at the same time a right of memory for future generations.Unfortunately, in Muanda, DRC, field data showed a total state of abandonment of all slave sites and related remains, degraded by human activities and threatened by marine erosion and which could disappear if nothing is done. This article is therefore a wake-up call to raise national and international awareness based on field data. It is a pledge somewhat.
Keywords: Slave trade, pot, remains, Muanda, ecotourism, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
[1]. Actes du colloque national. La traite négrière, l‟esclavage et leurs abolitions : mémoire et histoire, Paris, le 10 mai 2006, 81 p. Voir Luiz-Felipe De Alencastro, sur „‟La traite des Noirs et l‟esclavage dans l‟Atlantique sud, le Brésil et l‟Angola, 23-30p.
[2]. Ambroise Tournyol du Clos, 2016: « La colonisation est-elle responsable des malheurs de l'Afrique ? », Conflits, hors-série no 3, printemps 2016, pp. 18-22.
[3]. Carlo Avierl Célius, « Haïti : histoire, mémoire, patrimoine », dans Anneaux de la mémoire, Haïti, matières premières, Nantes, Les cahiers des anneaux de la mémoire,n°6, Paris, Karthala, 2004, p. 198, cité par Jean Ronald Augustin, op.cit.
[4]. Chantal et Alain Huart : RDC, Pays magnifiques : Bas-congo, édité en Belgique par WEYRICH EDITION, 6840 Neufchâteau – Dépôt légal : D/2012/8631/2, ISBN 978-2-87489-127-4, 128P.
[5]. Comité Pour la Mémoire de l‟Esclavage (CPME), 2007 : Mémoires de la traite négrière, de l‟esclavage et de leurs abolitions. Rapport à Monsieur le Premier ministre de la République Française, Novembre 2007, pp8, 9, 42, 55… 126p.

Paper Title :: Public health and safety leadership challenges around law enforcement ethics and whistleblowing in the age of the #Black Lives Matter movement
Author Name :: Dr. Darrell Norman Burrell, Dr. Nimisha Bhargava, Roxanne Elliott Kemp, Dheeraj Vemuganti
Country :: Florida
Page Number :: 39-50
Police ethics and misconduct have been in the public spotlight at very significant levels in the U.S. creating tremendous public administration challenge for many city, state, and county governments. For those in law enforcement and corrections, public trust is an important part of being able to do the job effectively. When the public believes that those who enforce the law are intentionally biased, discriminatory, narcissistic, or unprincipled, the result is that cooperation between law enforcement and the public begins to erode. This issue becomes even more complex when police officers fail to report co-workers that engage in unethical behavior and police misconduct. This paper explores complex managerial, social, and public policy nuances of law enforcement ethics, moral reasoning, and whistleblowing in the age of the ―Black Lives Matter‖ movement in The United States.
Keywords: Black lives matter, public health, police misconduct, ethical leadership, moral judgment, organizational ethics.
[1]. Beckner, W. (2004). Ethics for educational leaders. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
[2]. Beemsterboer P. (2010) Ethics and Law in Dental Hygiene. 2nd ed. St. Louis: Saunders Elsevier.
[3]. Bhargava, N., Madala, M. K., & Burrell, D. N. (2018). Emotional Acumen on the Propensity of Graduating Technology Students to Whistle-Blow About Organizational Cyber Security Breaches. International Journal of Smart Education and Urban Society (IJSEUS), 9(4), 1-14
[4]. Brewer, L. (2005, June). The whistleblower. Accountants Today. 10-12.
[5]. Brown, A. J. (2001). Internal witness management: an art or a science? Ethics and Justice, 3(2), 45–61.

Paper Title :: Noções Introdutórias Sobre A Possibilidade De Recusa De Transfusão De Sangue Por Testemunhas De Jeová Em Crianças Pela Família Baseados Nos Fundamentais Princípios Da Bioética
Author Name :: Anne Caroline Cobbe de Freitas || Luis Alexandre Carta Winter
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 51-67
This article deals with the blood transfusion in Jehovah's Witness Minors. In the need for treatment and disagreement between doctor and patient, the institution will apply for judicial authorization for the forced execution of the transfusion in the child. Given this situation, who is legitimate to decide on behalf of the incapable child? Therefore, the purpose of this study is to demonstrate the legitimacy of the autonomy of family power in the decision to refuse blood transfusion. To approach the problem, the hypothetical-deductive methodology was used, with a review of the specialized bibliography, to support the approach of its object, in order to allow the dialogue between the biopsychosocial phenomena present in the discussion in the collision between the right to life and right to freedom of belief. It was then concluded that the minor's family has complete autonomy to choose the treatment given to their children, as well as other decisions, in view of the wide range of viable alternative treatments.
Keywords: Jehovah's Witness. Blood transfusion. Child. Human Rigths.
[1]. ALTERNATIVAS DE QUALIDADE PARA A TRANSFUSÃO. Disponível em: . Acesso em 01.10.2018.
[2]. ALBUQUERQUE, Raylla; GARRAFA, Volnei. Autonomia e indivíduos sem a capacidade para consentir: o caso dos menores idade. Rev. bioét. (Impr.), v.32, n.3, p.452-458, 2016.
[3]. ARAGÃO, João Carlos Medeiros de. Choque entre direitos fundamentais: consenso ou controvérsia? Revista de informação legislativa, v. 48, n. 189, p. 259-268, 2011.
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[5]. AVANCI, Thiago Felipe S. A colisão entre direitos fundamentais: há colisão de direitos fundamentais? Revista Brasileira de Direito Constitucional – RBDC, n. 16, p.193-215, 2010.

Paper Title :: Selected issues of family life in the times of precariat Sociological analysis attempt
Author Name :: Dariusz Tułowiecki
Country :: Poland
Page Number :: 68-74
Precariat is a contemporary social category defined as the emerging social class characteristic of late capitalism. All those who are employed on the basis of uncertain flexible short-term employment contracts are defined as precariats. Their employment is most often below their qualifications and and intellectual capacity. Uncertainty, lack of stability, insecurity and identity without professional references, as well as discouragement and frustration are all an inherent part of precariats‟ work and identity. This uncertainty is also transferred to the family and becomes a kind of a social problem. Precarity threatens economic and residential stability of families as it transfers uncertainty and temporariness to family environment, results in forced migration, weakens intra-family ties and subordinates family roles of the mother-wife and husband-father to precarious work.
Keywords: precariat, social changes, family, family problems
[1]. D. Svyrydenko, D Tułowiecki, “Family Policy of the State as a Response to Social Security Threats”, „Future Human Image” 10, pp. 94-95, 2018.
[2]. B. Urbaniak, “Praca okresowa przejawem rosnącej niepewności na rynku pracy”, in: Praca tymczasowa. Droga do kariery czy ślepy zaułek?, B. Urbaniak, P. Oleksiak (eds.), Wydawnictwo UŁ, Łódź, p. 15, 2014.
[3]. K.W. Frieske, “Zamienił stryjek... „społeczne‟ na „rynkowe‟”, in: Zatrudnienie na czas określony w polskiej gospodarce. Społeczne i ekonomiczne konsekwencje zjawiska, M. Bednarski & K.W. Frieske (eds.), Wydawnictwo IPiSS, Warszawa, p. 22, 2012.
[4]. G. Standing, “The Precariat and Class Struggle”, RCCS Annual Review 7, pp. 3-5, 2015.
[5]. J. Mazur, “Czy naprawdę nowa i niebezpieczna klasa? Wprowadzenie“, in: Prekariat. Perspektywa katolickiej nauki społecznej, J. Mazur, Ł. Marczak (eds.), Wydawnictwo Naukowe UPJP II, Kraków, p. 7, 2017.

Paper Title :: Perception of Teachers on the Inclusion of the Disaster-Risk-Reduction (DRR) Strategy in Schools Curriculum in Port Harcourt Metropolis, Rivers State Nigeria
Author Name :: Elenwo, E.I || Onabanjo, L.A.
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 75-86
The study examined a sample of about 323 primary and secondary school teachers in Port Harcourt Metropolis to investigate their perception of integrating disaster risk reduction concept into primary and secondary schools curriculum. The study adopted the cross sectional survey method. Primary and secondary data were utilized, the generated data was analyzed using five point likert scale mean and the hypotheses tested using z-test and t-test methods. The test showed that there was no statistical significance difference between primary and secondary teachers perception of integrating disaster risk reduction concept into educational curriculum.It was also found that the teachers were willing to accept the concept, about251 respondents (77.8%) strongly agree andthere were opportunities for integrating disaster risk reduction concept into the curriculum (table 5) buttressed. The teachers lack proper knowledge and understanding of the concept. This may hinder the mainstreaming of the programme into the curriculum but this study’s findings and suggestions were made to allay the fears as follows:that curriculum developer should provide teachers with national guidelines in form of learning materials and practical skills on how to effectively integrate into the programme; also there was need to provide training that will equip teachers with critical thinking and creative skills, as well as providing meaningful support that can motivate them to be result oriented while carrying out their tasks in thenew curriculum innovation.The Curriculum Development Unit within the National Department of Education should use its strategic planning unit to address disaster risk reduction issues through schools as well as assist schools to build a culture of safety as a way of life in the school and the society at large. The schools should be guided on further steps to develop local safety and disaster risk reduction policieswhich shall be sustained as the schools culture.
Keywords: Perception, Teachers, Inclusion, Disaster- Risk –Reduction, Strategy, Curriculum.
[1]. Fien,J.(199) Education for sustainable living: An international perspective on Environmental Education. South African journal of Environmental Education, 13: 7-18.
[2]. Gough, A. (1997) Education and the environment: Policy, trends and the problems of marginalization. Melbourne: The Australian Council for Educational Research Ltd.
[3]. International Strategy on Disaster Reduction. 2004. Africa Regional Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction. (Paper prepared for meeting of experts held in South Africa, Johannesburg in May-June 2004). NEPAD: ISDR Secretariat.
[4]. Kalton, G. (1983) Introduction to Survey Sampling University of Michigan, Sgae Publications, U.S.A.pp100
[5]. Lekalakala, M.J. 2007.Teachers’ perceptions about lesson planning to include an Environmental Education focus. (Unpublished Master’s thesis).University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg.

Paper Title :: A Comparative Study of Corporate Social Responsibility Practices of Total E&P Ltd and Saipem Contracting Company Ltd in Rivers State, Nigeria
Author Name :: Elenwo E.I || Adjarho E. G
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 87-97
Corporate Social Responsibility package is a strategy of modern companies in maintaining good relationship with their host communities and it has the potential to significantly reduce the risk of local dissatisfaction and local conflicts. This study examined the corporate social responsibilities of an oil producing Company; Total E&P Nigeria Limited and an oil Service Company; Saipem contracting company Limited in two local government areas of Rivers State. Data collection involved primary and secondary data sources. Primary data was obtained through the use of questionnaire and interviews while secondary data was gotten from previous works done on the area. Statistical tools used to analyze the data were standard deviation, Pearson correlation and z ratio test. The findings showed that the oil companies are not committed to Corporate Social Responsibility in their host communities. The results were H1: p-value (0.13)>5%, the null hypothesis is accepted (no significant relationship); H2 p-value (0.00) < 5%, null hypothesis is rejected (significant relationship); H3 z-cal (7.17)> z-critical (1.96), null hypothesis is rejected (significant difference) H4 z-cal (7.68)> z-critical (1.96), null hypothesis is rejected (significant difference). Saipem is rated very low in their implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility CSR from the Community’s perception. On the part of Total E&P Nig. Ltd, the study noted that they have brought some developmental projects into their host communities. The study revealed that companies carry out projects that are convenient to them and not what the communities need, because there are no compelling laws on corporate social responsibility in Nigeria. The study recommends that government should liaise with oil and gas companies and host communities to design and implement good Corporate Social Responsibility programmes which will ensure that the core values of Corporate Social Responsibility as an approach geared towards providing development and maintaining good working relationships in host communities is achieved.
Keywords: Comparative-Study, Corporate Social-Responsibility, Total E&P, & Saipem, Rivers State
[1]. Akansanya, A.A (2001). Multinational in a changing Environment: A case study of Business Government Relationship in the third world. New York: Fraeger Limited.
[2]. Bright, O.U., (2010). Multinational corporations and the Niger – Delta conflict: A sociological perspective. International Journal of Communication studies: Vol.5,11.
[3]. Centre for Strategic Research and Development of Georgia (CSRDG) 2007.
[4]. Public perception and expectation toward corporate social responsibility (CSR) in Georgia, U.S.A.
[5]. Ekeocha,O. (2001) Conflict and Relations practice in oil Industry: An SPDC perspective public Relations Journal Vol. 2(2)

Paper Title :: Identification, Distribution and Modes of HIV Transmission Among 212 HIV-infected Children Initiated on ART in Selected Project Communities in Akwa Ibom, Rivers, and Imo States of Nigeria
Author Name :: Ogazi, Josephine || Uzondu, Charles A || Tessie Philips-Ononye || Orame, Ngozi || Okoye, Chidimma || Igbokwe, Charles
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 98-106
Nigeria has 220,000 children between 0 to 14 years who are HIV positive and only 26% of these are receiving Antiretroviral Treatment (ART) (UNAIDS 2017). An estimated 210 000 new HIV infections occurred in Nigeria in 2017, among them 37,000 children due to mother-to-child transmission. Despite regular global emphasis and updates on guidelines recommending earlier initiation of ART in HIV-infected children, this was not heeded as a priority in Nigeria therefore ART initiation for HIV-positive children lags behind that of adults. The 212 HIV-positive children studied here were part of the 218 positive children identified and enrolled first into family OVC care and support, and later into ART care.
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[2]. Florence Soh Fru, Andreas Chiabi, Seraphin Nguefack, Evelyn Mah, Virgin Takou, Jean Baptiste Bogne, Marie Lando, Pierre-Fernand Tchokoteu, Elie Mbonda (2014): Bseline demographic, clinical and immunological profiles of HIV-infected children at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital, Cameroon. The Pan African Medical Journal. Doi:10. 11604/pamj. 2014.17.87.3264
[3]. Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA (2017)).
[4]. Nigeria National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA) (2014). “Country Progress Report 2014 ( report_2014.pdf)
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Paper Title :: Demografic Factors Associated With Early Retirement Intention among School Leaders in Secondary Schools
Author Name :: Norhana Mohamad Saad || Yaakob Daud || Mua’azam Mohamad
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 107-111
The purpose of this study was to identify the level of early retirement intention and demographic factors associated with early retirement intention among school leaders of secondary schools in Kelantan. 347 teachers consisting of senior assistants, senior teachers, heads of units and heads of six (6) core subjects from secondary schools in the state of Kelantan, Malaysia had participated in this research.Data was collected and analysed using the Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) version 21. They were interpreted using descriptive and inferential statistics. The finding of the research revealed the level of early retirement intention among the school leaders in Kelantan was at the high level (M=4.18,SD=.41). The discovery also divulged no significant difference in early retirement intention based on gender,age and experience as a teacher among these leaders. Several suggestions had been submitted in order to reduce the early retirement among the school leaders so as to increase motivation to be committed to the task of promoting the continuity of the nation's education transformation until their compulsory retirement age.
Keywords: early retirement intention, school leaders, demographic factors, compulsory retirement.
[1]. Appiah-Agyekum, N.N., Suapin, R.H. and Peprah, S.O. (2013). Determinants of Job Satisfaction among Ghanaian Teachers. Journal of Education and Practice 4(3): 43-50.
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Paper Title :: An Empirical View of How Campus Life and Behaviour of Nigerian Students Affects Their Academic Performance
Author Name :: Past. Dr. Abomaye-Nimenibo || Williams Aminadokiari Samuel || Michael Jack Eyo, Mni || Edet, Glory Nsunwara (Miss)
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 112-128
There is a great diversity in terms of socio-cultural, political, religious and racial backgrounds among students and lecturers. This diversity, with the presence of an appropriate lecturer-student or student-lecturer relationship, creates a campus environment that prepares students and lecturers to live and work amicably in a socio-culturally diverse society. It also equips them to respond to an increasingly complex global environment; besides, interpersonal relations in diversity which makes room for the generation, advancement and dissemination of knowledge, which is one of the key mission characteristics of university education in Nigeria and elsewhere. The main thrust of this study was to empirically examine the effect of Nigerian student's campus life vis-à-vis their behaviour and performance. To achieve this method we use the survey research method, using a questionnaire as an instrument of gathering data for the study through random sampling drawn from (3) three major Universities in Akwalbom State. The 600 copies of the questionnaire were distributed and collected. Learning and cognitive response theories were used and literature reviewed accordingly. We used exploratory and survey research design. The results revealed that; there is a significant impact of student campus life on the student academic performance; showing that there is a strong correlation between student's campus life and behaviour vis-à-vis their academic performance. Four research hypotheses were formulated and used in this study. We recommended that students should live a good life on campus to maximally achieve a high level of academic performance in their academics.
Keywords: Nigerian Students, campus life, behaviour, academic performance, Environment, Learning, Romantic Relationships, Peer Pressure, Partying, Drug Addiction, Cult Groups, Organizations, Attitude, Clubs and Organizations.
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