Volume 02 - Issue 01

Paper Title :: Research on the Usability of the LeVAnDa System (Lesson Video Analysis Database)
Author Name :: Nikolaos Sfingos || Evangelos Tsamourtzis || Panagiotis Antoniou || Marianna Tzekaki
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 01-09
The present article aims at presenting the usability analysis of the LeVAnDa system, an internet application which supports the indexing of audio-visual information accessed on YouTube through the LeVAnDa system. LeVAnDa has been developed as a response to and a supportive tool to cater for Physical Education Teachers and Coaches‟ specific educational needs. In particular, it focuses on facilitating their activities related to their next teaching unit delivery preparation, introducing and enriching their cognitive scope with updated knowledge as well as upgrading their educational material diffusion over to their students. These objectives are enhanced through the description of key-video snippetsattracting the user‟s individual interest, as well as through organizing and archiving the available audio-visual material into snippets. In order to retrieve useful and reliable results, a usability survey was conducted on the basis of quantitative questionnaire five-Likert scale dispatched to a good number (210) of individual Physical Education Teachers and Coaches. Upon the research conclusion there has been evidenced supporting the questions related to a) the speed of familiarizing oneself with the LeVAnDa application, b) its usefulness, c) its functionality as well as d) the speed of organizing the audio-visual material, accounted for the end users‟ highest satisfaction rates and the acknowledged innovation of the system, as a result of the respondents‟ obviously declared willingness to integrate the LeVAnDa system into their daily vocational routine.
Keywords: LeVAnDa, YouTube, video indexing, video annotation, educational tool for sports
[1]. K. Bloom, K. M. Johnston, “Digging into YouTube videos: Using media literacy and participatory culture to promote cross-cultural understanding,”Journal of Media Literacy Education, 2(2), pp. 113–123, 2010.
[2]. T. Borchert, N. Seidel, M. Karapanos, A. Schneider, “Computergestützte berufliche Weiterbildung von Sportlehrkräften,”In Proceedings of the 20. Workshop GeNeMe„17 Communities in New Media,pp. 236–245, Dresden, 2017
[3]. M. Colasante, J. Fenn, “ ''mat'': A new media annotation tool with an interactive learning cycle for application in tertiary education,” In George Siemens & Catherine Fulford (ed.), World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications(ED-MEDIA) 2009, pp. 1-6, Waynesville, United States, 22 June 2009.
[4]. V. Ebert, “Videoanalyse - ganz einfach. Ein Bild sagt mehr als tausend Worte, ein Video zeigt oft mehr als ein Bild, ” Österreichischer Ruderverband 2017.[Online]. Available:[Accessed: June 24, 2018].
[5]. A. Garbis – Ladovrechis,“Theories of Learning and Educational Software Application. Postgraduate Research,” University of Pereaus, Computer Science Department,2018. [Online]. Available: /handle/unipi/11177/Garbis-Ladovrechis_Andreas.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. [Accessed: Okt. 11, 2018].

Paper Title :: Rekindling Nigeria’s Manufacturing Sector Performance for Economic Growth and Development
Author Name :: Udo N. Ekpo, PhD
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 10-24
This paper examines Nigeria‟s manufacturing sector performance, it‟s challenges and prospects with the aim of providing a clearer insight into the current state of the sector. This study employed descriptive analysis approach and gathers data largely from secondary sources. The findings show that manufacturing sector‟s performance in Nigeria is unsatisfactory. The current manufacturing sector‟s performance is low compared to the performance levels obtained in the 1970s. One of the notable features of Nigeria‟s manufacturing sector is that it is highly import-dependent. Hence, the cost of production, size of output, competitiveness of the product and the returns to investments is strongly tight to foreign exchange availability and foreign exchange rate in the country. The challenges which had impeded the performance of manufacturing sector identified in the study include inadequate foreign exchange and high exchange rate, infrastructural deficit, inadequate access to credit, high interest rate and inflation rate, multiple taxes and levies, insufficient demand and institutional inefficiency. It is recommended that the monetary policy of the country should be fine tuned to ensure relative stable foreign exchange rate, low interest rate and single digit inflation rate; agricultural resources of the country should be fully exploited and utilized to ensure high agricultural output for export and provision of raw material to agro-based industries which produce for export to generate substantial foreign exchange for use in the manufacturing sector, Iron and Steel production firms established by the government, especially Ajaokuta Iron and Steel Plants, should be revitalized to provide industrial base for the country by producing the spare parts, tools, machinery and equipment for other manufacturing firms in the country. The government should provide adequate and reliable electricity supply to reduce manufacturing sector reliance on private production of electricity and, a good road network and functional railway services to aid movement of raw materials and finished products of manufacturing firms in the country.
Keywords: Manufacturing sector, Manufacturing sector performance, economic development
[1]. Ademola, I. S. (2012). Government Expenditure in the Manufacturing Sector and Economic Growth in Nigeria. Internaltional Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 3(11): 1-7.
[2]. Aderibigbe, (2004). Evaluation of the Impact of Entrepreneurial Characteristics on the Performance of Small Scale Manufacturing Industries in Nigeria. Journal of Asia Entrepreneurialship and Sustainability.
[3]. Anyanwu, J. C., Oyefusi, A., Oaihenan, H. and Dimowo, F. A. (1997). The Structure of the Nigerian Economy. Onitsha, Nigeria: Joanee Educational Publishers Ltd
[4]. Bamidele, R. O. (2005). “Globalization and the Nigerian Manufacturing Sector‟‟. The Nigerian Journal of Economic and Social studies, 47(2): 281-332.
[5]. Banjoko,S. A., Iwuji, I. I., Bagshaw, K. (2012). “The Performance of the Nigerian Manufacturing Sector: A 52-Year Analysis of Growth and Retrogression (1960-2012)‟‟. Journal of Asian Business Strategy, 2(8): 177-191.

Paper Title :: UAE Elementary Students’ Conceptions of Nature of Science
Author Name :: Sufian Forawi || Lara Abdallah
Country :: UAE
Page Number :: 25-32
This study was designed to examine the concepts of nature of science (NOS) that elementary grade students bring into the science classroom. A group of 301 boys and girls from elementary schools in United Arab Emirates were sampled. This study investigated two questions related to students conceptions of nature of science: (1) What conceptions of NOS do young students hold?, and (2) What is the relationship between students‟ conceptions of the nature of science and their gender?. Student‟s conceptions of NOS were measured with the Nature of Science Questionnaire (NOSQ), a newly developed and piloted instrument. Findings showed that the majority of students in this study held uninformed conceptions about most of the NOS aspects. According to the results, there was a significant difference between female and male students‟ conceptions about scientific theory, tentativeness of scientific knowledge, and the influence of social and cultural values on scientific knowledge. These findings suggest that today‟s young students bring to the classroom understandings of the NOS that may serve as the foundation for more effective science education.
Keywords: Nature of Science, Students perceptions, STEM, Science values and cultural values
[1]. Abd-El-Khalick, F. & Lederman., N. G. (2000). “The Influence of History of Science Courses on Students‟ Views of NOS.” Journal of Research in Science Teaching, vol.37, pp.1057–1095.
[2]. Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2012). Nature of science in science education: Towards a coherent framework for synergistic research and development .In B.J. Fraser, K. Tobin, & C. McRobbie (Eds.), Second international handbook of science education (pp. 1041–1060). New York: Springer.
[3]. Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2013). Teaching with and about nature of science, and science teacher knowledge domains. Science & Education, vol.22(9), pp.2087-2107.
[4]. Abd-El-Khalick, F., Bell, R. & Lederman, N. (1998). The nature of science and instructional practice: Making the unnatural natural. Science Education, vol.82, pp.417-436.
[5]. Alfieri, L., Brooks, P. J., Aldrich, N. J., &Tenenbaum, H. R. (2011). Does discovery-based instruction enhance learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, vol.103, pp.1–18.

Paper Title :: Factors Influencing SME Performance:Case Study in Northern Corridor Economic Region, Malaysia
Author Name :: Ibrahim Yunus || Mohamad Nizam Yusof || Nurhidayah Marzuki@Yahaya
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 33-36
This paper provides an empirical study of the relative performance of small scale food industries in Northern Corridor in the state of Kedah, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to identify and measure the performance of small scale food industry under the supervision of Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA). This kind of management practised is intended solely to improve the income of the entrepreneurs through increasing the efficiency and thus exposed their products to export market. A total of 45 producers were investigated and as visualised, their performance showed some kinds of variations. Questionnaires were sent to 600 randomly selected respondents via postal service . There are 120 (20% response rate) of the questionnaires were returned, completed and useable. The analysis methods in this research were based on multiple regression study. The finding of this study found a significant relationship between two transformational leadership style namely inspire followers to go beyond their own self-interest and giving employee empowerment with the teamwork performance.
Keywords: SME Performance, efficiency, entrepreneurs, food industries
[1]. Abu Kassim Ali (2001) Changes In Food Consumption, The Situation In Malaysia, Malaysian Agricultural Research Development Institute, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[2]. Adam, F.G. and Brehman, J.R. (1979) Econometric Modelling of World Commodity Policy. Lexington Books,Toronto, Canada.
[3]. Asan Ali Golam Hassan et al. (2005) Kedah Towards a Developed State. Penerbit Universiti Utara Malaysia.Sintok, Kedah Darulaman.
[4]. Birthal, P. S., Joshi, P.K., and Gulati, A. (2005) Vertical Coordination in High-Value Food Commodities: Implications For Smallholders. International Food Policy Research Institute, 2033 K Street, NW, Washington, DC 20006-1002, USA.
[5]. Daniel Druckman (2004) Doing Research.Methods of inquiry for Conflict Analysis. SAGE Publications. London. New Delhi.

Paper Title :: Factors Affecting Purchase Decisions for Booking Accommodations Online
Author Name :: Chollada Mongkhonvanit
Country :: Thailand
Page Number :: 37-41
Travelers are increasingly using the Internet to search for hotel information and to book their accommodations. With customers doing their own research and disrupting the travel-agency model, it is crucial for the hospitality industry to understand the factors influencing customer decisions and intentions when booking accommodations online. This study investigates these factors in a sample of 400 Thai travelers visiting Bangkok. The results revealed that price, payment method and simplicity of booking procedure factors were the most significant factors. The findings also revealed that age range was statistically significant (p < 0.05).
Keywords: factors, decision, booking, hotel accommodation, online.
[1]. Boonlert, C. (2010). Thai Tourist’s Behavior in Using Online Room Reservations. Master of Business Administration. Srinakharinwirot University.
[2]. Cheng, S., Law, T., & Hsu, C. H. C. (2005). Testing the Sufficiency of the Theory of Planed Behavior: A Care of Customer Dissatisfaction Responses in Restaurants. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 24(4), 475-492.
[3]. Chiang, C. F., & Jang, S. S. (2007). The Effects of Perceived Price and Brand Image on Value and Purchase Intention: Leisure Travels’ Attitudes Toward Online Hotel Booking. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 15(3), 49-69.
[4]. Dodds, W. B., Monroe, K. B., & Grewal, D. (1991). Effects of Price, Brand, and Store Information on Buyers’ Product Evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(3), 307-319.
[5]. Duman, T. & Mattila A. S. (2005).The Role of Affective Factors on Perceived Cruise Vacation Value. Tourism Management, 26(3), 11-323.

Paper Title :: Vaccination as a strategy to face human papillomavirus and its associations
Author Name :: Karla Cristina Faria de Souza || Maria das Dores Saraiva de Loreto || Gustavo Bastos Braga
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 42-49
Objective: To verify the effectiveness of vaccination coverage against human papillomavirus in girls and its association with socioeconomic indicators.
Methods: Quantitative study in the municipalities of Minas Gerais, based on the variables available through the Department of Informatics of the Brazilian Unified Health System (Data-SUS) and the Social Responsibility Index of Minas Gerais: vaccination coverage rate, mortality rate on cervical cancer, the proportion of the population assisted by the Family Health Program, municipal health expenditures, the existence of active health councils, income and the index of the general quality of education.
Results: The average rate of vaccination coverage between 2014 and 2015, as well as the general average of municipalities did not reach the coverage rate of 80% of the target public, proposed by the Ministry of Health, with discrepancies between vaccination coverage among municipalities. Only the general quality index of education showed a significant association.
Conclusion: Developing government strategies for the implementation of vaccination campaigns against human papillomavirus is necessary, to raise awareness of the population on the importance of prevention, followed by educational actions, prioritizing clear information for the target population and those responsible. Whereas the general quality of education index was significantly associated with vaccination coverage rate, this should be prioritized as a factor that influences the population's ability to access services for health promotion and prevention.
Keywords: Papillomaviridae, prevention, health promotion, vaccination.
[1]. Organização Pan Americana de Saúde. Controle integral do câncer do colo do útero. Guia de práticas essenciais. Washington, DC: OPAS, 2016.
[2]. Aguilar RP, Soares DA. Barreiras à realização do exame Papanicolau: perspectivas de usuárias e profissionais da Estratégia de Saúde da Família da cidade de Vitória da Conquista-BA. Physis. 2015; 25(2):359-379.
[3]. Buss M. Promoção da saúde e qualidade de vida. Ciênc Saúde Colet. 2000; 5(1):163-177.
[4]. Oliveira GKS, Oliveira ER, Zarzar CA, Ferreira EB, Menezes TMM. Evaluación de las estratégias de promoción a la salud de los adolescentes utilizadas por enfermeiros em las unidades de salud del municipio de Caruaru – PE. Adolesc Saude. 2013; 10(4):7-16.
[5]. Damaceno AN, Bandeira D, Hodali N, Weiller TH. Acesso de primeiro contato na atenção primária à saúde: revisão integrativa. Rev APS. 2016; 19(1):122-38.

Paper Title :: Green Supply Chains in the Hotel Industry: Review of the Greek Hotel Market
Author Name :: Panousopoulou Peggy
Country :: Germany
Page Number :: 50-53
More and more hotels nowadays have embedded green practices in their supply chain management, either due to environmental government regulations or pressure from stakeholder groups. The purpose of this essay is to investigate the views of hotel staff in order to determine whether they are implementing green supply chain management strategies, which practices they apply and what their advantages are. In the quantitative survey, a questionnaire was distributed to 62 hotels in Northern Greece. The results showed that most hotels have put in place strategies for green management of the supply chain that are being properly implemented, especially low energy light bulbs, with the administration emphasizing the benefits of green supply chain management. These practices are mainly driven by lobbying and are related to customer satisfaction and demand. However, the adoption of green logistics management practices is not very much related to corporate social responsibility.
Keywords: supply chain, green practices, hotels
[1]. Amemba, CS (2013). Green Supply Chain Best Practices In Hospitality Industry In Kenya. Global Journal of Commerce & Management Perspective, 2 (3), 7-18.
[2]. Abu Seman , NA, Zakuan , N., Jusoh , A., Shoki , M., & Mat Samat , MZ (2012). Green supply chain management: a review and research direction. International Journal of Managing Value and Supply Chains, 3 (1), 1-18.
[3]. Al- Aomar , R., & Hussain , M. (2017). An evaluation of green practices in a hotel supply chain: A study of UAE hotels. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 32, 71-81.
[4]. Dube, AS, & Gawande, RR (2011). Green Supply Chain Management - A literature review. International Journal of Computer Applications. Retrieved from:
[5]. Ninlawan C., Seksan P., Tossapol K., & Pilada W. (2010). The Implementation of Green Supply Chain Management Practices in Electronics Industry. Retrieved from:

Paper Title :: The Hudud Controversy in Contemporary Malaysia: A Study of Its Proposed Implementation in Kelantan and Terengganu
Author Name :: R. Sivaperegasam, P.Rajanthiran (Dr)
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 54-60
This paper explores and examines Hudud punishments in Islamic penal system, and is specifically purposed to analyse the proposed actualisation of the Hudud law in the two Malay-Muslim dominated states of Kelantan and Terengganu in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. This paper is legal normative with descriptive-qualitative approach on both primary and secondary resources in order to obtain a judicial view of the subject matter by employing legal-theoretical and comparative analysis. In Malaysia, the Syariah Criminal Enactment (II) 1993 of Kelantan and the Syariah Criminal Enactment 2003 of Terengganu (as proposed by PAS) allow the application of Hudud laws into the above mentioned states. However, the enforcement of the above in both these states have been suspended indefinitely as UMNO claims these laws are inconsistent with the Federal Constitution - the supreme law of the Federation. This is because the enactment of penal laws are within the jurisdiction of the federal authority and not the state. Furthermore, the criminal jurisdiction of the Syariah Court has been restricted by the Syariah Courts (Criminal Jurisdiction) Act 1965, a federal law. The arguments in relation to the implementation of Hudud laws in Malaysia is an ongoing political-dispute between PAS and UMNO even to the present moment. Upon examining the facts related, this paper arrives at a point where it confirms the unsuitability on the actualization of the Hudud law presently not only in Kelantan and Terengganu but in contemporary Malaysia as a whole.
Keywords: Hudud, Islam, Criminal Law, Punishment, Syariah, Society, Federal Constitution, Federation.
[1]. R.SivaperegasamP.Rajanthiran (Dr) is Senior Lecturer, and he lectures „Introduction to Political Science‟, „Malaysia‟s Administrative System‟ and „Politics of the Muslim World‟ at the College of Law, Government and International Studies (COLGIS), Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 Sintok, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia. He can be contacted at h/phone: 016-9159694.
[2]. Prophet Muhammad s.a.w is quoted in one of the Hadith as saying: “Whoever changes his religion (of Islam) kill him”. Reported by Bukhari no 2854. The rejection of Islam tends to discourage other people from converting into Islam and that rejection encourages massive criminality and blasphemy with impunity.
[3]. The prevailing interpretation of the rejection of Islam in Islamic criminal jurisprudence means that the apostate was only testing Islam without any commitment to it. To that extent, rejection is a deliberate attack and internal rebellion. The apostate is more dangerous than the infidel. Apostasy also means attacking Islam openly and publicly with treachery and blasphemy, which threatens the social and moral fabric of society, and capable of instigating internal revolution that may topple the Islamic State. See Abdul Rahmanal-Sheha, 1998, “Human Rights in Islam and Common Misconceptions, Islamabad, Islam Books,pg. 130-135).
[4]. “Men are strip to the waist, women have their clothes bound tightly, and flogging is carried out with a leather strip” (Schmalleger 2001: 632).
[5]. The social implications of adultery are obvious, it has given rise to teen pregnancies, broken homes, distrust, divorce and baby dumping, fast spread of AIDS and other venereal diseases, among others. The Prophet Muhammad said „When promiscuous behavior becomes rampant in a nation, Allah s.w.t. will send upon them such (strange) diseases that their own ancestors never heard of „. See Pagename=IslamOnline-English-Ask_Scholar/FatwaE/FatwaE&cid=1119503548032#ixzz108Mdf7qb)

Paper Title :: Evaluation of Relative Importance of the Nonverbal Communication Types by Students in Higher Education
Author Name :: Aleksander Sztejnberg || Tadeusz Leszek Jasiński
Country :: Poland
Page Number :: 61-67
In this paper, the results of the study, which aim was evaluation of the relative importance of the nonverbal eight categories (proximity, eye contact, gestures, posture, mobility, facial expression, touch, and voice) in the effective communication during conversation. The study involved 263 students (131 female and 132 male students of the Humanistic Institute at the Wałbrzych Higher Vocational College and Physical Education Faculty at the Paweł Wołodkowic University College in Płock. Point-Allocation Question (PAQ) technique designed by Parasuraman, Berry, and Zeithmal (1991) was used in this study. An analysis of the obtained results showed that eye contact and facial expression proved to be the most important types of the nonverbal communication for all examined students. Proximity, voice, posture, gesture, and mobility took 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 place in the ranking of the relative importance. The least important type of nonverbal communication was touch for all students. PAQ technique proved to be very useful in the evaluation of relative importance of the nonverbal communication by the examined students.
Keywords: nonverbal communication, relative importance, nonverbal communication categories, PAQ technique.
[1]. Abrams, A. G. (1992). Body Language Speaks Louder than Words. Life & Health Insurance Sales, 135(8), 10–11.
[2]. Babad, E. (2009). The Social Psychology of the Classroom. New York, London: Routledge.
[3]. Babad, E. (2007). Teachers’ Nonverbal Behavior and its Effects on Students. In R. P. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education: An Evidence-Based Perspective (pp. 201–261). Dordrecht: Springer.
[4]. Babad, E., Avni-Babad, D., & Rosenthal, R. (2004). Prediction of Students’ Evaluations from Brief Instances of Professors’ Nonverbal Behavior in Defined Instructional Situations. Social Psychology of Education, 7(1), 3–33.
[5]. Bambaeeroo, F., & Shokrpour, N. (2017). The impact of the teachers’ non-verbal communication on success in teaching. Journal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism, 5(2), 51–59.

Paper Title :: Effective use of Science Inquiry-based Teaching on Student Achievement and Engagement
Author Name :: Hind A. Kassir || Sufian A. Forawi
Country :: UK
Page Number :: 68-84
Guided scientific inquiry investigations are designed to have students reach particular answers through the thinking processes and activities of scientists. This paper investigates the impact the science-inquiry teaching approach and evaluates its effectiveness on the students‘ achievement and engagement level over four months and a half. Subjects were 52 girls from a UAE public school following the science reform. The sample is divided in two: the first group sample n=26, was the experimental group receiving science inquiry-based instruction, while the controlled group (n=26) followed non-inquiry-based instruction(traditional strategy).The dependent variables were the students‘ achievement and engagement which were measured through the mixed-method approach: 1) quantitative data was collected using a pre- and a post-test to assess the students ‗science achievement. 2) Qualitative data was noted using an observation tool designed for the study and entitled EIT 2013 to evaluate the students‘ engagement. The T-test revealed that the science-inquiry teaching approach produced significantly greater achievement among 6th grade students than the traditional teaching approach. Also, students in the experimental group developed positive attitudes toward science than did those in the controlled group.
Keywords: Science education; inquiry-based teaching; student achievement and engagement
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Paper Title :: Visual diagnosis of roads and slope stability design in the Potosí sector – Ciudad Bolívar
Author Name :: John A. Amaya || Giovanny A. Vargas || Jhon V. Acevedo || Henry Y. Bustos
Country :: COLOMBIA
Page Number :: 85-103
The main idea of this social project comes from the need and the study of a community in vulnerable conditions. Although they have a complete network of public services, this is not the same regarding a consistent road infrastructure. This document mentions some aspects where the design of slope stability structures is critical. Through these studies, the community will have the technical tools, which is the basis for management and process before the corresponding entities, as well as the verification, acceptance and consequent construction of the designs made. The intervention points of the project are on selected routes of the Potosí Sector, Jerusalem locality of Ciudad Bolívar, where a visual diagnosis of roads, topography, georeferencing, in-situ tests, laboratory tests and subsequent tests were carried out.
[1]. INVIAS, «I. N. V. E-102 Descripción e identificación de suelos (Procedimiento manual y visual) » INVIAS, Bogotá D. C., 2012.
[2]. INVIAS, «I. N. V. E-111 Ensayo normal de penetración (SPT) y muestreo de suelos con tubopartido» INVIAS, Bogotá D. C., 2012.
[3]. INVIAS, «I. N. V. E-122 Determinaciónenlaboratorio del contenido de agua (humedad) de muestra de suelo, roca y mezclas de suelo-agregado» INVIAS, Bogotá D. C., 2012.
[4]. INVIAS, «I. N. V. E-123 Determinación de los tamaños de partículas de los suelos» INVIAS, Bogotá D. C., 2012.
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Paper Title :: Pygmalion Effect and the Process of Coming –out: An Exploratory
Case Study on the Identity Development of Student Homosexuals
Author Name :: Darrel M. Ocampo
Country :: Philippines
Page Number :: 104-115
This exploratory case study employed Appreciative Inquiry Framework in answering the following questions: 1) What are the expectations set by the following to the student homosexuals; a) Self, b) Parents and c) Teachers; 2. What are the positive and negative effects of these expectations to the student homosexuals? and 3) How do these expectations affect the process of identity development of the student homosexuals?. The participants are five college students who identified themselves as homosexual. Written consent was secured to ensure that the research abides to the ethical standards. The data was triangulated through analysing the point of view of the student participants, their parents and their teachers. Results revealed that expectations set by the student homosexuals, their parent and teachers are all contributory factors that affect the identity development of student homosexuals. Moreover, it was revealed that those who have problems in their identity development experienced difficulties in their performance in school. Positive and negative effects of expectations were also noted as the participants shared their stories. With the results, it was recommended that teachers must treat all their students equally regardless of their gender preferences in life. Activities that support the holistic personalities of students must be given emphasis. The parents must support their children in whatever endeavour they take and provide them guidance to be successful in their academic pursuits. Lastly, a model of counselling procedure for student homosexuals was proposed.
Keywords: Pygmalion Effect, Student Homosexuals, Identity Development
[1]. Agee, J. (2004). Negotiating a teaching identity: An African American teacher’s struggle to teach in test- driven contexts. Teachers College Record, 106(4), 747–74.
[2]. Alsup, J. (2006). Teacher identity discourses: Negotiating personal and professional spaces. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
[3]. Au, W. (2009) Social studies, social justice: W(h)ither the social studies in high-stakes testing. Teacher education quarterly, Winter (2009).
[4]. Banks, J. A. (1995). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. In J. A. Banks & C. A. McGee Banks (Eds), Handbook of research on multicultural education (pp. 3-24). New York: Simon & Schuster.
[5]. Bartolome, L. I. (2004). Critical pedagogy and teacher education: Radicalizing prospective teachers. Teacher Education Quarterly, 31(1), 97-122.

Paper Title :: Congolese Practice of tourism
Author Name :: Kayembe Ilunga
Country :: Congo
Page Number :: 116-130
Background: Foreign practice tourism then nationals for lack of financial or culture, so it essential to analyze Congolese activities towards tourism.
Objective: This study describes the behavior of Congolese towards tourism, and studies Congolese expenditure for domestic and international tourism.
Materials and methods: From April 2014 to January 2015, the methodology of our study consists in six methods: historical, comparative, systemic, descriptive, inductive and analytical method. Moreover, for techniques, we used the free observation, the interview and the documentary technique.
Results: Congolese do indeed practice tourism but especially for the reasons of business, congress, official missions however the reasons for approval and leisure are few. This is the figure of 7% internally and at least 30% externally.
Conclusion: Congolese must be encouraged to practice internal tourism.
Keywords: Tourism, Practice, Congolese, International tourism, National tourism
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[3]. DECROOTE, P. (1989). Tourism. Brussels: ASTRIDAAN.
[4]. GUIBILATO, G. (1980). Tourism Economics. Brussels : Delta and SPES.
[5]. LANQUAR, R. (1990). Sociology of Tourism and Travel. what do I know. Paris : PUF.

Paper Title :: The Effect of Teacher Leadership on Teacher Performance
Author Name :: Wan Suhaila Wan Yaacob || Yahya Don
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 131-139
This study was conducted to determine the role of teacher leadership in influencing teacher performance among generation Y teachers of MARA Junior Science College (MRSM), Malaysia. It was a cross sectional study using standardized questionnaires, the Teacher Leadership Self-Assessment, to measure the level of teacher leadership (Katzenmeyer & Moller, 2009) and The Framework for Teaching Evaluation Instrument 2013 Edition (Danielson, 2013) which measured the teacher performance. The respondents for this study were 350 generation Y teachers randomly selected from 54 MARA Junior Science Colleges throughout Malaysia. The data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for The Social Science (SPSS) version 23 for Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and T-test. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was applied using Analysis of Moments Structures (AMOS) version 21 to analyze the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and the causal effect between the variables. The findings showed that there is a significant effect of teacher leadership on teacher performance among generation Y teachers in MRSM. The strong significant effect showed that the values of teacher leadership would influence the teacher performance. Thus, leadership values should be inculcated and practiced among the teachers in order to increase their performance.
Keywords: Teacher leadership, teacher performance, distributive leadership, generation Y
[1]. Barry, B., Daughtrey, A. & Wieder, A. (2010). Teacher leadership: Leading the way to effective teaching and learning. Center for Teaching Quality. Retrieved from
[2]. Berg, J. H., Carver, C. L. & Mangin, M. M. (2014). Teacher leader model standards: Implications for preparation, policy and practice. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 9(2), 195-217.
[3]. Bolden, Richard. (2011). Distributed leadership in organizations: A review of theory and research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 13, 251-269.
[4]. Browne, M. W. & Cudeck, R. (1992). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. Sociological Methods & Research, 21(2), 230-258.
[5]. Center for Strengthening the Teaching Profession. (2009). Teacher Leadership Skills Framework. Retrieved from