Volume 01 - Issue 08

Paper Title :: Role of Emotional Inexpressiveness, Self-Objectification and Gender on Internet Addiction among Undergraduates
Author Name :: Moses T. Imbur || James E. Effiong || David O. Iloma
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 01-08
The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design to examine the role of emotional inexpressiveness, self-objectification and gender on internet addiction among undergraduates in a South-Southern part of Nigerian University. A total of 226 (44 [19.5%] male and 182 [80.5%] female with mean age of 21.25 and SD of 2.93) participated in the study. Three instruments: Young (1998) Internet Addition Test revalidated by Frangos, Frangos and Sotiropoulos (2012), Objectified Body Consciousness Scale (OBCS) by McKinley and Hyde (2006); and Berkeley Expressivity Scale by Gross and John (1997) were used in data collection. Independent t-test was used to test the hypotheses and hierarchical multiple regression was used to test the third hypothesis. Results of the t-test showed that students who were emotionally inexpressive were more addicted to internet than those who were not. Also, students who scored high on self-objectification were more addicted to the internet than those who scored low on self-objectification. However, results of the hierarchical multiple regression revealed that emotional inexpressiveness, self-objectification, level of study, age, and gender jointly predicted internet addiction among undergraduates. Results further showed that Level of Study (with Year 4 students reporting more on Internet addiction) and Self-objectification were the respective best predictors of Internet Addiction (β=.62, t =11.63, P<0.05; β=.31, t =3.84, P<0.05) while emotional inexpressiveness had the least contribution to the prediction of internet addition (β=-.17, t =-1.81, P>0.0 5). It was therefore, concluded that self-objectification basically underscore why most undergraduate can be internet addicted.
[1]. Ashmore, R.D. & Del Boca, F. K. (1979). Sex stereotypes and implicit personality theory: Toward a Cognitive–Social Psychological Conceptualization. Sex Roles, 5, 219–248.
[2]. Aubrey, J. S. (2006). Effects of sexually objectifying media on self-objectification and body surveillance in undergraduates: Results of a 2-Year Panel Study. Journal of Communication, 56, 366-386.
[3]. Bahrainian, A., & Khazaee, A. (2014). Internet addiction among Students: the relation of self-esteem and depression bull. Environment pharmacology, Life Science, 3, 3, 01-06.
[4]. Bigges S. (2000). Global village or urban jungle: Culture, self-construal and the internet. Process Medical Ecology, 1, 28-36.
[5]. Brody, L. R., & Hall, J.A. (2000). Gender, emotion, and expression. In Handbook of Emotions, ed. by M. Lewis and J.M. Haviland‐Jones. 2nd ed. New York: Guilford.

Paper Title :: Impact of Technical and Vocational Education and Training in the Rehabilitation of Repentant Militants in Rivers State
Author Name :: Nnodim, A. U. || Ochogba, C. O.
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 09-15
The study investigated the impact of Technical/Vocational Education and Training in the rehabilitation of repentant militants in Rivers States. A descriptive survey design guided the study. A population of all repentant militants was adopted for the study. From this population, a sample size of 268 repentant militants which comprised 182 graduates and 86 non-graduates who benefitted from the Rivers State vocational training was sampled through snowball sampling technique. Three research questions were answered and two hypotheses were tested. The instrument for the study was partitioned into three sections, structured in the pattern of 5 point Likert rating scale of agreement. The instrument was faced and contents validated by two experts in the Department of Vocational and Technology Education in Rivers State University, Port-Harcourt. The reliability of the instrument was determined through Cronbach Alpha Reliability Coefficient. The reliability coefficient achieved was 0.86. Mean and Standard Deviation were used to answer the research questions, while Z test statistical tool was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The study found among others that vocational/technical skills such as auto-mechanic, welding and fabrication, fishery, fashion designing, bead making and boat building were extended to repentant militants in Rivers State, and that acquisition of these skills makes it possible for repentant militants to socialize positively, belong to professional associations, shun social vices, start up new business, earn a living, and have steady source of income. More so, the study found that through the rehabilitation programme, repentant militants have peace of mind, personal safety, personal dignity, societal recognition and professional association recognition. It was recommended among others that the rehabilitation of crime offenders should be based on vocational/technical training and not payment of stipends, and that at least three (3) World class vocational/technical training centers should be built in each senatorial zone in Rivers State to help train youths who were granted amnesty.
[1]. Adebayo, S. (2010). “20192 Ex-militants begin six months training today”. Retrieved from:
[2]. Aduma, J . J. (2016). Interview on amnesty programme with an amnesty coordinator at Rivers State amnesty office, 16th Floor, Point Block, Rivers State Secretariat, Port-Harcourt
[3]. Ajibola, M.O, Ebikefe, A.V & Awodiran, O.O.(2014). Militant activities and property values in Port-Harcourt, Rivers State. American International Journal of Social Science, 3(1), 118-128.
[4]. Ajokporise, D. (2010). Challenges of Vocational Education in a distress economy. Journal of Research in National Development, 8(1), 1-4.
[5]. Dutta, A., Gervey, A., Chan, F, Chin, C. C & Ditchman, N. (2008). Vocational rehabilitation services and employment outcomes for people with disabilities: A United States study. Business Media LLC.

Paper Title :: Traditional Morality Versus Enlightenment Modernity of 21st Century: an Evaluation of Alasdair MacIntyre’s Moral Philosophy
Author Name :: Dr. Dominic Zuoke Kalu || Dr. Victor Ifeanyi Ede
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 16-21
This work evaluates the influence of modernity on traditional morality using Alasdair MacIntyre‟s Moral Philosophy. It is no longer news that the 21st century world has lost the light of moral values handed over to humanity from generation to generation. Findings show that modernity has brought disorder and chaos in morality and has destroyed the already existing traditions. The penchant for modernity has become the order of the day. Moral decay today manifests in practices such as lack of respect for life and common properties, same sex marriage, mercy killing, suicide, surrogate motherhood, indecent dressing, prostitution, abortion, human trafficking, and child abuse. The researchers recommend the use of MacIntyre‟s tradition-based-morality to identify the loss of tradition in our society and to bring back to our consciousness the value of morality which will help us to live a fulfilled life for the good of the entire humanity..
[1] C. Achebe, Things Fall Apart, Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd, 1958.
[2] A. C. Osuji, Better Burn than Trust: An Ideal Response to Certain Modern Pressures. Owerri: Assumpta Press, 1996.
[3] J. Pearsall (ed), The Concise Oxford Dictionary-Tenth Edition, Oxford, University Press, 2001.
[4] A. MacIntyre, After Virtue: A Study In Moral Theory. London: Gerald Duckworth and Co. Ltd., 1981.
[5] A. MacIntyre, Whose Justice? Which Rationality? Notre-Dame, University of Notre-Dame Press, 1988.

Paper Title :: The Management of Personnel in the Early Childhood Care Schools in Sokoto State, Nigeria
Author Name :: Dr (Mrs) RABIU MadinatIkeola || JIBRIL, Aisha
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 22-30
This study was carried out to assess the Management of Personnel in the Early Childhood Care Schools in Sokoto State. Descriptive research design was the method used to collectdata about the study. The population were care givers, head teachers and assistant head teachers of 19 sampled local governments in Sokoto State. Purposive was used in selection of 60 schools from 200 schools from the 19 selected local government areas out of the 23 local government areas of Sokoto State. Two hundred and one caregivers including head teachers and assistant head teachers were selected as respondents. In addition, questionnaire titled Personal Management Questionnaire (PMQ) was used for data collection and three hypotheses were tested. Findings from the study showed that majority of the Early Childhood Care Schools in Sokoto State do not have qualified staff. Mostof the staffwere not sponsored for conferences and workshops and they are also living under poor condition of service.The hypotheses findings revealed that there is no significant difference in the opinions of administrators and caregivers on the quality of staff recruited and staff welfare .It wasconcluded that staff in ECC schools are characterised by poor management. It was recommended that the government should play key role in personnel recruitment and selection policy should be on merit while teacher education and training and staff welfare should be given top priority.Keywords:management, personnel andrecruitment.
[1]. Alabi, A.T. (2002). School personnel management and personnel the craft of educational management.Ilorin. Indemac.
[2]. Ayinla, B. N. (2003). Issues in Human resources management in Educational institution in Nigerian in Journal of Educational Manager and Planners, 1, (1):33.
[3]. Brooksbank, K. & Anderson, K. (1988).Educational Administration in Society of Educational Officers England.Longman pub.
[4]. EECEC (2014).Encouraging quality in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Pdf, 10:30am 27/1/2014.
[5]. Ejiogu, A. (2008). Human Resource Management towards Greater Productivity pub by generation press LTD Lagos Nigeria.

Paper Title :: Conflict in Ukraine
Author Name :: Mariia Boiko
Country :: Belgium
Page Number :: 31-35
The crisis, which began in the autumn of 2013 as an outcome to the irresponsible policies of the Ukrainian government and the greed of the Ukrainian elite, was transformed into a coup, seizure of power and chaos spreading to the territory of one of the largest countries of Europe by the awkward efforts of not indifferent partners. And today, months later, the country is in a state of civil war, a humanitarian catastrophe and the expectation of a severe economic crisis. This research paper will make it possible to understand the essence of events and accordingly formulate its position regarding the situation in Ukraine, the role of Russia and the West in its destiny; analyze the political, economic and social preconditions for the beginning of a military conflict in Ukraine and to identify the outcomes and possible ways to overcome the crisis and achieve stability. This conflict led to huge human losses, mass migration of the population, and the emergence of large-scale economic losses for both the Ukrainian economy and the economies of the countries which were involved.
[1]. DE, M., BALLESTEROS, P. P., & TROITIÑO, D. R. (1991). Female emigration from North Africa to Europe–Intercultural Functions. trabajo, (13-14), 23-35.
[2]. Graziatti, L. V. (2018). The Treaty of Rome EEC and EURATOM 1957. ABC Research Alert, 5(3).
[3]. Joamets, K., & Kerikmäe, T. (2016). European Dilemmas of the Biological versus Social Father: The Case of Estonia. Baltic Journal of Law & Politics, 9(2), 23-42.
[4]. Kerikmäe, T. (1994). Euroopa Inimõiguste Konventsiooni tõlgendamisest. Juridica, 4.
[5]. Kerikmäe, T. (2001). Eesti parlamendi roll pärast liitumist Euroopa Liiduga. Riigikogu Toimetised, 4, 128-133.

Paper Title :: Corsican Nationalist Movements
Author Name :: Olga Alekseeva
Country :: Belgium
Page Number :: 36-40
This paper seeks to reveal the essence of the nationalist conflict at the heart of the European Union and its possible outcomes. The nationalist movements in Corsica are becoming more and more serious nowadays. All actions and news taking place in Corsica are regularly and thoroughly covered by the media. However, this conflict requires more precise consideration and in-depth study, beginning with the definition of the concept of nationalism, ending with the legitimacy of all these separatist movements. At the beginning of the work, the geography and history of the island will be covered, before concentrating on the history of the formation of the nationalist movements. We will identify the premises for the creation of nationalist movements and continue with description and analysis of the activities of nationalist groups nowadays. Also in the work we will present and describe the two sides of the Corsican conflict. We will conclude by questioning the possibility of obtaining the desired autonomy for Corsica from the French mainland and we will describe the possible outcomes of that conflict.
[1]. Carrington D. (1971). Granite Island: Portrait of Corsica. (p.1-14).
[2]. Christophe Roux. ‘Violent Separatism and Academic Silence: The Case of Corsica.’ (22-27/03/2002).
[3]. DE, M., BALLESTEROS, P. P., & TROITIÑO, D. R. (1991). Female emigration from North Africa to Europe–Intercultural Functions. trabajo, (13-14), 23-35.
[4]. France 24 English. (2016). ‘Corsican nationalism: The test of power’ (08/04/2016).
[5]. Graziatti, L. V. (2018). The Treaty of Rome EEC and EURATOM 1957. ABC Research Alert, 5(3). Joamets, K., & Kerikmäe, T. (2016). European Dilemmas of the Biological versus Social Father: The Case of Estonia. Baltic Journal of Law & Politics, 9(2), 23-42.

Paper Title :: Haiti, roots of the conflict and future development
Author Name :: Rút Madáčová
Country :: Slovakia
Page Number :: 41-46
Haiti was the world’s first free black republic born from the Independence war in 1804. Thorough its democracy problems and basically everything from the indemnity they had to pay to France for their freedom and independence to the nowadays situation, it brought instability into the political system together with the distrust in its politics, stagnation of economy and to the top of it, the development of the whole country was stopped. Despite of everything, it is quite interesting how big is that difference between the Dominic Republic development and Haiti, which is not developing and is in crisis even today. However, Haiti after the natural disasters, which are also part of the problem for them, got help from the United Nations, known as a stabilization mission with the goal to ensure and secure stable environment and so, prepare it for future more stable political system and politics. The problem was that this mission with the aim to help and stabilize its catastrophic situation, contributed to even worse process of reparation. Cholera was introduced, which affected one third of Haiti’s population and killed 10,000 people and more. In my research I was trying to identify Haiti’s internal conflict and through several methods develop possible outcomes of their future and policy direction. Because of that I started this research with the Independence war of 1804 and through analysis of its policy till nowadays situation, I came up with modest profile of this country.
[1]. Agreement between the United Nations and the Government of Haiti Concerning the States of the United Nations Operation in Haiti. Volume 2271, 1-40460
[2]. Asante, K. Molefi, 2011. Haiti: Three Analytical Narratives of Crisis and Recovery. Journal of Black Studies 42(2) 276-287
[3]. Brattberg, E., Rhinard, M., 2013. Actorness and effectiveness in international disaster relief: The European Union and United States in comparative perspective International Relations 27(3) 356-374
[4]. Dash, J. Michael, 2004. The Disappearing Island: Haiti, History, and the Hemisphere. CERLAC Colloquia
[5]. DE, M., BALLESTEROS, P. P., & TROITIÑO, D. R. (1991). Female emigration from North Africa to Europe–Intercultural Functions. trabajo, (13-14), 23-35.

Paper Title :: Internal Conflict in Tibet (China)
Author Name :: Juliette Guittard
Country :: France
Page Number :: 47-52
For centuries, Tibet and China have maintained relations of mutual influence, until Beijing imposed on the Tibetan population a domination which could be compared to the colonial way.‖[1] Nowadays, Tibet is considered as a province belonging to the People’s Republic of China. However, the Dalai Lama, spiritual figure for the Tibetan people, is still asking to the Beijing government for the autonomy of the region. This phenomenon is the result of a long historical, cultural, and political evolution. In a first part, this paper will introduce the geographic space of the Tibet region, then in a second, it will introduce the history of this complex area, finally this paper will go deeper into the topic to analyse the internal conflict’s development that shakes Tibet and China.
[1]. Aymeric Janier, 29.May 2012, « Lhassa, foyer de tension entre Chine et Tibet », newspaper « Le Monde »
[2]. Bernadette Sauvaget, 12 September 2016, « Le dalaï-lama en France : une visite politiquement encombrante », newspaper « Libération »
[3]. DE, M., BALLESTEROS, P. P., & TROITIÑO, D. R. (1991). Female emigration from North Africa to Europe–Intercultural Functions. trabajo, (13-14), 23-35.
[4]. François Bongon, 9 September 2017, « En Chine, le pouvoir instrumentalise le renouveau Bouddhiste », newspaper « Le Monde »
[5]. Frédéric Bobin, 23 March 2008, « Chine et Tibet, une si longue histoire », newspaper « Le Monde »

Paper Title :: South Sudaneese Civil War
Author Name :: Noémi Rákossyová
Country :: Slovakia
Page Number :: 53-57
South Sudan is the youngest country in the world, leading up only to its 7th birthday in july, though this country is not so old on the paper, the civil war lasts from late 2013 until current day. This analytical paper uncovers all the aspects of this dispute. The paper starts with the historical background and all the important steps, mis-treatments and fails that led up to the current war. The second section is describing the main geographical characteristics of the state. It focuses on any features that are important in the current war. The third part is analyzing the main internal contenders and their motives in the war. Section four is discussing main external influencers and their own vision in the current civil war. After that there will be the actual development of the conflict. The last section is dedicated to the possible outcomes of the south sudaneese civil war and ideologies. This paper is ment to analyze the conflict from various standing points.
[1]. Addis Ababa Peace Agreement, Feb. 27, 1972.
[2]. BBC. 2018. South Sudan Profile – Timeline.
[3]. Casey, R.2017. Volunteers gather names of South Sudan’s uncounted war dead.
[4]. Copnall, J. 2013. Tangled web of South Sudans politics spells bleak
[5]. Currey, J., 2003. Book Review: Douglas H. Johnson, The Root Causes Of Sudan’s Civil War. African Journal of Political Science, 8(1), p.147-149.

Paper Title :: The Internal Conflict in Spain: The case of Catalonia
Author Name :: Christos Anastasios Tzagkas
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 58-63
Catalonia is one of the autonomous regions of the Spanish state. The history of this area is almost as old as the origin of Spain as an identity first and then as a state. Catalonia already existed as defined area since the 9th century and it became much stronger as a military and commercial empire during the 12th century due to the marriage of Ramon Berenguer IV, the Count of Barcelona and the Princess of Aragon Peronella, thus creating the Crown of Aragon.1 This Crown functioned as a confederation of kingdoms including eastern Spain, much of the Mediterranean and southern Italy. This independent kingdom lasted until the 15th century when King Ferdinand of Aragon married Isabel of Castile and the two kingdoms united into an early form of the Spanish state but at the same time they had to respect the institutions and rules of all the cities that are a part of the Crown of Aragon.
[1]. Alastair Macdonald, Robin Emmott, Spooked by Catalonia, EU rallies behind Madrid, but warily, (September 2017), Reuters,
[2]. Andrew Dowling, Catalonia, Spain's biggest problem, (October 2017), History Today
[3]. Angela Dewan, Catalonia's ex-leader Carles Puigdemont just can't win, (January 2018), CNN
[4]. Christopher K. Connolly, Independence in Europe: Secession, Sovereignty, and the European Union, (2013), 24 Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law, p. 55-58
[5]. Christopher Woolf, The Roots of Catalonia's differences with the rest of Spain, (October 2017), PRI

Paper Title :: Western Sahara Conflict
Author Name :: António Pacheco
Country :: Portugal
Page Number :: 64-69
The paper revolves around the study of the Western Sahara Conflict with special attention to its historical background, the actors involved, the current situation and the possible outcomes (if any) in the future.
[1]. ABDENABY LAMIRI, CAPTAIN, MOROCCAN ARMY M.A, French Signal School, Rennes, France, 2010, ―Development of the Peace Process in the Western Sahara Conflict‖;
[2]. DE, M., BALLESTEROS, P. P., & TROITIÑO, D. R. (1991). Female emigration from North Africa to Europe–Intercultural Functions. trabajo, (13-14), 23-35.
[3]. Graziatti, L. V. (2018). The Treaty of Rome EEC and EURATOM 1957. ABC Research Alert, 5(3). Joamets, K., & Kerikmäe, T. (2016). European Dilemmas of the Biological versus Social Father: The Case of Estonia. Baltic Journal of Law & Politics, 9(2), 23-42.
[4]. Kerikmäe, T. (1994). Euroopa Inimõiguste Konventsiooni tõlgendamisest. Juridica, 4.
[5]. Kerikmäe, T. (2001). Eesti parlamendi roll pärast liitumist Euroopa Liiduga. Riigikogu Toimetised, 4, 128-133.

Paper Title :: How Iranian Constructions’ Project Success Impact by Project Managers’ Cognitive Styles
Author Name :: Amirreza Salehipour || Abdollah Ah mand
Country :: Malaysia
Page Number :: 70-85
Various researches have been conducted to investigate the factors that influence the level of success in a project. Accordingly, the findings identified the project managers‟ performance which is soft skills of individuals, significantly impact the result of project and project success. This study critically reviews the cognitive of project managers‟effect on construction project success in Iran. Quantitative research method is employed and data was collected from Iranian construction project managers. Finding illustrates that construction project manager‟s Knowing, Planning and Creating impact the final outcome of the project. Results of study highlights the significance of human related skills that effect project success in construction projects in Iran, also identifiesthe requirement of critical consideration and attention to project managers‟ cognitive styles in this field. Thus, Iranian project managers by generating this framework would be able to increase their performance and represent outstanding function toward successfully completing a project. Finally, educating and training project managers on the subject of Cognitive Styles and make the topic more understandable will assist project managers to effectively manage their soft skills to approach and achieve the desired outcome.
[1]. Aga, D.A. & Noorderhaven, N. & Vallejo, B. (2016) Transformational Leadership and Project Success: The Mediating Role of Team-Building, International Journal of Project Management,34,(1),806–818.
[2]. Al-Tmeemy, S. M. H. M. and Abdul-Rahman, H.,and Harun, Z. (2011). Future criteria for success of building projects in Malaysia.International Journal of Project Management29(3), 337-348.
[3]. Armstrong, S. J. and Cools, E. And Sadler-Smith, E. (2012). Role of Cognitive Styles in Business and Management: Reviewing 40 Years of Research. International Journal of Management Reviews,14(3), 238-262.
[4]. Banihashemi, Saeed M. & Hosseini, Reza &Golizadeh, Hamed & Sankaran, Shankar(2017) Critical Success Factors (CSFs) for Integration of Sustainability into Construction Project Management Practices in Developing Countries.International Journal of Project Management, 35(6), 1103-1119.
[5]. Beringer, C. And Jonas, D., and Kock, A. (2013). Behavior of Internal Stakeholders in Project Portfolio Management and its Impact on Success. International Journal of Project Management,31(6),830-846.

Paper Title :: Ending Stereotypes on College Campus – An “Un” ending Journey
Author Name :: ZhengZhu
Country :: New York
Page Number :: 86-95
The present study examines if college students‘ negative perceptions of Latino people and culture can be reduced or neutralizedthrough the use of a recorded play that reveals Latino students‘ everyday struggles with negative cultural and racial stereotypes. Grounded on the theories of social prejudice, influence of stereotype threat, and ways of neutralizing stereotype, this paper strives to offer valuable insights and practical implications that can contribute to the effective elimination of varying forms of social prejudices caused by negative stereotypes. The result shows that the fight for eliminating stereotypes will be a long, complicated, and unpredictable journey. The future scholars need to continue using and testing multiple research methods that can produce effective counter-stereotype results, which will ultimately lead to a productive learning and communication environment for students from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds.
[1]. Blair, Irene V. 2002.The malleability of automatic stereotypes and prejudice. Personality and Social Psychology Review6:242 – 61.
[2]. Bless, Herbert., Norbert Schwarz, Galen V. Bodenhausen, and Lutz Thiel.2001. Personalized versus generalized benefits of stereotype disconfirmation: Trade-offs in the evaluation of atypical exemplars and their social groups. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 37: 386-97.
[3]. Brown, Christia S., andRebecca R. Bigler.2005. Children‘s perceptions of discrimination: A developmental model. Child Development76: 533-553.
[4]. Craker, Victor. 2011. ‗Las Memorias‘ makes lasting impression for area students. Tri-Cities Area Journal of Business, retrieved from
[5]. Dasgupta, Nilanjana,andAnthony C. Greenwald. 2001. On the malleability of automatic attitudes: Combating automatic prejudice with images of admired and disliked individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology81: 800 – 14.

Paper Title :: Effect of Corruption on Corporate Financial Performance; A Study of the Banking Industry in Nigeria (1996-2014)
Author Name :: Ekokeme Tamaroukro Timipere || Eze Ghalam Peter || Nelson Johnny
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 96-119
The study set out to investigate the impact of corruption on bank performance in Nigeria. Three objectives were formulated along with three corresponding hypotheses. Data were collected from secondary sources mainly the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and Transparency International publications on corruption. Aggregate data covering the period 1996 through 2014 of all the banks operating in Nigeria were collected and analysed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS), unit root, co-integration, and Error Correlation Mechanism (ECM). The study used Return on Equity (ROE), Return on Asset (ROA) and Net Interest Margin (NIM) as proxies of performance and Corruption Perception Index (CPI) as proxy of Corruption published by Transparency international with size proxy by deposit mobilisation as control variable. The study revealed that the combined impact of corruption and deposit mobilisation on bank performance over the years is statistically significant. However, the direction of impact varies with time and the variable of measurement. Based on the findings, the study concludes that corruption has a significant impact on the performance of banks in Nigeria. The study therefore, recommends that there is need to review the legal and regulatory framework of banks in order to further enhance and strengthen the fight against corrupt practices in the banking sector. Also, the banking industry needs to strengthen their internal control system to be able to identify and prevent corrupt activities.
[1]. Acemoglu, D., Johnson, S. & Robinson, J. A. (2000). The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation. NBER Working paper No. 7771.
[2]. Ahmed, H. I. (2003). Trend in the profitability of banks in Nigeria before and during interest rate deregulation: A comparative analysis. NDIC Quarterly, 13(62).
[3]. Albertazzi, U. & Gambacorta, L. (2009). Bank profitability and the business cycle. Journal of Financial Stability, 5(4), 393–409.
[4]. Asiedu, E. (2003). Foreign direct investment to Africa: The role of government policy, governance and political stability. Retrieved on August 7, 2003 from
[5]. Athanasoglou, P. P., Brissimis, S. N. & Delis, M. D. (2005). Bank-specific, industry-specific and macroeconomic determinants of bank profitability. Bank of Greece Working Paper, 25.

Paper Title :: Tanzania General Election 2015: Religious factors as political instrument in determining voting preferences
Author Name :: Fredrick Alleni Mfinanga || Issa Hamisi Issa || Rofina Mrosso
Country :: Tanzania
Page Number :: 120-124
Religion can be an operative instrument in politics. This has been a phenomenon in Africa under different political contexts either directly or indirectly. Politicians use religion to gain public office. In Tanzania its undeniable that religion is a factor in the electoral process as in every stage citizens, politicians and political parties they are aware with anything that has linkage between religion and electoral process either covertly or overtly. The specific objective of the study was to examine the role of religious factor in Tanzania general Election 2015. Data were collected using questionnaire, interview and Focus Group Discussions between August, 2015 and October 20th 2015. Findings indicated that religious factor was used as a political instrument by both citizens and politicians in 2015 Tanzania general election whereby citizens voted against politicians who used religious factor in their favour during election campaign. Also citizens were aware that Tanzania is a secular state. She does not uphold any of the existing religions in the country as a state religion. Furthermore religious leaders were criticised by citizens for engaging in politics including election campaign instead of preaching peace, unity and provide education on voting for good leaders without bias. The study recommends; religious leaders to stop creating classes among the people in the society by using religion instead religious leaders should be the agent of uniting the people. Lastly politicians should stop using religion as a tool of fighting against their opponents in election campaign and political forum in order to ensure national unity.
[1]. Alava, H. & Ssentongo, J. S. (2016). Religious (de)politicization in Uganda‟s 2016 elections, Journal of Eastern African Studies, Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
[2]. Ball, S., J., (1981) Beachside Comprehensive: A Case Study of Secondary Schooling. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
[3]. Bompani, B. & Frahm-Arp, (2010) (eds.) Development and Politics from Below. Exploring Religious Spaces in the African State. Nongovernmental Public Action Series. Palgrave
[4]. Chabal, P. (2009). Africa: The Politics of Smiling and Suffering. University of KwaZulu-Natal Press, Scottsville, South Africa.
[5]. Dzurgba, A., (2009). An Introduction to the Sociology of Religion. John Archer Publisher Limited, pp: 23.

Paper Title :: Investigation into Students’ Performance in Branches of Mathematics Curriculum in Senior Secondary (SS2) in Abuja Municipal Area Council, FCT, Nigeria
Author Name :: Sule Samuel Sardauna || D. C. Musa
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 125-132
This paper was designed to explore students‟ performance in branches of mathematics curriculum in senior secondary two (SS2) in Abuja Municipal Area Council of Federal Capital territory, Nigeria. The branches identified were number/numeration, algebra, statistics, geometry and trigonometry. Survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample of 120SS2 students from six (6) randomly selected schools (both public and private) in Abuja Municipal Area Council was used for the study. Stratified random sampling was used for the study.Four research questions were answered and four hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. An instrument named “Mathematics Performance Test (MPT)” was developed, validated and used for data collection. Data obtained were analyzed using t-test,Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient(PPMCC) The first hypothesis was tested by using t-test for unrelated samples while the other three hypotheses was tested using correlation coefficient (r). Among the major findings were that: there was no significant difference between the performance of boys and girls in number/numeration, There was no significant difference betweenthe performance of boys and girls in algebra, geometry, statistics and trigonometry, There was a strong association between students‟ performance in number/numeration and algebra, There was no relationship between students‟ performance in geometry and trigonometry. Based on these findings, the following recommendations were made; Since it was found that there is no significant difference between the performance of boys and girls in number/numeration, girls should not feel or be considered to be inferior to boys in mathematics classroom teachers should encourage girls to take their work more seriously, Since girls performed better than boys in statistics, these girls should be encouraged in other branches of mathematics curriculum so that they can compete favourably with their male counterparts, some elements of geometry are needed when teaching trigonometry teachers should ensure that students have the prerequisite knowledge in geometry, Since girls performed better than boys in statistics, these girls should be encouraged to offer the single subject statistics in the school certificate.
[1] Adolphus, T. (2011). Problems of Teaching and Learning of Geometry in SecondarySchools in Rivers State, Nigeria.International Journal of Emerging Sciences,1(2), 143-152
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