Volume 01 - Issue 06

Paper Title :: Adaptation Problem of Rumelian Immigrant Women to Turkish Politics
Author Name :: A Baran Dural, Bahriye Eseler
Country :: İstanbul
Page Number :: 01-06
In many countries, women face so many problems on dealing with political matters. These problems can occur as a result of late participation to political crises. From past to present, women have not taken part in the power struggle, furthermore, they have been blended into background in election events especially in the III. World countries like Turkey. Duverger, on his study about women in politics is being concluded in two results. The first is “women‟s participation tendency in the election” and the second one is “vote‟s directions”. According to Duverger women participation tendency is less than men tendency. (Tekelli,1998: 87) Studies show that immigrant women have to struggle harder to take part in the migrated country. In Turkey for instance especially, women who immigrated from Rumelia to big cities such as Istanbul have to overcome though difficulties and barriers because of the political oligarchy in metropolis. As one participant from Rumelianimmigrants states, “We got a job in factory. Then they took us to Taksim for strike. On those days, syndicates were in everywhere. You could not refuse them. We sit a side in strikes. People warn us that did not meddle in politics.”In this paper, 17 immigrant women from Rumelia who had difficulty adopting to the political life of Turkey, are being reviewed. The women immigrants’ political struggle and their evaluations on Turkish political life will be discussed throughout the in-depth reviews made with the participants.
Keywords: Immigration, Rumelian immigrant women, politics, conflict resolution, political identity.
[1]. E. Aslan, “Türkiye’nin İç Siyasetinde Demokrat Parti (1950-1960),” Ahi Evran Üniversitesi Yüksek Lisans Tezi, TC Ahi Evran SBE, Kırşehir,2014.
[2]. A. G. Bakacak, “Cumhuriyet Dönemi Kadın İmgesi Üzerine Bir Değerlendirme,” Ankara Üniversitesi Türk İnkılâp Tarihi Enstitüsü Atatürk Yolu Dergisi s:44, TC Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara, 2009.
[3]. A. Ş. Bozatay- S. Z. Kutlu, “Siyasette Kadın Temsili Açısından 30 Mart 2014 Yerel Seçimi Sonuçlarının Çanakkale İli Örneğinde Değerlendirilmesi,” Çanakkale Araştırmaları Türk Yıllığı c:12, Çanakkale Araştırmaları Yıllığı, Çanakkale, 2014.
[4]. E. Coşkun. “Türkiye’de Kamusal Bir Özne Olarak Kadının Siyasetteki Görünürlüğü (Görünmezliği),” Selçuk Üniversitesi Yüksek Lisans Tezi,TC Selçuk Ünv,, Konya, 2013.
[5]. B. Eseler, “Rumeli Göçmenlerinin Siyasal Katılımı ve Davranışı Bayrampaşa İlçesi Örneği,” Trakya Üniversitesi Yüksek Lisans Tezi,TC Trakya Ünv. SBE, Edirne, 2016.

Paper Title :: An Income and Expenditure Comparative Study on Urban Local Bodies within Thanjavur District
Author Name :: Dr. P. TamilSelvan, R. Swaminathan
Country :: India
Page Number :: 05-11
Property tax is generally practice by countries around the world (Dzulkanian, 2011), almost all governments around the world rely to some extent on property taxation. The provision of basic infrastructure such as water supply, street lightening, and disposal of refuse, communication halls, market stalls, roads among others is to be performed by the Local Governments being the third tier of government and also deals directly with people at the grassroots. There is a need to study to estimate and evaluate the income and expenditure and to analyze how to tap their resources to fulfill the financial needs. The present study is a secondary data research collected from three ULBs of Thanjavur districts from 2004-2014.
Keywords: Urban local bodies, Income, Expenditure, Coverage ratio, Property ta
[1]. Mohanty, P. K., Misra, B. M., Goyal, R., & Jeromi, P. D. (2007). Municipal finance in India: An assessment. DRG Study, (26).
[2]. Mathur, O. P. and Thakur, S. (2004). India’s Municipal Sector: A Study for the Twelfth Finance Commission, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi.
[3]. Bagchi, S. (2001). ―Financing Capital Investments in Urban Infrastructure – Constraints in Accessing Capital Market by Urban Local Bodies‖, Economic and Political Weekly, January 27.
[4]. Chattopadhyay, S. (2006). ―Municipal Bond Market for Financial Urban Infrastructure‖, Economic and Political Weekly, June 30.
[5]. Mathur, O.P. et al (2011). Indian Municipal finance matters:IMFR, National institute of public finance and policy, 1-319.

Paper Title :: Investigating Power Negotiation through Rhetorical Exchange between Washington and Pyongyang: A Systemic Functional and Semantic Perspective
Author Name :: Datondji Cocou André
Country :: Republic of Benin
Page Number :: 16-25
This article associates the semantic resources for meaning construction and the Hallidayan systemic functional standard to analyse and explain the ongoing tough rhetorical exchange between Washington and Pyongyang over the nuclear weapon development program. The major and ground-breaking result of this exclusively scientific work posits that the outcome of the rhetorical exchange between two presumably unequal interlocutors does not depend on the state of affairs in the real world alone. Rather, it might have much to do with their mental representations which includes their epistemic and deontic states of mind. The findings offer insights into the existence of a power negotiation instance through the rhetorical exchange between the first world power who avails itself of indicating what the rule should be and a presumably less developed and less powerful country who keeps on resisting by drawing the world‘s attention on its weaponry that it deems respect-worthy, and by taking into account some geopolitical factors and some mental states as this paper concludes.
Keywords:Washington, Pyongyang, power negotiation, rhetorical exchange, state of the mind, semantics, Systemic Functional Linguistics, epistemic state, deontic state.
[1]. Allan, K. (2014) Linguistic meaning, London and New York : Routledge Publishing Editions
[2]. Bluth, C. (2017). The Paradox of North Korea‘s Nuclear Diplomacy. In North Korean Review / Volume 13, Number 1 / pp. 45–62, United State of America : McFarland & Company, Inc.
[3]. Bolinger, D. (2014) Language - The Loaded Weapon : The use and abuse of language today. London and New York :Routledge.
[4]. Eggins, S. & Slade, D. (2005). Analysing casual conversation. Second edition. London : Equinox.
[5]. Finegan, E. (2015) Language : its structure and use (seventh edition) United States of America University of Southern California, Cengage learning.

Paper Title :: Impact of Technology on Selected Small Scale Industries in Damaturu Metropolis, Challenges and Way Out
Author Name :: Kolawole, Abdulazeez Oyeniyi
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 26-32
Technology has been identified to have good positive influence on the growth and survival of small scale industries. These desirable influences have not been adequately realized due to many problems: low awareness and skills, scarcity of technologies, costs and financial constraints, poor infrastructures, lack of supports and many others. Despite the various challenges, results of descriptive analysis indicates good assessment of impact of technology at about 70% , strong recommendation for further application at above 65% and strong future hope at 62%. Also, the interpretations of chi-square coefficients rejects null hypotheses, and thereby indicates that: technology has significance role to play in small scale business development, small-scale business has problem in acquiring and using modern technology, and technology has prospects in the future of small scale businesses in Nigerian economy. There is the need for conducive business environment in the form of provisions of infrastructures and tools availability, government must also provide additional enlightens/trainings and financial supports so that technology could be optimally utilized to the benefit of small-scale industry and the economy of the country as a whole.
Keywords: Technology, small-scale industry, tools, equipment
[1]. Afzal, A. (2015): The role of Information Technology in Business . retrieved7th, April 2016
[2]. Akinsola, F (2015): Small Scale Business Entrepreneurship in Nigeria .A Dynamic Approach.Albarka Publishers Ltd. Kano. Nigeria.
[3]. Burgess, S. (2002): Information Technology in Small Business: Issues and Challenges. India Group Publishing.
[4]. El-Namaki, S.S. (1986): Developing and Promoting Technology and Technical Skills in Small Scale Rural Manufacturing Enterprises. Research Institute for Management Science.Nerther Lands. Retrieved 7th April, 2016.
[5]. Howe, B. (2015). 10 Keys to use Technology to Manage Small-Scale Business Records. Retrieved 7th April, 2016.

Paper Title :: Reference services and survey of users satisfaction in academic libraries in Rivers state Nigeria
Author Name :: David-West Boma T. CLN || Dr. (mrs) Owate Comfort N.CLN
Country :: Nigeria
Page Number :: 33-39
This paper investigates references services and a survey of users satisfaction in academic libraries in Rivers State. A survey method was used to sample opinion of library users on satisfaction with reference services. The correlational research design was adopted. The population of the study is twenty eight thousand users (28,000). The stratefied simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. The sample is three hundred and ninety four users (394). Three hypothesis and three research questions guided the study. The instrument used a (15) item liker type scale questionnaire titled Reference Services And User Satisfaction Of Academic Libraries (RSUSQ) which was validated-by experts in measurement and evaluation department. The reliability test was analyze using Pearson Product Moment Coefficient (PPMC) and also the split half method was used. The correlation coefficient of 0.83 was obtained indicating that it was consistent and reliable. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between reference services and users satisfaction. It was recommended that librarians should be alive to their statutory duties of assisting the readers to get the necessary information at the right time.
[1]. Akinde, A. D. & Adagunodo E. R (2001). Information and communication technology in the administration of college of the National Commission for college of education. Abuja: NCCE.
[2]. Aniebo, M. U. (2004). The use of the library and information teachnology for higher education spring field ltd: Nigeria
[3]. Crowley, G. H. and Gilreath, C. L. (2002). Probing user perceptions of service quality: using focus groups to enhance quantitative surveys. Performance measurement and metrics. 3, (2) 78-84.
[4]. Edem, N. B, Mkpufin, C. (2015) Information resources and retrieval: Calabar: Gladings pubishing co.
[5]. Edem, N. B. (2011). Reference services in academic libraries: A practical Approach. :Calabar: Uncial printing press.

Paper Title :: The Effect of Net Profit Margin Ratio (NPM) and Debt to Equity Ratio (DER) on Share Profit at PT.Bumi Resources Tbk Indonesia
Author Name :: TediSetiadi || Suharto || AkhmadSodikin
Country :: Indonesia
Page Number :: 40-52
This study aims to determine the effect of Net Profit Margin and DER to share profits simultaneously, to determine the effect of Net Profit Margin on partial share profits, and to know the effect of DER on partial share profit s. Research conducted on at PT. Bumi Resources Tbk. The company is part of the company that entered in LQ 45 group in Indonesia Stock Exchange. The data involved were observed monthly from 2008 to 2016. The results were known that Variable Net Profit Margin and DER have no effect to share profits simultaneously. F-value count of 0.011 and significance of 0.989. This value is greater than 0.05. The r-squared value of 0.% means that the Net Profit Margin and DER variables affect the stock price by 0% while the rest is influenced by other variables that are not included in the equation model. The NPM variable has no effect on partial share profits. The value of t is -0.118. The significance value of 0.906. The value of this significance is greater than 0.05. The value of r-squared is 0.00. This means that the effect of NPM variable on share profit is 0.0% and the rest is influenced by other variables that are not included in the equation model. The DER variable has no effect on partial a share profit . The value of t is 0.099. The significance value of 0.921. This value of significance is smaller than 0.05, r-value of squared by 0,0. This means that the effect of Net Profit Margin variable to stock price is 0.0% and the rest is influenced by other variables that are not included in the equation model.
Keywords: Net Profit Margin, DebtEquityRatio, Profit Share
[1]. AnoragaPandji, 2007. PengantarBisnis. PengelolaanBisnisDalam Era Globalisasi. Jakarta: RienekaCipta
[2]. Horne, James Van. (2010. Fundamentals of Financial Management, Eleventh edition.
[3]. HusnanSuaddanEnnyPudjiastuti. 2004. Dasar-dasarManajemenKeuanganEdisiKeempat. Yogyakarta:UPP AMP YKPN.
[4]. Lintner, John.1965. The Valuation of Risk Assets and the Selection of Risky Investment in Stock Portfolio and Capital Budgets, The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 47, No. 1
[5]. Mossin, Jan.(1969). Security Pricing and Investment Criteria in Competitive Market, TheAmerican Economic Review, Vol.59, No.5.

Paper Title :: Urban Clarity in Tripoli Center-Libya
Author Name :: Ahlam Abdullah Bridan || Dr.Özlem Özer
Country :: Turkey
Page Number :: 53-61
This paper discusses the urban clarity of the city, presenting the concept of the legibility, by Kevin Lynch (The image of the city) in 1960, which states that linking roads is related to the process of mental mapping of the environment, to study the visual formation of the city by knowing the elements of the city. The Tripoli center was selected as a case study. Tripoli is the capital city of Libya. It located on the south coast of the Mediterranean Sea, is presented by methodological procedures of interviews with people, for sketch mapping. the study sample was selected from the population of the case area. Interviews were conducted for 382 people, including local, visitors and tourists.
Keywords: Tripoli Center, Clarity, Elements, Mental Image
[1]. Amiruddin, Ismail., and Adel, Ettaieb, Elmloshi., "Existing Transportation Scenario In Tripoli, Libya", 2011.
[2]. Jaleel, Ameera., "Legibility Environment Urban of Al-Kifl Historical City", 2013.
[3]. Lynch, Kevin., B. " The Image of the City", 1960.
[4]. EL- ALLOUS, M. O., ABDELATIF., "The Historical Transformation of Civic Architecture: City Council Buildings and Urban Change in Tripoli, Libya", 2016.
[5]. Elbendak, Omar., Emhamed., "Urban Transformation and Social Change in a Libyan City: An Anthropological Study of Tripoli", 2008.

Paper Title :: A Critical Review on Pyramid Structure of Earnings Management in Family-owned Firms
Author Name :: Hassnain Raghib Talab || Faeq Malallah Mahmood Albalaki || Ahmed Mohammed Ibrahi || Hakeem Hammood Flayyih
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 62-71
This study aimed to identify how accounting results were being managed under family owned companies, with pyramid structures and to determine the effect of pyramid structure on firm‟s corporate value. The pyramid structure is considered an entity of business which the structure of its ownership is represented by control‟s top-down chain. A divergence of actual control and ownership of the ultimate owners is achieved through this structure for companies situated at the structures‟ lower-level. Past studies revealed that the ultimate owners in many East Asian show inconsistenciesin control right and cash flow that consequently lead to critical allocation of minority shareholders‟ interests. The findings showed that distinguishing between control and ownership has adverse effects on the value of the firm and earning management. The study concludes from the perspectives of two theories namely alternative effect and entrenchment effect. The entrenchment effect states that controlling shareholders may participate in manipulative earning management with the motive of covering the wealth effects of their expropriation activities. However, an incentive was given to the controlling shareholders by the alignment effect to report high quality earnings as they intend to increase the value of the firm in a long term.
Keywords:family firm, pyramid structure, earnings management, firm performance
[1]. Ali, A., Chen, T.-Y., & Radhakrishnan, S. (2007). Corporate disclosures by family firms. Journal of Accounting and Economics, 44(1-2): 238-286.
[2]. Al-taei, B.F.K., Flayyih, H.H., & Talab, H.R. (2017). Measurement of Income Smoothing and Its Effect on Accounting Conservatism: An Empirical Study of Listed Companies in the Iraqi Stock Exchange. International Journal of Economic Perspective. 11(3).
[3]. Arregle, J., Hitt, M. A., Sirmon, D. G. & Very, P. 2007. The Development Of Organizational Social Capital: Attributes Of Family Firms. Journal of Management Studies, 44, 73-95
[4]. Athanasakou, V.E. (2010), “Discussion of the impact of dual class structure on earnings management activities”, Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Vol. 37 No‟s 3&4, pp. 486-94
[5]. Barnes, L. B., & Hershon, S. A. (1976). Transferring power in family business. Harvard Business Review, 54(4), 105-114.

Paper Title :: Infractional Act and Amorality: a Position Subjective Teenager
Author Name :: Antonio Alexandre Iorio Ferreira || Henrique Figueiredo Carneiro
Country :: Brazil
Page Number :: 72-79
The article presents a study that, based on the psychoanalytical knowledge, sought to reflect on the relationship of the infractional act and the possible stage of amorality still present in adolescence, as one of the forms of subjective constitution imposed by thesocial ties events. We understand that the adolescent subjective implications for the infractional act, as well as the strategies that society has validated to ' contain ' the youth destructive tendencies – instincts - are still crossed by the stage of amorality. The prospect of the presence of the stage of amorality, was studied from the case of a 13-year-old teenager who committed an infractional act (murder) to buy ' candies ' and fulfilled a youth socio-educative measure of deprivation of freedom. With the study, it was possible to reflect that, in times when the decline of the paternal function is asserted, we should take into consideration the multiplicity of the father's names, important in the formation of social ties, of the adolescent responsibility for the infractional act and consequently, a subjective organization that allows the adolescent to enter the field of morality.
Keywords: Amorality; adolescence; infractional act.
[1]. Aulagnier, Piera. (1979). A violência da interpretação: do pictograma ao enunciado. Rio de Janeiro: Imago.
[2]. Clastres, Pierre. (2004). Arqueologia da violência: pesquisasdeantropologiapolítica. [trad. Pablo Neves]. SãoPaulo: Cosac&Naify.
[3]. Costa, Jurandir. (1986). ViolênciaePsicanálise. 2. ed., Rio de Janeiro: Graal.
[4]. Farias, Francisco. (2010). Por que, afinal, matamos? Rio de Janeiro: 7Letras.
[5]. Freud, Sigmund. (1930/2010). Sigmund Freud Obras Completas volume 18. [trad. Paulo CésardeSouza]. SãoPaulo: CiadasLetras.