Volume 01 - Issue 04

Paper Title :: Measurement of the tolerance general level in the higher education students
Author Name :: Aleksander Sztejnberg || Tadeusz Leszek Jasiński
Country :: Poland
Page Number :: 01-07
In this paper, the results of the study, which examined the general tolerance level in the students of the first and second year of the physical education (bachelor degree) and the first year of the pedagogy (master degree), are discussed. Tolerance level was measured with the Polish version of the Tolerance Index (TI), containing 22 statements assigned to three subscales: (1) ethnic tolerance (ET), (2) social tolerance (ST), and (3) tolerance as personality trait (PT). It was found that 86% of the examined students were characterized by the mean general tolerance level. It is interesting that the general tolerance level in the female students was higher than that characteristic for the male students. Higher number of the female students revealed their attitude toward black refugees in comparison to the male students. Differences in the mean scores given by the examined students (both female and male) proved to be statistically significant for subscales ET and ST.
Keywords: tolerance, measurement, Tolerance Index Questionnaire, students‟ opinion, physical education and pedagogy students
[1]. J. Ambrosewicz-Jacobs, Tolerancja. Jak uczyć siebie i innych, Stowarzyszenie Willa Decjusza, Kraków, 2004, [Online]. Available: [Accessed: Dec. 12, 2017]
[2]. J. Balsamska, S. Beźnic, M. Dziwisz, P. Dziwisz, H. Zając, M. Zawiła, Pomiędzy tolerancją a dyskryminacją. O występowaniu i przeciwdziałaniu dyskryminacji na tle religijnym w małopolskich szkołach oraz o treściach etycznych, religijnych i antydyskryminacyjnych w systemie oświaty. Raport z badań, Fundacja na Rzecz Różnorodności Polisfera, Kraków, 2012.
[3]. J. Bazaniak, "Inność obiektem tolerancji. Kształtowanie postaw tolerancyjnych u dzieci w wieku wczesnoszkolnym w ich środowisku edukacyjnym", Poznańskie Studia Teologiczne, 29, pp.323-357, 2009.
[4]. A. Bernacka-Langier, E. Brzezicka, S. Doroszuk, P. Gębal, B. Janik-Płocińska, A. Marcinkiewicz, E. Pawlic- Rafałowska, J. Wasilewska-Łaszczuk, M. Zasuńska, Ku wielokulturowej szkole. Pakiet edukacyjny z programem nauczania języka polskiego jako drugiego dla I, II i III etapu kształcenia (w szkołach m. st. Warszawy), Biuro Edukacji Urzędu Warszawy, Warszawa, 2010a.
[5]. A. Bernacka-Langier, B. Janik-Płocińska, A. Kosowicz, E. Pawlic-Rafałowska, M. Piegat-Kaczmarzyk, G. Walczak, Z. Rejmer, J. Wasilewska-Łaszczuk, M. Zasuńska, Inny w polskiej szkole. Poradnik dla nauczycieli pracujących z uczniami cudzoziemskimi, Biuro Edukacji Urzędu Warszawy, Warszawa, 2010b.

Paper Title :: Dalcroze Eurhythmics as Agent to Induce a State of Flow in Older Adults
Author Name :: Elda Nelly Treviño || Jesús Eduardo Elizondo || Javier Álvarez-Bermúdez
Country :: México
Page Number :: 08-16
Music-making under the perspective of the theory of flow by Csikszentmihalyi, considers the person actively engaged in a physical, emotional, or intellectual interaction with the environment. The objective of this study was to measure the psychometric properties of the adapted Spanish version of the Dispositional Short Flow State Scale-2 (SDFSS-2) and to evaluate the presence of the state of flow after an intervention of ten weekly sessions of Dalcroze Eurhythmics (DE) in a sample of older adults (N = 41) with pre and post measures. During the intervention, the participants listened, felt, and expressed music through motor skills. The factor structure of the SDFSS-2 included two factors: (1) focus enjoyment, (2) challenge-awareness. The indicators of factor 2 related sense of control, and loss of self-consciousness showed statistically significant differences in the Wilcoxon test. Dalcroze Eurhythmics was moderately effective as an agent leading to a state of flow in this sample. With the increase of the population of older adults worldwide, DE constitutes a valuable option to be considered as an ecological, non-pharmacological intervention for this age group in public health systems.
Keywords: music, rhythm, optimal experience, wellbeing.
[1] A. Creech, S. Hallam, M. Varvarigou, H. Mc.Queen y H. Gaunt, «Active music making: a route to enhnced subjective well-being among older people,» Perspectives in Public Health, vol. 133, pp. 36-43, 2013.
[2] Y. Sun, The Effect of Music Therapy Interventions to Increase the Psychosocial Well-Being of Older Adults Living in Idependent and Assisted Living Communities, Florida: Florida State University, 2012.
[3] M. Csikszentmihalyi, Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology, Claremont, CA: Springer, 2014.
[4] L. Custodero, «Seeking Challenge, Finding Skill. Flow Experience and Music Education.,» Arts Education Poliy Review, vol. 103, nº 3, pp. 3-9, 2002.
[5] M. Marin and J. Bhattacharya, «Getting into the musical zone: trait emotional intelligence and amount of practice predict flow in pianists,» Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 4, pp. 1-14, 2013.

Paper Title :: The Impact of Oil Price Shocks on Economic Growth (A Case Study; Selected Six OPEC Countries) During The Period (1995-2014) Panel-Data Models
Author Name :: Atilla Ahmet UĞUR || Khalid Rasheed Khalid
Country :: Iraq
Page Number :: 17-27
This paper examines the impact of oil price shocks on economic growth in selected six OPEC countries. In this regard, we extracted the Petroleum Exporting Countries Data. Variables of the model are GDP, oil price, government expenditure, foreign direct investment, inflation, exports and imports. An annual data for the period 1995 to 2014, for six OPEC countries, including Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Algeria and Nigeria have been collected. The study uses Augmented Dickey–Fuller (ADF) and Phillips–Perron (PP) unit root tests to establish Stationarity of the Panel Data models. Ordinary Least-Square (OLS), Fixed-Effects Model (FEM) And Random-Effects Model (REM) were used to find out Impact of Oil Price on GDP. To choose between Fixed-Effects Model and Random-Effects Model the Hausman test was applied because it has an asymptotic chi-square distribution. The results of Hausman test indicated that the Random Effect Model was the most appropriate model for the study. The empirical results of the study indicated positive and a significant impact of oil price shocks on economic growth (GDP) of selected six OPEC countries.
Keywords: Oil price shocks, OPEC Countries, GDP, Panel-DataModelsandUnit RootTest.
[1]. Blanchard, O. &Gali, J. (2007). "The Macroeconomic Effects of Oil Price Shocks: Why are the 2000s so different from the 1970s?, NBER Chapters", in International Dimensions of Monetary Policy, National Bureau of Economic Research, 373-421.
[2]. Edirneligil, A. &Mucuk, M. (2014), "The Effects of Oil Price on Turkish Economic Growth", Proceedings of International Academic Conferences. International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences, pp. 360-370.
[3]. Greene, W. H. (2012), "Econometrics Analysis", 7th ed., Pearson Education, Inc, NJ.
[4]. Hamilton, J. D. (1983). "Oil and the Macroeconomy since World War II" The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 91, No. 2, pp. 228-248.
[5]. International Monetary Fund (2000), "The Impact of Higher Oil Prices on the Global Economy", paper prepared by the IMF Research Department, December 8th, Washington, D. C.

Paper Title :: Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion programs of pre-vocational readiness for students with Special Education Needs (TISIPfSENs)
Author Name :: Maria Drossinou-Koreas || Theodoros Periferakis
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 28-35
This study aims to signify the importance of pedagogical support in students with disabilities and special educational needs in the special vocational schools. The methodology utilizes the study of three case studies of students with mental disabilities, autism, severe behavioral issues, aged between 14-22 years, focusing on the interactive experimental pedagogical intervention. The Targeted, Individual, Structured, Inclusion programs of pre-vocational readiness for students with Special Education Needs (TISIPfSENs) have recording and have been discussed with educators the vast majority of whom were teachers in special vocational schools. In the initial conclusions there was a tendency among the teachers to support students in pre-vocational readiness under the philosophy and the condition of the Framework of Special Education Program (FSEP) in Greece. It is related to the special education services provided by teachers to students with SEN, aiming at their social inclusion, as it is prescribed by the FSEP (Ministry of Education-Pedagogical Institute, 2009). This framework, by the Presidential Decree 301/1996, captured the first official record of positive potential for providing prevocational education to people with SEN or and disabilities. Finally, the prevocational readiness skills could be taught with the TISIPfSENs and supported pedagogically by means of the Basic Skills Control Lists (B.S.C.L.).
Keywords: Pre-vocational readiness, Framework of Special Education Program (FSEP).
[1]. Attaliotou, K. (2003). Counseling - Vocational Guidance and Special Needs Education in Primary Education. Special Education Issues , 22, pp. 75-81. (in Greek).
[2]. Butt, R. (2014). The changing Role of Teacher Assistants. Where being a 'mum' is not Enough. Canberra: University of Canberra, Faculty of Education, Science Technology and Mathematics.
[3]. Casserly, A. M. (2011). Children's experiences ofreading classes and reading schools in Ireland. Support for Learning , 26 (1), pp. 17–24.
[4]. Christakis, K. (2006). Teaching Children with difficulties. Introduction to Special Education. Athens: Diadrasis, (in Greek).
[5]. Christakis, Κ. (2013). Programs and strategies on teaching for people with special educational need and sever difficulties on learning. Athens: Diadrasi. (in Greek).

Paper Title :: La Agonía Del Ateísmo
Author Name :: Edison Francisco Higuera Aguirre
Country :: Ecuador
Page Number :: 36-44
El presente artículo pone en tela de duda el aparente triunfo del ateísmo. Discute su eficacia a la hora de satisfacer las radicales necesidades metafísicas de la estructura humana. De acuerdo a la concepción antropológica de fondo, el hombre se presenta como un pozo profundo, con sed de infinito. El texto se divide en tres partes: en la primera, se descubre una analogía entre el ateísmo contemporáneo y los tradicionales preambula fidei del cristianismo; en la segunda, se propone la supuesta profesión de fe del ateísmo; mientras que, en la tercera, se mencionan algunas aporías inherentes a la fe del ateísmo, que lo vuelven incompatible con la sed de Infinito que tiene el hombre.
[1]. Atlas Universal de Filosofía. Manual didáctico de autores, textos, escuelas, y conceptos filosóficos, Océano, Barcelona, 2011.
[2]. Benedicto XVI, Discurso de Benedicto XVI a los participantes de la Asamblea plenaria del Consejo Pontificio de la Cultura, 08-03-2008, en internet: (consultado el 10-02-2012).
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[4]. Bunge, M. La investigación científica. Su estrategia y su filosofía, traducción de Manuel Sacristán, Editorial Ariel S.A., Barcelona, 19832.
[5]. Carnap, R. La supresión de la metafísica mediante el análisis lógico del lenguaje, en: A.-J. Ayer, El positivismo lógico, Fondo de Cultura Económica, México, 1978.

Paper Title :: Creating Inclusive, Peaceful Societies and Transparent Institutions: An Intrinsic Goal of Sustainable Development
Author Name :: Ruby
Country :: India
Page Number :: 45-51
This paper attempts to highlight some of the terms that aim at building an inclusive peaceful societies and transparent institution keeping in mind the goal of Sustainable Development. The official agenda for Sustainable Development adopted on 25 September 2015 has 92 paragraphs, with the main paragraph (51) outlining the 17 sustainable development goals and its associated 169 targets, include the following such as End poverty, End hunger, Achieve food security, Ensure healthy lives, Promote well being, Reduce inequality, Build resilient infrastructure, Protect restore and Promote sustainable use of terrestrial ecosystems, Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources for sustainable development and Promote and create peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable, inclusive and transparent institutions at all levels is among one of the most important intrinsic goal of the sustainable development. Thus this paper will discuss the goal of sustainable development in general and specifically deal with the goal of creating and promoting inclusive and peaceful societies, transparent and accountable institutions. And how can these types of societies be created? How can transparent institutions be established? What is the procedure? And what are the factors which are responsible for creating this positive environment suitable for Sustainable Development.
Keywords: Goals of Sustainable Development, Inclusive and Peaceful Societies, Transparent Institutions and Access to Justice.
[1]. Nana, Guar (2015, October16, Friday- 1:30am). Sustainable Development Goals: Promote peaceful and inclusive societies. Retrieved from
[2]. Attree, Larry; Moller-Loswick,Anna. (2015, March). Goal 16: Promote Peaceful and Inclusive Societies for Sustainable Development, Provide Access to Justice for All and Build Effective, Accountable and Inclusive Institutions at All Levels. Retrieved from
[3]. Louise Bosetti, Hannah Cooper & Alexandra Ivanovic. ( 2015, September 25). Turning Words into Action: Peaceful and Inclusive Societies in the SDGs. Retrieved from
[4]. UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 16- Importance of participatory institutions & policymaking. Retrieved from
[5]. Transforming our world- Sustaianable Development. Retrieved from

Paper Title :: The practice of knowledge transfer and language mentoring at multinational companies operating in Hungary - based on empirical research
Author Name :: Gabriella Horváth-Csikós
Country :: Hungary
Page Number :: 52-57
The question of knowledge management/knowledge sharing has become more and more popular for the companies and organizations nowadays. Sharing of knowledge is necessary in the management practice of any competitive companies. Knowledge management has several forms and mentoring is one of them. Will future jobs require mentoring? Or will automation replace this practice also? Future will answer these questions, but what is for sure is that the participants of the future labour market are the present-day secondary school and university students. Therefore educators should focus on them heavily.
Keywords: knowledge management, mentoring, foreign languages, multinational companies
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Paper Title :: Language skills for the sexual education in individuals with Intellectual disability
Author Name :: Maria Drossinou || Nikolaos Panopoulos
Country :: Greece
Page Number :: 67-76
Deficits in social skills is one of the criteria taken into account for the determination of intellectual disability (ID). Social skills associated with sexual behavior of individuals with ID affecting their integration into the school community. The work focuses on enhancing language and social skills to student with ID emphasis on language skills for the sexual education in individuals with ID. Methodology of special treatment and education that is used in this paper refers to the case study of a student with ID and is going to middle school. The tools we used is participatory observation with certain lists of Checklists of basic skills (CBS), the plan of educational intervention and the Form of the Teaching Interaction. The results reveal that the student controls via the supported language skills sexual and social behavior. The student comes in interpersonal contact with their peers by building appropriate interpersonal relationships with them.
Keywords: Intellectual disability, social skills, language skills for the sexual education
[1] Gargiulo, R. M. & Emily, B. C, Instructional Strategies for Students With Mild, Moderate, and Severe Intellectual Disability, SAGE Publications, 2017.
[2] Ainscow, M; Dyson, A, and Weiner, S, From Exclusion to Inclusion: Ways of Responding in Schools to Students with Special Educational Needs, England: CfBT Education Trust. 60 Queens Road, Reading, RG1 4BS, 2013.
[3] Avissar, G; Licht, P and Vogel, G, "Equality? Inclusion? Do They Go Hand-in-Hand? Policy Makers' Perceptions of Inclusion of Pupils with Special Needs--An Exploratory Study," Universal Journal of Educational Research, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 973-979, 2016.
[4] Panopoulos, N. & Drossinou - Korea, M, "Skills of word decoding: a case study of a student with intellectual disability (ID) in the middle school," in 6th International Conference on Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Speech and Language, Belgrade, 2017.
[5] Drossinou-Korea, M. & Panopoulos, N, "Improving Reading Difficulties in a Student with Mental Retardation: A Case Study from the Peloponnese Region," Journal of Regional & Socio-Economic Issues, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 34-48, 2017.

Paper Title :: Selected personality traits of the physical education students in aspect of their self-esteem
Author Name :: Tadeusz Leszek Jasiński
Country :: Poland
Page Number :: 77-84
The work presents results of research, which purpose was to know the prevalence of selected personality traits among the physical education students, different because of their gender and self-esteem. To achieve this goal used two questionnaires – scales: standardized questionnaire – Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) in polish adaptation and descriptive scale of personality (DSP)) developed for this study. The most common description of the personality made by the students, different because of their self-esteem, were considered those, which the highest ratings, equivalent to selecting the answer „often‟, rated by more than 50% of the respondents. Research involved 96 first-year students, the second semester of Physical Education Faculty of University of physical education and sport in Gdansk. All respondents participated in the various forms of the physical activity and sport competition. Statistically significant differences in the mean score assigned by the students, different because of their gender, was observed in 6 out of 46 evaluated traits in DSP. The female students, statistically significant “more often” than the male students, perceive in themselves features such as “good”, “selflessly helpful”, “discreet”, “systematic”, “involved”. In contrast the male students, significantly “more often” than the female students, think that they are “more life experienced”. The variable sex did not, statistically significant, differentiate the respondents self-esteem. The respondents with “low” self-esteem, statistically significant “less often” than the students with high intensity of this attribute, state that they have 5 designation describing “character”, and 4 characteristics of the category “capabilities/intelligence”. Significantly lower, than those with “average” self-esteem, they rate their “relation to themselves” (3 features) and some of the wording of the category “capabilities/intelligence”(3 features). The respondents with “high” self-esteem, statistically significant more often than the students characterized by “average” level of its, think that they are in the “relation to other” “kind”, “consistent” and “systematic”. Key words: Self-esteem, Rosenberg‟s Self-Esteem Scale (SES), personality traits, physical education students the effect of managerial ownership, ownership concentration (block ownership, local institutional ownership, and foreign institutional ownership), and external audit on firm performance. The study utilized data extracted from the annual report of public listed companies on the Iraqi Stock Exchange over the period 2012 – 2015. The result revealed a positive and significant relationship between managerial ownership and firm performance. While it was found that block ownership does not have any relationship with firm performance. Local institutional ownership, foreign institutional ownership, and external audit have a negative and significant relationship with firm performance. This implies that managerial ownership improves firms performance while block ownership, local institutional ownership, and foreign institutional ownership and likewise external audit are not effective tools in improving firm performance. The findings of this study have implications on the policy-making that are meant to reconcile the difference between agent and principal.
Keywords: Firm performance, Iraq, ownership structure, and external audit.
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